ESPN is a U. S.-based sports television channel owned by ESPN Inc. a joint venture owned by The Walt Disney Company and Hearst Communications. The company was founded in 1979 by Bill Rasmussen along with his son Scott Ed Egan. ESPN broadcasts from studio facilities located in Bristol, Connecticut; the network operates offices in Miami, New York City, Seattle and Los Angeles. James Pitaro serves as chairman of ESPN, a position he has held since March 5, 2018 due to the resignation of John Skipper on December 18, 2017. While ESPN is one of the most successful sports networks, there has been much criticism of ESPN, which includes accusations of biased coverage, conflict of interest, controversies with individual broadcasters and analysts; as of January 2016, ESPN is available to 91,405,000 paid television households in the United States. Nielsen has reported a much lower number in 2017, below 90,000,000 subscribers, losing more than 10,000 a day. In addition to the flagship channel and its seven related channels in the United States, ESPN broadcasts in more than 200 countries, operating regional channels in Australia, Latin America and the United Kingdom, owning a 20% interest in The Sports Network as well as its five sister networks in Canada.
In 2011, ESPN's history and rise was chronicled in Those Guys Have All the Fun, a nonfiction book written by James Andrew Miller and Tom Shales and published by Little and Company. Bill Rasmussen conceived the concept of ESPN in late May 1978, after he was fired from his job with the World Hockey Association's New England Whalers. One of the first steps in Bill and his son Scott's process was finding land to build the channel's broadcasting facilities; the Rasmussens first rented office space in Plainville, Connecticut. However, the plan to base ESPN there was put on hold because a local ordinance prohibiting buildings from bearing rooftop satellite dishes. Available land area was found in Bristol, with funding to buy the property provided by Getty Oil, which purchased 85% of the company from Bill Rasmussen on February 22, 1979, in an attempt to diversify the company's holdings; this helped the credibility of the fledgling company, however there were still many doubters to the viability of their sports channel concept.
Another event that helped build ESPN's credibility was securing an advertising agreement with Anheuser-Busch in the spring of 1979. Taped in front of a small live audience inside the Bristol studios, it was broadcast to 1.4 million cable subscribers throughout the United States. ESPN's next big break came when the channel acquired the rights to broadcast coverage of the early rounds of the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament, it first aired the NCAA tournament in March 1980, creating the modern day television event known as "March Madness." The channel's tournament coverage launched the broadcasting career of Dick Vitale, who at the time he joined ESPN, had just been fired as head coach of the Detroit Pistons. In April of that year, ESPN created another made-for-TV spectacle, when it began televising the NFL Draft, it provided complete coverage of the event that allowed rookie players from the college ranks to begin their professional careers in front of a national television audience in ways they were not able to previously.
The next major stepping stone for ESPN came over the course of a couple of months in 1984. During this time period, the American Broadcasting Company purchased 100% of ESPN from the Rasmussens and Getty Oil. Under Getty ownership, the channel was unable to compete for the television rights to major sports events contracts as its majority corporate parent would not provide the funding, leading ESPN to lose out for broadcast deals with the National Hockey League and NCAA Division I college football. For years, the NFL, NBA and Major League Baseball refused to consider cable as a means of broadcasting some of their games. However, with the backing of ABC, ESPN's ability to compete for major sports contracts increased, gave it credibility within the sports broadcasting industry. In 1984, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled that the NCAA could no longer monopolize the rights to negotiate the contracts for college football games, allowing each individual school to negotiate broadcast deals of their choice.
