click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Marpa National Park

Cliff Island is a national park at Yarraden on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland, Australia, 1,757 km northwest of Brisbane. It is part of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park west of Cape Melville in Princess Charlotte Bay; the park is a restricted access area in order to protect cultural resource of the islands traditional owners, the Lama Lama people. The national park was known as Cliff Islands National Park; the alteration was part of new process where parks on the Cape York Peninsula are jointly managed between Aboriginal land trusts and the state government under the Cape York Peninsula Heritage Act 2007. It comprises three small sandstone islands. Ronganhu is positioned to Errewerrpinha in the west and Olilu to the south; the islands have remained in pristine condition. The islands are home to a number of important bird species, including the beach stone-curlew, eastern curlew and sooty oystercatcher. Seen around the islands are the white-bellied sea-eagle, peregrine falcon and eastern osprey.

Fringing reefs and seagrass beds are found in the surrounding waters. Green turtles nest on the beaches. There are walking tracks or public facilities. Camping is not permitted. Protected areas of Queensland Official website

Negative-feedback amplifier

A Negative-feedback amplifier is an electronic amplifier that subtracts a fraction of its output from its input, so that negative feedback opposes the original signal. The applied negative feedback can improve its performance and reduces sensitivity to parameter variations due to manufacturing or environment; because of these advantages, many amplifiers and control systems use negative feedback. An idealized negative-feedback amplifier as shown in the diagram is a system of three elements: an amplifier with gain AOL, a feedback network β, which senses the output signal and transforms it in some way, a summing circuit that acts as a subtractor, which combines the input and the transformed output. Fundamentally, all electronic devices that provide power gain are nonlinear. Negative feedback can provide other benefits. If not designed amplifiers with negative feedback can under some circumstances become unstable due to the feedback becoming positive, resulting in unwanted behavior such as oscillation.

The Nyquist stability criterion developed by Harry Nyquist of Bell Laboratories is used to study the stability of feedback amplifiers. Feedback amplifiers share these properties: Pros: Can decrease input impedance. Can increase or decrease output impedance. Reduces total distortion if sufficiently applied. Increases the bandwidth. Desensitizes gain to component variations. Can control step response of amplifier. Cons: May lead to instability if not designed carefully. Amplifier gain decreases. Input and output impedances of a negative-feedback amplifier become sensitive to the gain of an amplifier without feedback —that exposes these impedances to variations in the open-loop gain, for example, due to parameter variations or nonlinearity of the open-loop gain. Changes the composition of the distortion if insufficiently applied. Paul Voigt patented a negative feedback amplifier in January 1924. Harold Stephen Black independently invented the negative-feedback amplifier while he was a passenger on the Lackawanna Ferry on his way to work at Bell Laboratories on August 2, 1927.

Black was working on reducing distortion in repeater amplifiers used for telephone transmission. On a blank space in his copy of The New York Times, he recorded the diagram found in Figure 1 and the equations derived below. On August 8, 1928, Black submitted his invention to the U. S. Patent Office, which took more than 9 years to issue the patent. Black wrote: "One reason for the delay was that the concept was so contrary to established beliefs that the Patent Office did not believe it would work." Using the model of two unilateral blocks, several consequences of feedback are derived. Below, the voltage gain of the amplifier with feedback, the closed-loop gain AFB, is derived in terms of the gain of the amplifier without feedback, the open-loop gain AOL and the feedback factor β, which governs how much of the output signal is applied to the input; the open-loop gain AOL in general may be a function of both voltage. For an operational amplifier, two resistors forming a voltage divider may be used for the feedback network to set β between 0 and 1.

