It describes 18 elements comprising the initial simple design of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag, these were influenced by SGMLguid, an in-house Standard Generalized Markup Language -based documentation format at CERN. Eleven of these elements still exist in HTML 4. HTML is a markup language that web browsers use to interpret and compose text and other material into visual or audible web pages. Default characteristics for every item of HTML markup are defined in the browser, these characteristics can be altered or enhanced by the web page designer's additional use of CSS. Many of the text elements are found in the 1988 ISO technical report TR 9537 Techniques for using SGML, which in turn covers the features of early text formatting languages such as that used by the RUNOFF command developed in the early 1960s for the CTSS operating system: these formatting commands were derived from the commands used by typesetters to manually format documents. However, the SGML concept of generalized markup is based on elements rather than print effects, with the separation of structure and markup.
Berners-Lee considered HTML to be an application of SGML. It was formally defined as such by the Internet Engineering Task Force with the mid-1993 publication of the first proposal for an HTML specification, the "Hypertext Markup Language" Internet Draft by Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly, which included an SGML Document type definition to define the grammar; the draft expired after six months, but was notable for its acknowledgment of the NCSA Mosaic browser's custom tag for embedding in-line images, reflecting the IETF's philosophy of basing standards on successful prototypes. Dave Raggett's competing Internet-Draft, "HTML+", from late 1993, suggested standardizing already-implemented features like tables and fill-out forms. After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed "HTML 2.0", the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based. Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests.
Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium. However, in 2000, HTML became an international standard. HTML 4.01 was published in late 1999, with further errata published through 2001. In 2004, development began on HTML5 in the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group, which became a joint deliverable with the W3C in 2008, completed and standardized on 28 October 2014. November 24, 1995 HTML 2.0 was published as RFC 1866. Supplemental RFCs added capabilities: November 25, 1995: RFC 1867 May 1996: RFC 1942 August 1996: RFC 1980 January 1997: RFC 2070 January 14, 1997 HTML 3.2 was published as a W3C Recommendation. It was the first version developed and standardized by the W3C, as the IETF had closed its HTML Working Group on September 12, 1996. Code-named "Wilbur", HTML 3.2 dropped math formulas reconciled overlap among various proprietary extensions and adopted most of Netscape's visual markup tags.
Netscape's blink element and Microsoft's marquee element were omitted due to a mutual agreement between the two companies. A markup for mathematical formu
Mozilla Firefox is a free and open-source web browser developed by The Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation. Firefox is available for Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux, BSD, illumos and Solaris operating systems, its sibling, Firefox for Android, is available. Firefox uses the Gecko layout engine to render web pages, which implements current and anticipated web standards. In 2017, Firefox began incorporating new technology under the code name Quantum to promote parallelism and a more intuitive user interface. An additional version, Firefox for iOS, was released on November 12, 2015. Due to platform restrictions, it uses the WebKit layout engine instead of Gecko, as with all other iOS web browsers. Firefox was created in 2002 under the codename "Phoenix" by the Mozilla community members who desired a standalone browser, rather than the Mozilla Application Suite bundle. During its beta phase, Firefox proved to be popular with its testers and was praised for its speed and add-ons compared to Microsoft's then-dominant Internet Explorer 6.
Firefox was released on November 9, 2004, challenged Internet Explorer's dominance with 60 million downloads within nine months. Firefox is the spiritual successor of Netscape Navigator, as the Mozilla community was created by Netscape in 1998 before their acquisition by AOL. Firefox usage grew to a peak of 32% at the end of 2009, with version 3.5 overtaking Internet Explorer 7, although not Internet Explorer as a whole. Usage declined in competition with Google Chrome; as of January 2019, Firefox has 9.5% usage share as a "desktop" browser, according to StatCounter, making it the second-most popular such web browser. Firefox is still the most popular desktop browser in a few countries including Cuba and Eritrea with 72.26% and 83.28% of the market share, respectively. According to Mozilla, in December 2014, there were half a billion Firefox users around the world; the project began as an experimental branch of the Mozilla project by Dave Hyatt, Joe Hewitt, Blake Ross. They believed the commercial requirements of Netscape's sponsorship and developer-driven feature creep compromised the utility of the Mozilla browser.
To combat what they saw as the Mozilla Suite's software bloat, they created a stand-alone browser, with which they intended to replace the Mozilla Suite. On April 3, 2003, the Mozilla Organization announced that they planned to change their focus from the Mozilla Suite to Firefox and Thunderbird; the community-driven SeaMonkey was formed and replaced the Mozilla Application Suite in 2005. The Firefox project has undergone several name changes, it was titled Phoenix, which carried the implication of the mythical firebird that rose triumphantly from the ashes of its dead predecessor, in this case from the "ashes" of Netscape Navigator after it had been killed off by Microsoft Internet Explorer in the "First Browser War". Phoenix was renamed due to trademark issues with Phoenix Technologies. In response, the Mozilla Foundation stated that the browser would always bear the name Mozilla Firebird to avoid confusion. After further pressure, on February 9, 2004, Mozilla Firebird became Mozilla Firefox.
