A jester, court jester, or fool, was an entertainer during the medieval and Renaissance eras, a member of the household of a nobleman or a monarch employed to entertain him and his guests. A jester was an itinerant performer who entertained common folk at fairs and markets. Jesters are modern-day entertainers who resemble their historical counterparts. Jesters in medieval times are thought to have worn brightly coloured clothes and eccentric hats in a motley pattern and their modern counterparts mimic this costume. Jesters entertained with a wide variety of skills: principal among them were song and storytelling, but many employed acrobatics, telling jokes, magic tricks. Much of the entertainment was performed in a comic style and many jesters made contemporary jokes in word or song about people or events well known to their audiences; the modern use of the English word jester did not come into use until the mid-16th century, during Tudor times. This modern term derives from the older form gestour, or jestour from Anglo-Norman meaning storyteller or minstrel.
Other earlier terms included fol and bourder. These terms described entertainers who differed in their skills and performances but who all shared many similarities in their role as comedic performers for their audiences. Early jesters were popular in Ancient Egypt, entertained Egyptian pharaohs; the ancient Romans had a tradition of called balatrones. Balatrones were paid for their jests, the tables of the wealthy were open to them for the sake of the amusement they afforded. Jesters were popular with the Aztec people in the 14th to 16th centuries. Many royal courts throughout English royal history employed entertainers and most had professional fools, sometimes called licensed fools. Entertainment included music and physical comedy, it has been suggested they performed acrobatics and juggling. Henry VIII of England employed a jester named Will Sommers. During the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I of England, William Shakespeare wrote his plays and performed with his theatre company the Lord Chamberlain's Men.
Clowns and jesters were featured in Shakespeare's plays, the company's expert on jesting was Robert Armin, author of the book Fooled upon Foole. In Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, Feste the jester is described as "wise enough to play the fool". King James VI of Scotland employed a jester called Archibald Armstrong. During his lifetime Armstrong was given great honours at court, he was thrown out of the King's employment when he over-reached and insulted too many influential people. After his disgrace, books telling of his jests were sold in London streets, he held some influence at court still in estates of land in Ireland. Charles employed a jester called Jeffrey Hudson, popular and loyal. Jeffrey Hudson had the title of Royal Dwarf. One of his jests was to be presented hidden in a giant pie. Hudson fought on the Royalist side in the English Civil War. A third jester associated with Charles I was called Muckle John. Scholar David Carlyon has cast doubt on the "daring political jester", calling historical tales "apocryphal", concluding that "popular culture embraces a sentimental image of the clown.
Jesters could give bad news to the King that no one else would dare deliver. In 1340, when the French fleet was destroyed at the Battle of Sluys by the English. Phillippe VI's jester told him the English sailors "don't have the guts to jump into the water like our brave French". After the Restoration, Charles II did not reinstate the tradition of the court jester, but he did patronize the theatre and proto-music hall entertainments favouring the work of Thomas Killigrew. Though Killigrew was not a jester, Samuel Pepys in his famous diary does call Killigrew "The King's fool and jester, with the power to mock and revile the most prominent without penalty"; the last British nobles to keep jesters were the Bowes-Lyons. In the 18th century, jesters had died out except in Russia and Germany. In France and Italy, travelling groups of jesters performed plays featuring stylized characters in a form of theatre called the commedia dell'arte. A version of this passed into British folk tradition in the form of a puppet show and Judy.
In France the tradition of the court jester ended with the French Revolution. In 1968, the Canada Council awarded a $3,500 grant to Joachim Foikis of Vancouver "to revive the ancient and time-honoured tradition of town fool". In the 21st century, the jester is still seen at medieval-style pageants. In 2015, the town of Conwy in North Wales appointed Russel Erwood as the official resident jester of the town and its people, a post, vacant since 1295. Poland's most famous court jester was Stańczyk, whose jokes were related to political matters, who became a historical symbol for Poles. In 2004 English Heritage appointed Nigel Roder as the State Jester for England, the first since Muckle John 355 years previously. However, following an objection by the National Guild of Jesters, English Heritage accepted they were not authorised to grant such a title. Roder was succeeded as "Heritage Jester" by Pete Cooper. In Germany, Till Eulenspiegel is a folkloric hero dating back to medieval times and ruling each year over Fasching or Carnival time, mocking politicians and public figures of power
A fad, trend or craze is any form of collective behavior that develops within a culture, a generation or social group in which a group of people enthusiastically follow an impulse for a finite period. Fads are behaviors that achieve short-lived popularity but fade away. Fads are seen as sudden, quick spreading, short-lived. Fads include diets, hairstyles and more; some popular fads throughout history are toys such as yo-yos, hula hoops and dances such as the Macarena and the twist. Similar to habits or customs but less durable, fads result from an activity or behavior being perceived as popular or exciting within a peer group or being deemed "cool" as promoted by social networks A fad is said to "catch on" when the number of people adopting it begins to increase to the point of being noteworthy. Fads fade when the perception of novelty is gone; the specific nature of the behavior associated with a fad can be of any type including unusual language usage, distinctive clothing, fad diets or frauds such as pyramid schemes.