ESPN took full advantage and began to broadcast a large number of NCAA football games, creating an opportunity for fans to be able to view multiple games each weekend, the same deal that the NCAA had negotiated with TBS. ESPN's breakthrough moment occurred in 1987, when it secured a contract with the NFL to broadcast eight games during that year's regular season – all of which aired on Sunday nights, marking the first broadcasts of Sunday NFL primetime games. ESPN's Sunday Night Football games would become the highest-rated NFL telecasts for the next 17 years; the channel's decision to broadcast NFL games on Sunday evenings resulted in a decline in viewership for the daytime games shown on the major broadcast networks, marking the first time that ESPN had been a legitimate competitor to NBC and CBS, which had long dominated the sports television market. In 19
In college athletics in the United States, recruiting is the process in which college coaches add prospective student athletes to their roster each off-season. This process culminates in a coach extending an athletic scholarship offer to a player, about to be a junior in high school or higher. There are instances at lower division universities, where no athletic scholarship can be awarded and where the player pays for tuition and textbook costs out of pocket or from financial aid. During this recruiting process, schools must comply with rules that define who may be involved in the recruiting process, when recruiting may occur and the conditions under which recruiting may be conducted. Recruiting rules seek, as much as possible, to control intrusions into the lives of prospective student-athletes; the NCAA defines recruiting as “any solicitation of prospective student-athletes or their parents by an institutional staff member or by a representative of the institution’s athletics interests for the purpose of securing a prospective student-athlete’s enrollment and ultimate participation in the institution’s intercollegiate athletics program."
To be considered a “recruited prospective student-athlete”, athletes must be approached by a college coach or representative about participating in that college's athletic program. NCAA guidelines specify when they can be contacted. Letters, telephone calls, in-person conversations are limited to certain frequency and dates during and after the student's junior year; the NCAA determines when the athletes can be contacted by dividing the year into four recruiting and non-recruiting periods:1. During a contact period, recruiters may make in-person, on - or off-campus evaluations. Coaches can write and/or phone athletes during this period.2. During an evaluation period, they can only assess playing abilities. Letters and phone calls are permitted. 3. During a quiet period, they may make in-person recruiting contacts only on the college campus. Off-campus, recruiters are limited to phone calls and letter-writing.4. During a dead period, they cannot make in-person recruiting contacts or evaluations on- or off-campus or permit official/unofficial visits.
However, phone calls and letters are permitted. During the recruiting process, the prospective student-athlete goes on an official visit to the school that they're being recruited by. An official visit is a prospective student-athlete's visit to a college campus paid for by the college; the college can pay for transportation to and from the college and meals while visiting and reasonable entertainment expenses, including three complimentary admissions to a home athletics contest. NCAA recruiting bylaws limit the number of official visits a recruit may take to five; the NCAA has imposed stringent rules limiting the manner in which competing university-firms may bid for the newest crop of prospective student-athletes. Such rules limit the number of visits, which a student-athlete may make to a given campus, the amount of his expenses that may be covered by the university-firm, so forth. During recruitment, a college coach may ask a prospective player to sign a National Letter of Intent or NLI for short.
The NLI is a voluntary program with regard to both student-athletes. No prospective student-athlete or parent is required to sign the NLI, no institution is required to join the program. By signing a NLI, a prospective student-athlete agrees to attend the designated college or university for one academic year. Pursuant to the terms of the NLI program, participating institutions agree to provide athletics financial aid to the student-athlete, provided he/she is admitted to the institution and eligible for financial aid under NCAA rules. An important provision of this program serves as a recruiting prohibition applied after a prospective student-athlete signs an NLI This prohibition requires participating institutions to cease recruitment of a prospective student-athlete once an NLI is signed with another institution; the NLI has many advantages to both prospective student-athletes and participating educational institutions: Once a NLI is signed, prospective student-athletes are no longer subject to further recruiting contacts and calls.
Student-athletes are assured of an athletics scholarship for a minimum of one full academic year. By emphasizing a commitment to an educational institution, not particular coaches or teams, the program focuses on a prospective student-athlete's educational objectives. In professional sports, the services of athletes are secured via an exclusive contract with an organization. By comparison, the services of many college athletes are secured through recruiting services established by the athletic departments which include staff members and influential friends of the institutions; the college athlete signs an exclusive contract, such as the NLI, at the expense of losing a year's eligibility if he chooses to transfer to another institution of his choosing. The NLI program is subscribed to by all major athletic conferences and nearly all-independent universities. NCAA Division I is to create its own NLI for each sport and, in addition, designate a different signing date for each sport in order to reduce the time and expense incurred when the recruiting season is overly long.