The name Firefox was said to be derived from a nickname of the red panda, which became the mascot for the newly named project. For the abbreviation of Firefox, Mozilla prefers Fx or fx, though it is abbreviated as FF; the Firefox project went through many versions before version 1.0 was released on November 9, 2004. In 2016, Mozilla announced a project known as Quantum, which sought to improve Firefox's Gecko engine and other components to improve Firefox's performance, modernize its architecture, transition the browser to a multi-process model; these improvements came in the wake of decreasing market share to Google Chrome, as well as concerns that its performance was lapsing in comparison. Despite its improvements, these changes required existing add-ons for Firefox to be made incompatible with newer versions, in favor of a new extension system, designed to be similar to Chrome and other recent browsers. Firefox 57, released in November 2017, was the first version to contain enhancements from Quantum, has thus been named Firefox Quantum.
Firefox supported add-ons using the XUL and XPCOM APIs, which allowed them to directly access and manipulate much of the browser's internal functionality. As they are not compatible with its m
NTT DoCoMo's i-mode is a mobile internet service popular in Japan. Unlike Wireless Application Protocol, i-mode encompasses a wider variety of internet standards, including web access, e-mail, the packet-switched network that delivers the data. I-mode users have access to various services such as e-mail, sports results, weather forecast, financial services, ticket booking. Content is provided by specialized services from the mobile carrier, which allows them to have tighter control over billing. Like WAP, i-mode delivers only those services that are converted for the service, or are converted through gateways. In contrast with the Wireless Application Protocol standard, which used Wireless Markup Language on top of a protocol stack for wireless handheld devices, i-mode borrows from DoCoMo proprietary protocols ALP and TLP, as well as fixed Internet data formats such as C-HTML, a subset of the HTML language designed by DoCoMo. C-HTML was designed for small devices with hardware restrictions such as such lower memory, low-power CPUs with limited or no storage capabilities, small monochrome display screens, single-character fonts and limited input methods.
As a simpler form of HTML, C-HTML does not support tables, image maps, multiple fonts and styling of fonts, background colors and images, frames, or style sheets, is limited to a monochromatic display.i-mode phones have a special i-mode button for the user to access the start menu. There are more than 12,000 official sites and around 100,000 or more unofficial i-mode sites, which are not linked to DoCoMo's i-mode portal page and DoCoMo's billing services. NTT DoCoMo supervises the content and operations of all official i-mode sites, most of which are commercial; these official sites are accessed through DoCoMo's i-mode menu but in many cases official sites can be accessed from mobile phones by typing the URL or through the use of QR code. An i-mode user pays for both received data. There are services to avoid unsolicited e-mails; the basic monthly charge is on the order of JPY ¥200 - ¥300 for i-mode not including the data transfer charges, with additional charges on a monthly subscription basis for premium services.
A variety of discount plans exist, for example family discount and flat packet plans for unlimited transfer of data at a fixed monthly charge. I-mode was launched in Japan on 22 February 1999; the content planning and service design team was led by Mari Matsunaga, while Takeshi Natsuno was responsible for the business development. Top executive Keiichi Enoki oversaw the overall development. A few months after DoCoMo launched i-mode in February 1999, DoCoMo's competitors launched similar mobile data services: KDDI launched EZweb, J-Phone launched J-Sky. Vodafone acquired J-Phone including J-Sky, renaming the service Vodafone live!, although this was different from Vodafone live! in Europe and other markets. In addition, Vodafone KK was acquired by SoftBank, an operator of Yahoo! Japan changed the name to SoftBank Mobile; as of June 2006, the mobile data services I-Mode, EZweb, J-Sky, had over 80 million subscribers in Japan. Since 2003, i-mode center is called CiRCUS, which consists of 400 NEC NX7000 HP-UX servers and occupies 4,600 m² floor space in DoCoMo's Kawasaki office.