Apart from general novelty, mass marketing, emotional blackmail, peer pressure, or the desire to "be hip" may drive fads. Popular celebrities can drive fads, for example the popularizing effect of Oprah's Book Club. Though some consider the term trend equivalent to fad, a fad is considered a quick and short behavior whereas a trend is one that evolves into a long term or permanent change. In economics, the term is used in a similar way. Fads are mean-reverting deviations from intrinsic value caused by social or psychological forces similar to those that cause fashions in political philosophies or consumerisation. Sometimes people use the words “fad” and “trend” interchangeably. Fads can be distinguished from trends in three ways: their reason for rise, their incubation period and life span, their scope. Fads tend to have a huge surge in popularity, disappear. Trends have explainable rises, are driven by functional needs. Trends tend to rise in popularity more slowly, they reflect deep-rooted human desires and needs, while fads are driven by the emotional need to purchase.
This emotional need can come from the hype. Trends rise over time, but fads’ popularity spike and they end up dying out just as quickly. Fads might last for just months. Scope is a factor. A trend encompasses several products which can reach a large variety of people. A fad encompasses just one brand, or product, with limited appeal and a narrow scope. An example of a fad would be Beanie Babies. Beanie Babies do not meet many functional needs of humans. Beanie Babies became popular for a few years in the 1990s, but their popularity dropped, has been dropping since their peak in the 1990s. Beanie Babies had a narrow scope. Further examples of fads include pole sitting, dancing the Shake, the Tamagotchi. An example of a trend would be handbags. Trends are driven by functional needs, handbags were created for functionality; the demand for handbags has increased over the years. As for their scope, different types of people use handbags for different reasons: to carry things such as money, personal items, children’s things, more.
There are many different brands and types of handbags available. Trends possess some dexterity. Further examples of trends include eco-friendly cars and ebooks. Many contemporary fads share similar patterns of social organization. Several different models serve how they spread. One way of looking at the spread of fads is through the top-down model, which argues that fashion is created for the elite, from the elite, fashion spreads to lower classes. Early adopters might not be those of a high status, but they have sufficient resources that allow them to experiment with new innovations; when looking at the top-down model, sociologists like to highlight the role of selection. The elite might be the ones that introduce certain fads, but other people must choose to adopt those fads. Others may argue. Social life provides people with ideas that can help create a basis for new and innovative fads. Companies can look at what people are interested in and create something from that information; the ideas behind fads are not always original.
Recreation and style faddists may try out variations of a basic pattern or idea in existence. Another way of looking at the spread of fads is through a symbolic interaction view. People learn their behaviors from the people around them; when it comes to collective behavior, the emergence of these shared rules and emotions are more dependent on the cues of the situation, rather than physiological arousal. This connection to symbolic interactionism, a theory that explains people’s actions as being directed by shared meanings and assumptions, explains that fads are spread because people attach meaning and emotion to objects, not because the object has practical use, for instance. People might adopt a fad because of the meanings and assumptions they share with the other people who have adopted that fad. People may join other adopters of the fad because they enjoy being a part of a group and what that symbolizes; some people may join. When multiple people adopt the same fad, they may feel like they have made the right choice because other people have made that same choice.
Fads end because all innov
A sceptre or scepter is a symbolic ornamental staff or wand held in the hand by a ruling monarch as an item of royal or imperial insignia. Figuratively, it means royal or imperial sovereignty; the Was and other types of staves were signs of authority in Ancient Egypt. For this reason they are described as "sceptres" if they are full-length staffs. One of the earliest royal sceptres was discovered in the 2nd Dynasty tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos. Kings were known to carry a staff, Pharaoh Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called mks-staff; the staff with the longest history seems to be the heqa-sceptre. The sceptre assumed a central role in the Mesopotamian world, was in most cases part of the royal insignia of sovereigns and gods; this is valid throughout the whole Mesopotamian history, as illustrated by both literary and administrative texts and iconography. The Mesopotamian sceptre was called ĝidru in Sumerian and ḫaṭṭum in Akkadian; the ancient Indian work of Tirukkural dedicates one chapter each to the ethics of the sceptre.