Recruiting top student-athletes is more strategic due to the potential increase in undergraduate admissions and booster donations that a championship may bring. Traditionally, coaches recruiting for major college athletic departments focused on highlighting the athletic accomplishments of the athletic program. Clotfelter writes about the problems of college sports, but he says ther
Miami Hurricanes men's basketball
The Miami Hurricanes men's basketball team represents the University of Miami in the Atlantic Coast Conference. The team began play in 1926, but was dropped by the University of Miami in 1971. In 1985, fourteen years the Hurricanes resumed play and joined the Big East Conference in 1991, winning the Big East regular season title in 2000. In 2004, in conjunction with the rest of the Miami athletic program, the team moved to the ACC. In 2012–2013, the team won its first regular season ACC championship as well as its first ACC tournament championship; the team has reached the NCAA Championship's "Sweet 16" three times. In the 2014–2015 season, they reached the final of the National Invitation Tournament; the Hurricanes play their home games at the Watsco Center. The Hurricanes have appeared in the NCAA Tournament 10 times, their combined record is 8–10. The Hurricanes have appeared in the National Invitation Tournament 11 times, their combined record is 9–11. Note: Honored Players are those former players who have had their jerseys retired to the Watsco Center rafters.
2013 – Shane Larkin, Lute Olson National Player of the Year 1960 – Dick Hickox, AP Second Team 1965 – Rick Barry, Consensus First Team 1970 – Don Curnutt, Helms Second Team 1999 – Tim James, AP Third Team 2013 – Shane Larkin, AP, NABC Second Team, Sporting News Third Team, John Wooden All-American, Bob Cousy Award Finalist, John R. Wooden Award Finalist 2013 – Shane Larkin First Team All-ACC: Jack McClinton, 2008, 2009 Shane Larkin, 2013Second Team All-ACC: Guillermo Diaz, 2005, 2006 Kenny Kadji, 2013 Sheldon McClellan, 2016Third Team All-ACC: Robert Hite, 2006 Jack McClinton, 2007 Malcolm Grant, 2011 Kenny Kadji, 2012 Rion Brown, 2014 Tonye Jekiri, 2016ACC All-Rookie Team: Durand Scott, 2010 Shane Larkin, 2012ACC All-Defensive Team: Anthony King, 2005 Shane Larkin, 2013 Durand Scott, 2013 Tonye Jekiri, 2015 Tonye Jekiri, 2016ACC All-Tournament Team: Shane Larkin, 2013 Durand Scott, 2013 Julian Gamble, 2013 Trey McKinney-Jones, 2013 1999 – Tim James First Team All-Big East: Tim James, 1998, 1999 Johnny Hemsley, 1999Second Team All-Big East: Tim James, 1997 Johnny Hemsley, 2000 Darius Rice, 2002 John Salmons, 2002 Darius Rice, 2004Third Team All-Big East: Constantin Popa, 1993, 1995 Mario Bland, 2000 John Salmons, 2001 James Jones, 2002 Darius Rice, 2003Big East All-Rookie Team: Steven Edwards, 1993 Kevin Norris, 1995 Tim James, 1996 Darius Rice, 2001 Guillermo Diaz, 2004Big East All-Tournament Team: Jerome Scott, 1992 Tim James, 1999 Marcus Barnes, 2002 Storm Surge is the official student section of Miami Hurricanes men's and women's basketball.
It was founded in 2011. Prior to Storm Surge's creation, Miami had been victim to years of inconsistent student attendance and a lack of student interest in the basketball program, prior attempts to create a lasting student section such as "UBeach" and "Haith's Faithful" were unsuccessful. Storm Surge works directly with Miami's athletic department to enhance the game day experience and encourage greater involvement from the student body. Storm Surge began with 500 members, but saw average student attendance jump to over 1,100 for ACC games in 2012–2013, its second season; as student capacity at the BUC is limited, students are admitted on a first-come, first-served basis, with students arriving hours beforehand or camping out to get the best seats. Storm Surge has become famous for its creative and unique free throw chants and distractions, digging up embarrassing facts and pictures of opposing players, its slogan, "Pack The BUC," which can be seen on T-shirts and promotional materials at UM home games.