The operation support system is called CARNiVAL, hosted in the Sanno Park Tower. I-mode usage in Japan peaked around 2008; as of 2016, it is still available, but has been eclipsed by the internet features in 3G, 4G, WiFi enabled smartphones. Seeing the tremendous success of i-mode in Japan, many operators in Europe and Australia sought to license the service through partnership with DoCoMo. Takeshi Natsuno was behind the expansion of i-mode to 17 countries worldwide. Kamel Maamria, a partner with the Boston Consulting Group and, supporting Mr. Natsuno is thought to have had a major role in the expansion of the first Japanese service outside Japan. I-mode showed fast take-up in the various countries where it was launched which led to more operators seeking to launch i-mode in their markets with the footprint reaching a total of 17 markets worldwide. While the i-mode service was an exceptional service which positioned DoCoMo as the global leader in value add services, another key success factor for i-mode was the Japanese smartphone makers who developed state of the art handsets to support i-mode.
As i-mode was exported to the rest of the world and other major handset vendors who controlled the markets at the time, refused at first to support i-mode by developing handsets which support the i-mode service. The operators who decided to launch i-mode had to rely on Japanese vendors who had no experience in international markets; as i-mode showed success in these markets, some vendors started customizing some of their handsets to support i-mode, the support was only partial and came late in time. While the service was successful during the first years after launch, the lack of adequate handsets and the emergence of new handsets from new vendors which supported new Internet services on one hand, a change of leadership of i-mode in Docomo, lead to a number of operators to migrate or integrate i-mode into new mobile Internet services; these efforts were unsuccessful, i-mode never became popular outside of Japan.i-mode was launched in the following countries: Australia, Belgium Bulgaria France Germany Greece Hong Kong Israel Ireland Italy Netherlands Russia Romania Singapore Spain
The WYSIWYG view is achieved by embedding a layout engine. This may be custom-written or based upon one used in a web browser; the goal is that, at all times during editing, the rendered result should represent what will be seen in a typical web browser. WYSIWYM is an alternative paradigm to WYSIWYG editors. Instead of focusing on the format or presentation of the document, it preserves the intended meaning of each element. For example, page headers, paragraphs, etc. are labeled as such in the editing program, displayed appropriately in the browser. A given HTML document will have an inconsistent appearance on various platforms and computers for several reasons: Different browsers and applications will render the same markup differently; the same page may display differently in Internet Explorer and Firefox on a high-resolution screen, but it will look different in the valid text-only Lynx browser. It needs to be rendered differently again on a PDA, an internet-enabled television and on a mobile phone.
Usability in a speech or braille browser, or via a screen-reader working with a conventional browser, will place demands on different aspects of the underlying HTML. All an author can do. Web browsers, like all computer software, have bugs, it is hopeless to try to design Web pages around all of the common browsers' current bugs: each time a new version of each browser comes out, a significant proportion of the World Wide Web would need re-coding to suit the new bugs and the new fixes. It is considered much wiser to design to standards, staying away from'bleeding edge' features until they settle down, wait for the browser developers to catch up to your pages, rather than the other way round. For instance, no one can argue that CSS is still'cutting edge' as there is now widespread support available in common browsers for all the major features if many WYSIWYG and other editors have not yet caught up. A single visual style can represent multiple semantic meanings Semantic meaning, derived from the underlying structure of the HTML document, is important for search engines and for various accessibility tools.
On paper we can tell from context and experience whether bold text represents a title, or emphasis, or something else. But it is difficult to convey this distinction in a WYSIWYG editor. Making a piece of text bold in a WYSIWYG editor is not sufficient to tell the reader *why* the text is bold - what the boldness represents semantically. Modern web sites are constructed in a way that makes WYSIWYG useful Modern web sites use a Content Management System or some other template processor-based means of constructing pages on the fly using content stored in a database. Individual pages are never stored in a filesystem as they may be designed and edited in a WYSIWYG editor, thus some form of abstracted template-based layout is inevitable, invalidating one of the main benefits of using a WYSIWYG editor. HTML is a structured markup language. There are certain rules on how HTML must be written if it is to conform to W3C standards for the World Wide Web. Following these rules means that web sites are accessible on all types and makes of computer, to able-bodied and people with disabilities, and
Cascading Style Sheets
This cascading priority scheme is predictable. The CSS specifications are maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium. Internet media type text/css is registered for use with CSS by RFC 2318; the W3C operates a free CSS validation service for CSS documents. In addition to HTML, other markup languages support the use of CSS including XHTML, plain XML, SVG, XUL. CSS has a simple syntax and uses a number of English keywords to specify the names of various style properties. A style sheet consists of a list of rules; each rule or rule-set consists of one or more selectors, a declaration block. In CSS, selectors declare which part of the markup a style applies to by matching tags and attributes in the markup itself. Selectors may apply to the following: all elements of a specific type, e.g. the second-level headers h2 elements specified by attribute, in particular: id: an identifier unique within the document class: an identifier that can annotate multiple elements in a document elements depending on how they are placed relative to others in the document tree.