According to Valluvar, "it was not his spear but the sceptre which bound a king to his people."Among the early Greeks, the sceptre was a long staff, such as Agamemnon wielded or was used by respected elders, came to be used by judges, military leaders and others in authority. It is represented on painted vases as a long staff tipped with a metal ornament; when the sceptre is borne by Zeus or Hades, it is headed by a bird. It was this symbol of Zeus, the king of the gods and ruler of Olympus, that gave their inviolable status to the kerykes, the heralds, who were thus protected by the precursor of modern diplomatic immunity. When, in the Iliad, Agamemnon sends Odysseus to the leaders of the Achaeans, he lends him his sceptre. Among the Etruscans, sceptres of great magnificence were used by kings and upper orders of the priesthood. Many representations of such sceptres occur on the walls of the painted tombs of Etruria; the British Museum, the Vatican, the Louvre possess Etruscan sceptres of gold, most elaborately and minutely ornamented.
The Roman sceptre derived from the Etruscan. Under the Republic, an ivory sceptre was a mark of consular rank, it was used by victorious generals who received the title of imperator, its use as a symbol of delegated authority to legates was revived in the marshal’s baton. In the First Persian Empire, the Biblical Book of Esther mentions the sceptre of the King of Persia. Esther 5:2 "When the king saw Esther the queen standing in the court, she obtained favor in his sight. So Esther came near, touched the top of the scepter." Under the Roman Empire, the sceptrum Augusti was specially used by the emperors, was of ivory tipped with a golden eagle. It is shown on medallions of the empire, which have on the obverse a half-length figure of the emperor, holding in one hand the sceptrum Augusti, in the other the orb surmounted by a small figure of Victory; the codes of the right and the cruel sceptre are found in the ancient Tamil work of Tirukkural, dating back to the first century BCE. In Chapters 55 and 56, the text deals with the right and the cruel sceptre furthering the thought on the ethical behaviour of the ruler discussed in many of the preceding and the following chapters.
The ancient treatise says it was not the king's spear but the sceptre that bound him to his people—and to the extent that he guarded them, his own good rule would guard him. With the advent of Christianity, the sceptre was tipped with a cross instead of with an eagle. However, during the Middle Ages, the finials on the top of the sceptre varied considerably. In England, from a early period, two sceptres have been concurrently used, from the time of Richard I, they have been distinguished as being tipped with a cross and a dove respectively. In France, the royal sceptre was tipped with a fleur de lys, the other, known as the main de justice, had an open hand of benediction on the top. Sceptres with small shrines on the top are sometimes represented on royal seals, as on the great seal of Edward III, where the king, bears such a sceptre, but it was an unusual form; this sceptre was, it is believed, made in France around 1536 for James V. Great seals represent the sovereign enthroned, holding a sceptre in the right hand, the orb and cross in the left.
Harold Godwinson appears thus in the Bayeux tapestry. The earliest English coronation form of the 9th century mentions a sceptre, a staff. In the so-called coronation form of Ethelred II a sceptre, a rod appear, as they do in the case of a coronation order of the 12th century. In a contemporary account of Richard I’s coronation, the royal sceptre of gold with a gold cross, the gold rod with a gold dove on the top, enter the historical record for the first time. About 1450, Sporley, a monk of Westminster, compiled a list of the relics there; these included the articles used at the coronation of Saint Edward the Confessor, left by him for the coronations of his successors. A golden sceptre, a wooden rod gilt, an iron rod are named; these survived until the Commonwealth, are minutely described in an inventory of the
Harlequin is the best-known of the zanni or comic servant characters from the Italian Commedia dell'arte. The role is traditionally believed to have been introduced by Zan Ganassa in the late 16th century, was definitively popularized by the Italian actor Tristano Martinelli in Paris in 1584–1585, became a stock character after Martinelli's death in 1630; the Harlequin is characterized by his chequered costume. His role is that of a light-hearted and astute servant acting to thwart the plans of his master, pursuing his own love interest, with wit and resourcefulness competing with the sterner and melancholic Pierrot, he develops into a prototype of the romantic hero. Harlequin inherits his physical agility and his trickster qualities, as well as his name, from a mischievous "devil" character in medieval passion plays; the Harlequin character first appeared in England early in the 17th century and took centre stage in the derived genre of the Harlequinade, developed in the early 18th century by John Rich.