This network may be modified using reactive elements like capacitors or inductors to give frequency-dependent closed-loop gain as in equalization/tone-control circuits or construct oscillators. The gain of the amplifier with feedback is derived below in the case of a voltage amplifier with voltage feedback. Without feedback, the input voltage; the according output voltage is V out = A OL ⋅ V in ′. Suppose now that an attenuating feedback loop applies a fraction β ⋅ V out of the output to one of the subtractor inputs so that it subtracts from the circuit input voltage Vin applied to the other subtractor input; the result of subtraction applied to the amplifier input is V in ′ = V in − β ⋅ V out. Substituting for V′in in the first expression, V out = A OL. Rearranging: V out = V in ⋅ A OL; the gain of the amplifier with feedback, called the closed-loop gain, AFB is given by A FB = V out V

Marmon Motor Company

Marmon Motor Company was a Texas-based manufacturer of exclusive trucks from 1963 through 1997. In 1963, after Marmon-Herrington, the successor to the Marmon Motor Car Company, ceased truck production, a new company, Marmon Motor Company of Denton, Texas and revived the Marmon brand to build and sell premium truck designs that Marmon-Herrington had been planning; the Marmon truck was a handmade truck sometimes dubbed the Rolls-Royce of trucks. An overcrowded American truck industry and the lack of a nationwide sales network led to the eventual failure of Marmon trucks in the USA; the last Marmon was made in 1997, the production facilities in Garland, were taken over by Navistar’s Paystar division. Marmon trucks Marmon trucks pictures Marmon Group Home page

2012 Toppserien

The 2012 Toppserien is the twenty-sixth season of top-tier women's football in Norway since its establishment in 1987. A total of 12 teams contested the league, ten returning from the 2011 season and the two teams promoted from the First Division, Vålerenga and Fart; the season started on 14 April 2012. Norway fell from 8th to 11th in the UEFA coefficient rankings for the 2013–14 European season, thus the runners-up is no longer qualified to the Champions League. The eleventh placed teams will play a promotion/relegation play-off against the second leagues second-place finisher. A play-off was last played in 2006. Kattem had to face second leagues second-place finisher Medkila in a two-legged play-off match for the right to play in the 2013 Toppserien. Kattem subsequently withdrew their team from the league. Medkila were promoted to take their place in Toppserien. Season on soccerway.com

Geo Widengren

Geo Widengren was a Swedish historian of religions, professor of history of religions at Uppsala University and Iranist. Widengren wrote a series of works on Iranian religions, Judaism, etc, his most popular works include Die Religion Irans, published in 1965. Widengren has been considered "one of the most famous historians of religions of the twentieth century". Geo Widengren grew up in Stockholm, he did military service in the years 1925-27 and was appointed as a fähnrich at the Military Academy Karlberg. He participated as a volunteer in the Swedish contingent in the Winter war. Widengren studied history of religions at Stockholm University for his mentor Tor Andrae until 1933 and received his doctorate at the Faculty of Theology in Uppsala in 1936, his doctoral thesis was entitled "The Accadian and Hebrew Psalms of Lamentation as Religious Documents". In 1940 he became a professor of History of religions at the same faculty when he was only 33 years old. Widengren was known for having mastered many languages, which gave him an advantage in the study of the frontiers of Asia during various eras.

He had studied Assyriology in Copenhagen and Iranian Studies in Uppsala for H. S. Nyberg, he mastered, among other things, Latin, Persian, Arabic, as well as several older Iranian languages such as Avestan and Middle Persian. Widengren was Vice President and President for the International Association of the History of Religion, his pupil Anders Hultgård has published In memoriam Geo Widengren. Widengren emphasized the Iranian influences on Judaism and Mithraism. Religious scholars in the 1960s critiqued these themes, but he continued to defend the importance of Iranian influence throughout his career. Widengren's position was continued and developed in many works by Alessandro Bausani and Shaul Shaked. Apocalyptique iranienne et dualisme qoumranien, Paris, 1995. Der Mandäismus, Darmstadt, 1982; the Pure Brethren and the philosophical structure of their system, Islam: past influence and present challenge, Edinburgh, 1979. The Gnostic attitude, Santa Barbara, 1973. Religionens värld, Stockholm, 1945, omarbetad och utökad upplaga 1953, omarbetad och förkortad 1971.