Classes and IDs are case-sensitive, start with letters, can include alphanumeric characters and underscores. A class may apply to any number of instances of any elements. An ID may only be applied to a single element. Pseudo-classes are used in CSS selectors to permit formatting based on information, not contained in the document tree. One example of a used pseudo-class is:hover, which identifies content only when the user “points to” the visible element by holding the mouse cursor over it, it is #elementid: hover. A pseudo-class classifies document elements, such as:link or:visited, whereas a pseudo-element makes a selection that may consist of partial elements, such as::first-line or::first-letter. Selectors may be combined in many ways to achieve great flexibility. Multiple selectors may be joined in a spaced list to specify elements by location, element type, id, class, or any combination thereof; the order of the selectors is important. For example, div.myClass applies to all elements of class myClass that are inside div elements, whereas.myClass div applies to all div elements that are in elements of class myClass.
The following table provides a summary of selector syntax indicating usage and the version of CSS that introduced it. A declaration block consists of a list of declarations in braces; each declaration itself consists of a property, a colon, a value. If there are multiple declarations in a block, a semi-colon must be inserted to separate each declaration. Properties are specified in the CSS standard; each property has a set of possible values. Some properties can affect any type of element, others apply only to particular groups of elements. Values may be keywords, such as "center" or "inherit", or numerical values, such as 200px, 50vw or 80%. Color values can be specified with keywords, hexadecimal values, RGB values on a 0 to 255 scale, RGBA values that specify both color and alpha transparency, or HSL or HSLA values. Before CSS, nearly all presentational attributes of HTML documents were contained within the HTML markup. All font colors, background styles, element alignments and sizes had to be explicitly described repeatedly, within the HTML.
CSS lets authors move much of that information to another file, the style sheet, resulting in simpler HTML. For example, sub-headings, sub-sub-headings, etc. are defined structurally using HTML. In print and on the screen, choice of font, size and emphasis for these elements is presentational. Before CSS, document authors who wanted to assign such typographic characteristics to, all h2 headings had to repeat HTML presentational markup for each occurrence of that heading type; this made documents more complex and more error-prone and difficult to maintain. CSS allows the separation of presentation from structure. CSS can define color, text alignment, borders, spacing and many other typographic characteristics, can do so independently for on-screen and printed views. CSS defines non-visual styles, such as reading speed and emphasis for aural text readers; the W3C has now deprecated the use of all presentational HTML markup. For example, under pre-CSS HTML, a heading element defined with red text would be written as: Using CSS, the sam
Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, licenses and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, related services, its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers; as of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, one of the world's most valuable companies. The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, it rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows.
The company's 1986 initial public offering, subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016, followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011. As of 2015, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC-compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android; the company produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops and servers, including Internet search, the digital services market, mixed reality, cloud computing and software development. Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, envisioned a "devices and services" strategy; this began with the acquisition of Danger Inc. in 2008, entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers.
Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December 1999. In 2018, Microsoft surpassed Apple as the most valuable publicly traded company in the world after being dethroned by the tech giant in 2010. Childhood friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen sought to make a business utilizing their shared skills in computer programming. In 1972 they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which sold a rudimentary computer to track and analyze automobile traffic data. While Gates enrolled at Harvard, Allen pursued a degree in computer science at Washington State University, though he dropped out of school to work at Honeywell; the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems's Altair 8800 microcomputer, which inspired Allen to suggest that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device. After a call from Gates claiming to have a working interpreter, MITS requested a demonstration.
Since they didn't yet have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter. Although they developed the interpreter on a simulator and not the actual device, it worked flawlessly when they demonstrated the interpreter to MITS in Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS agreed to distribute it, marketing it as Altair BASIC. Gates and Allen established Microsoft on April 4, 1975, with Gates as the CEO; the original name of "Micro-Soft" was suggested by Allen. In August 1977 the company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office, "ASCII Microsoft". Microsoft moved to a new home in Bellevue, Washington in January 1979. Microsoft entered the operating system business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix. However, it was MS-DOS. After negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M OS, set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer.
For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, which it branded as MS-DOS, though IBM rebranded it to PC DOS. Following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM had copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to reverse engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles, but no such restriction applied to the operating systems. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOS's available software selection, Microsoft became the leading PC operating systems vendor; the company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press. Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in 1983 after developing Hodgkin's disease. Allen claimed that Gates wanted to dilute his share in the company when he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease because he didn't think he was working hard enough. After leaving Microsoft, Allen lost billions of dollars on ill-conceived or mistimed technology investments.
He invested in low-tech sectors, sports teams, commercial real estate. Despite having begun jointly developing a new operating system, OS/2, with IBM in