As the Harlequinade portion of English dramatic genre pantomime developed, Harlequin was paired with the character Clown. As developed by Joseph Grimaldi around 1800, Clown became the mischievous and brutish foil for the more sophisticated Harlequin, who became more of a romantic character; the most influential such in Victorian England were William Payne and his sons the Payne Brothers, the latter active during the 1860s and 1870s. Although the origins of the Harlequin are obscure, there are several theories for how the character came to be. One theory posits that the name is derived from a bird with polychromatic feathers called a Harle Another theory suggest that the name Harlequin is taken from that of a mischievous "devil" or "demon" character in popular French passion plays, it originates with an Old French term herlequin, first attested in the 11th century, by the chronicler Orderic Vitalis, who recounts a story of a monk, pursued by a troop of demons when wandering on the coast of Normandy at night.
These demons were led by a masked, club-wielding giant and they were known as familia herlequin. This medieval French version of the Germanic Wild Hunt, Mesnée d'Hellequin, has been connected to the English figure of Herla cyning. Hellequin was depicted as a black-faced emissary of the devil, roaming the countryside with a group of demons chasing the damned souls of evil people to Hell; the physical appearance of Hellequin offers an explanation for the traditional colours of Harlequin's red-and-black mask. The name's origin could be traced to a knight from the 9th century, Hellequin of Boulogne, who died fighting the Normans and originated a legend of devils. Cantos XXI and XXII from Dante's Inferno there is a devil by the name of Alichino; the similarities between the devil in Dante's Inferno and the Arlecchino are more than cosmetic and that the prank like antics of the devils in the aforementioned antics reflect some carnivalesque aspects. The first known appearance on stage of Hellequin is dated to 1262, the character of a masked and hooded devil in Jeu da la Feuillière by Adam de la Halle, it became a stock character in French passion plays.
The re-interpretation of the "devil" stock character as a zanni character of the commedia dell'arte took place in the 16th century in France. Zan Ganassa, whose troupe is first mentioned in Mantua in the late 1560s, is one of the earliest known actors suggested to have performed the part, although there is "little hard evidence to support." Ganassa performed in France in 1571, if he did play the part there, he left the field open for another actor to take up the role, when he took his troupe to Spain permanently in 1574. Among the earliest depictions of the character are a Flemish painting in the Museum of Bayeux and several woodblock prints dating from the 1580s in the Fossard collection, discovered by Agne Beijer in the 1920s among uncatalogued items in the Nationalmuseum Stockholm. Tristano Martinelli is the first actor known to have used the name'Harlequin' for the secondo zanni role, he first performed the part in France in 1584 and only brought the character to Italy, where he became known as Arlecchino.
The motley costume is sometimes attributed to Martinelli, who wore a linen costume of colourful patches, a hare-tail on his cap to indicate cowardice. Martinelli's Harlequin had a black leather half-mask, a moustache and a pointed beard, he was successful playing at court and becoming a favourite of Henry IV of France, to whom he addressed insolent monologues. Martinelli's great success contributed to the perpetuation of his interpretation of the zanni role, along with the name of his character, after his death in 1630, among others, by Nicolò Zecca, active c. 1630 in Bologna as well as Turin and Mantua. The character was performed in Paris at the Comédie-Italienne in Italian by Giovan Battista Andreini and Angelo Costantini and in French as Arlequin in the 1660s by Dominique Biancolelli, who combined the zanni types, "making his Arlecchino witty and fluent in a croaking voice, which became as traditional as the squawk of Punch." The Italians were expelled from France in 1697 for satirizing King Louis XIV's second wife, Madame de Maintenon, but returned in 1716, when Tommaso Antonio Vicentini became famous in the part.