Religionsphänomenologie, Berlin, 1969. Muhammed: hans liv och hans tro, Stockholm, 1967. Der Feudalismus im alten Iran: Männerbund, Feudalismus in der iranischen Gesellschaft im Hinblick auf die indo-germanischen Verhältnisse, Köln, 1969. Iranische Geisteswelt: von den Anfängen bis zum Islam, Baden-Baden, 1961. Die Religionen Irans, Stuttgart, 1965. Kungar, profeter och harlekiner: religionshistoriska uppsatser, Stockholm, 1961. Mani und der Manichäismus, Stuttgart, 1961. Ryttarfolken från öster: och andra artiklar, Stockholm, 1960. Muhammad, the apostle of God, his ascension, Uppsala, 1955; the great Vohu Manah and the apostle of God: studies in Iranian and Manichaean religion, Uppsala, 1945. Hochgottglaube im alten Iran, Uppsala, 1938

Jeni Mawter

Jeni Mawter is an Australian children's author who has published over twenty books, including the best-selling series, the So series. She has published fiction and non-fiction and verse narrative for children and young adults, her books have ranged from picture books, to chapter books, short story collections to young adult novels. Her novel, Team Dream, was published in 2005. Mawter was born in Sydney to parents and Garry Braude, she has Debbi and a brother, Michael. Mawter attended Willoughby Infants', Willoughby Primary and Willoughby Girls' High School where she was School Captain in 1977, she completed a Bachelor of Applied Science in Speech Pathology at Cumberland College, graduating in 1980 and winning the Private Speech Pathology Association Prize. Mawter worked as a speech pathologist for many years at the Royal Prince Alfred, Royal North Shore and Eversleigh Hospitals, working with neurology and head and neck patients. For two years she ran the Speech Pathology Student Unit at Royal North Shore Hospital worked for several years as a Case Manager for the Commonwealth Rehabilitation Service.

Mawter completed a Diploma of Book Editing from Macleay College and a Master of Arts in Children's Literature from Macquarie University. Since she has taught creative writing at Macquarie University, the NSW Writer's Centre and is a frequent speaker at schools and literary festivals throughout Australia. Mawter has run creative writing workshops for students from 5 years to 91 years. Mawter is married to David Mawter and they have three children: Hugh and Tullia. Extreme! Launched! Unleashed! Critical Thinking: Humour and Text Ages 5 - 8 Critical Thinking: Humour and Text Ages 8 – 10 Critical Thinking: Humour and Text Ages 10+ Team Dream Turkey Pox There's a Sun Fairy in Our Garden Go, the Mobile! The Most Unusual Pet Maisie's Race So Sick! So Feral! So Festy! So Gross! Human Body The Changing face of Xmas in Australia The Snowy Mountains Scheme Food Feelings Homes and Families Special Days Natural Disasters "Excuse Me" in Short, Black Dog Books "Getting into the nitty gritty" in Writing stories, Primary English Teaching Association "Pear Legs, Hello" in Alive and Winking, John Wiley & Sons Publishers "Slow Swimming" and The Kiss published in Alive and Kicking, John Wiley & Sons Publishers Along with Sue Murray, co-wrote the scripts for the interactive display The Magic Garden: MBF Foundation Healthy Kids Unit for The Powerhouse Museum, Sydney.

Humour and Literature, Teacher & Librarian, ASLA NSW Thinking Skills, Humorous Texts and Literacy, ACCESS, ASLA National Mentorship Newswrite, NSW Writer's Centre Writing Humour: Why Gross Works for Kids, Paper given at the Sydney Writers' Festival Tell Me a Story, Classroom Magazine, Scholastic Australia, Issue 5 The Brain-Injured Child in the Classroom, Classroom Magazine, Scholastic Australia, Issue 6 Unleashed! shortlisted for the West Australian Young Readers' Book Awards in 2009 West Australian Young Readers' Book Awards Jeni Mawter's official homepage