The rhombus shape of the patches arose by adaptation to the Paris fashion of the 17th century by Biancolelli. The primary aspect of Arlecchino was his
Rigoletto is an opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi. The Italian libretto was written by Francesco Maria Piave based on the play Le roi s'amuse by Victor Hugo. Despite serious initial problems with the Austrian censors who had control over northern Italian theatres at the time, the opera had a triumphant premiere at La Fenice in Venice on 11 March 1851, it is considered to be the first of the operatic masterpieces of Verdi's middle-to-late career. Its tragic story revolves around the licentious Duke of Mantua, his hunch-backed court jester Rigoletto, Rigoletto's beautiful daughter Gilda; the opera's original title, La maledizione, refers to a curse placed on both the Duke and Rigoletto by a courtier whose daughter the Duke has seduced with Rigoletto's encouragement. The curse comes to fruition when Gilda falls in love with the Duke and sacrifices her life to save him from the assassin hired by her father. La Fenice of Venice commissioned Verdi in 1850 to compose a new opera, he was prominent enough by this time to enjoy some freedom in choosing texts to set to music.
He asked Francesco Maria Piave to examine the play Kean by Alexandre Dumas, père, but soon came to believe that they needed to find a more energetic subject. That came. Verdi explained that "The subject is grand and there is a character, one of the greatest creations that the theatre can boast of, in any country and in all history." However, Hugo's depiction of a venal, womanizing king was considered unacceptably scandalous. The play had been banned in France following its premiere nearly twenty years earlier; as Verdi wrote in a letter to Piave: "Use four legs, run through the town and find me an influential person who can obtain the permission for making Le Roi s'amuse." Guglielmo Brenna, secretary of La Fenice, promised the duo that they would not have problems with the censors. He was wrong, rumours began to spread in early summer that the production would be forbidden. In August and Piave retired to Busseto, Verdi's hometown, to prepare a defensive scheme as they continued work on the opera.
Despite their best efforts, including frantic correspondence with La Fenice, the Austrian censor De Gorzkowski emphatically denied consent to the production of "La Maledizione" in a December 1850 letter, calling the opera "a repugnant immorality and obscene triviality." Piave set to work revising the libretto pulling from it another opera, Il Duca di Vendome, in which the sovereign was a duke and both the hunchback and the curse disappeared. Verdi was against this proposed solution, preferring to negotiate directly with the censors over each and every point of the work. Brenna, La Fenice's sympathetic secretary, mediated the dispute by showing the Austrians some letters and articles depicting the bad character, but great value, of the artist. By January 1851 the parties had settled on a compromise: the action of the opera would be moved, some of the characters would be renamed. In the new version, the Duke would belong to the Gonzaga family; the scene in which he retired to Gilda's bedroom would be deleted, his visit to the Taverna would no longer be intentional, but the result of a trick.
The hunchbacked jester was renamed Rigoletto from a parody of a comedy by Jules-Édouard Alboize de Pujol: Rigoletti, ou Le dernier des fous of 1835. By 14 January, the opera's definitive title had become Rigoletto. Verdi completed the composition on 5 February 1851, a little more than a month before the premiere. Piave had arranged for the sets to be designed while Verdi was still working on the final stages of Act 3; the singers were given some of their music to learn on 7 February. However, Verdi kept at least a third of the score at Busseto, he brought it with him when he arrived in Venice for the rehearsals on 19 February, would continue refining the orchestration throughout the rehearsal period. For the première, La Fenice had cast Felice Varesi as Rigoletto, the young tenor Raffaele Mirate as the Duke, Teresa Brambilla as Gilda. Due to a high risk of unauthorised copying, Verdi demanded extreme secrecy from all his singers and musicians Mirate: the "Duke" had the use of his score for only a few evenings before the première, was made to swear that he would not sing or whistle the tune of "La donna è mobile" except during rehearsal.
Rigoletto premiered on 11 March 1851 in a sold-out La Fenice as the first part of a double bill with Giacomo Panizza's ballet Faust. Gaetano Mares conducted, the sets were designed and executed by Giuseppe Bertoja and Francesco Bagnara; the opening night was a complete triumph the scena drammatica and the Duke's cynical aria, "La donna è mobile", sung in the streets the next morning. Many years Giulia Cora Varesi, the daughter of Felice Varesi (th
Cap and bells
A cap and bells is a type of fool's cap, a cap with bells worn by a court fool or jester. The cap and bells could be in the following forms: with "ass's ears" and an "ass's tail" curling forward with two horns with a "cockscomb" crestBells were added to the dangling sleeves; the bells announced the appearance of the jester. Other forms of fool's cap in England were shaped like a monk's cowl with ass's ears, a high-pointed cap covered with bells, or a round cap with an imposing feather
A music box or musical box is an automatic musical instrument in a box that produces musical notes by using a set of pins placed on a revolving cylinder or disc to pluck the tuned teeth of a steel comb. They were called carillons à musique; some of the more complex boxes contain a tiny drum and/or bells in addition to the metal comb. The original snuff boxes were tiny containers; the music boxes could have any size from that of a hat box to a large piece of furniture, but most were tabletop specimens. They were powered by clockwork and produced by artisan watchmakers. For most of the 19th century, the bulk of music box production was concentrated in Switzerland, building upon a strong watchmaking tradition; the first music box factory was opened there in 1815 by Samuel Junod. There were a few manufacturers in Bohemia and Germany. By the end of the 19th century, some of the European makers had opened factories in the United States; the cylinders were made of metal and powered by a spring. In some of the costlier models, the cylinders could be removed to change melodies, thanks to an invention by Paillard in 1862, perfected by Metert of Geneva in 1879.
In some exceptional models, there were four springs, to provide continuous play for up to three hours. The first boxes at the end of the 18th century made use of metal disks; the switchover to cylinders seems to have been completed after the Napoleonic wars. In the last decades of the 19th century, mass-produced models such as the Polyphon and others all made use of interchangeable metal disks instead of cylinders; the cylinder-based machines became a minority. The term "music box" is applied to clockwork devices where a removable metal disk or cylinder was used only in a "programming" function without producing the sounds directly by means of pins and a comb. Instead, the cylinder worked by actuating bellows and levers which fed and opened pneumatic valves which activated a modified wind instrument or plucked the chords on a modified string instrument; some devices could do both at the same time and were combinations of player pianos and music boxes, such as the Orchestrion. There were many variations of large music machines built for the affluent of the pre-phonograph 19th century.
Some were called the Symphonium, others were called the Concert Regina Music Box machine. Both variations were as tall as a grandfather clock and both used interchangeable large disks to play different sets of tunes. Both were spring-wound and driven and both had a bell-like sound; the machines were made in England and the US, with additional disks made in Switzerland and Prussia. Early "juke-box" pay versions of them existed in public places also. Marsh's free Museum and curio shop in Long Beach, Washington has several still-working versions of them on public display; the Musical Museum, London has a number of machines. The Morris Museum in Morristown, NJ, USA has a notable collection, including interactive exhibits. In addition to video and audio footage of each piece, the actual instruments are demonstrated for the public daily on a rotational basis. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, most music boxes were replaced by player pianos, which were louder and more versatile and melodious, when kept tuned, by the smaller gramophones which had the advantage of playing back voices.
Escalating labour costs increased further reduced volume. Now modern automation is helping bring music box prices back down. Collectors prize surviving music boxes from the 19th century and the early 20th century as well as new music boxes being made today in several countries; the cheap, small windup music box movements to add a bit of music to mass-produced jewellery boxes and novelty items are now produced in countries with low labour costs. Many kinds of music box movements are available to the home craft person, locally or through online retailers. 9th century: In Baghdad, the Banū Mūsā brothers, a trio of Persian inventors, produced "the earliest known mechanical musical instrument", in this case a hydropowered organ which played interchangeable cylinders automatically, which they described in their Book of Ingenious Devices. According to Charles B. Fowler, this "cylinder with raised pins on the surface remained the basic device to produce and reproduce music mechanically until the second half of the nineteenth century."Early 13th century: In Flanders, an ingenious bell ringer invents a cylinder with pins which operates cams, which hit the bells.1598: Flemish clockmaker Nicholas Vallin produces a wall mounted clock which has a pinned barrel playing on multiple tuned bells mounted in the superstructure.
The barrel can be programmed, as the pins can be separately placed in the holes provided on the surface of the barrel.1665: Ahasuerus Fromanteel in London makes a table clock which has quarter striking and musical work on multiple bells operated by a pinned barrel. These barrels can be changed for those playing different tunes.1760s: Watches are made in London by makers such as James Cox which have a pinned drum playing popular tunes on several small bells arranged in a stack. 1772: A watch is made by one Ransonet at Nancy, France which has a pinned drum playing music not on bells but on tuned steel prongs arranged vertically.1780: The mechanical singing bird is invented by the Jaquet-Droz brothers, clockmakers from La Chaux-de-Fonds. In 1848, the manufacturing of the singing birds is improved by Blaise Bontems in his Parisi