Like many student sections, Storm Surge distributes cheer sheets prior to each game, detailing specific cheers for that game. The group has the ability to create cheers on the fly through the use of a large whiteboard at the front of the student section, used to coordinate all cheers. Storm Surge's official color is orange, all members wear orange to every game; the student section is situated behind both baskets and consists of bleacher seating and traditional seating. As bleacher seating is closest to the floor, the students in the bleachers are the team's biggest supporters. Before each game, Storm Surge sings the national anthem together if the anthem is being sung by an individual performer. During opposing teams' introductions, students turn around to face away from the court and throw up "The U." During Miami's home introductions, the student section links arms and rocks left to right, going faster and faster before erupting into cheers for the Hurricanes. For Miami's free throws, students hold up one finger, all jumping once on a made free throw and twice on the second free throw if both free throws are made.
Storm Surge organizes watch parties and live online blogs for every away game. These events are open to all students and take place on campus. Following major road wins, the group gathers at the BankUnited Center to greet and congratulate the returning Hurricanes team, a tradition that has since carried over to football. Membership in the organization entitles students to exclusive meet and greets with players, priority seating to games, promotions and giveaways. In 2012, due to unprecedented demand for student tickets to the January 23 game against the #1 ranked Duke Blue Devils, students camped out on an adjacent field to the BankUnited Center, promptly dubbed "Larrañaga Lawn," after Coach Jim Larrañaga. Students camped out for several other games during the 2012–2013 season, including sold out contests against FSU and UNC. Coach Jim Larrañaga and members of the team always greet students lined up on Larrañaga Lawn both the night before the g
SportsNet New York
SportsNet New York is an American regional sports network, owned by Sterling Entertainment Enterprises, LLC, itself a joint venture between the New York Mets, Charter Communications through its acquisition of Time Warner Cable in May 2016 and Comcast, through its NBC Sports Group subsidiary. The channel broadcasts games and related programming involving the Mets, but carries supplementary coverage of the Mets and the New York Jets as well as college sports events. SNY maintained business operations and street-level studio facilities located in the Time-Life Building at Rockefeller Center, on the corner of Avenue of the Americas and West 51st Street in Manhattan until March 2017, when they relocated to 4 World Trade Center. SportsNet New York is available on cable and fiber optic television providers throughout the New York metropolitan area and New York state. SportsNet New York was launched on March 16, 2006; the network was created in order for the New York Mets to better leverage the team's television broadcasting rights, which were held by Cablevision for its regional sports networks MSG and FSN New York.
From 1998 to 2002, Cablevision had a monopoly on the cable television rights to all local professional sports franchises in the New York City market, which resulted in the company using those rights for various business practices such as moving certain games to its MSG Metro Channels, a group of locally based services that had limited distribution on most cable providers in the New York City metropolitan area. In 2002, YankeeNets – the corporate entity which owned both the New York Yankees and New Jersey Nets – ended the monopoly by launching the YES Network to serve as the local cable broadcaster of their games, leaving the Mets in the Cablevision fold until that team's contract with the company expired in 2005. By 2011, through its majority ownership, the Mets received $68 million in revenue from SportsNet New York for the broadcast rights to its games. In 2013, Bloomberg estimated that $1.2 billion of the Mets' $2.1 billion value came from SNY. SportsNet New York, through its majority ownership by the team, serves as the primary local broadcaster of the New York Mets.
It carries at least 120 games involving the team each season not televised on a national network. SNY produces a somewhat reduced schedule of games for local broadcast on CW affiliate WPIX, which are simulcast on other stations within the team's broadcast territory. Gregg Picker serves as producer for the games. Mets game telecasts and post-game shows on SNY delay other programming, such as the 10:00 p.m. edition of SportsNite, preempt all or portions of shows starting at midnight in the event a game with a 7:00 p.m. start time runs over its scheduled time period. In November 2005, the New York Jets signed a broadcasting agreement with SportsNet New York to carry programs relating to the NFL franchise for three years. SNY carries more than 250 hours of Jets-related content annually, including both regular season and off-season shows with access to players and management. On October 1, 2014, SNY signed an agreement with the Fall Experimental Football League to carry some of the league's inaugural regular season games in October and November of that year.
On December 20, 2018, SNY and Rugby United New York of Major League Rugby announced a partnership where SNY would televise nine of the team's inaugural season games. On July 23, 2008, SNY reached an agreement with Rutgers University to become "the exclusive home" of the university's athletics program. Beginning in 2008, SNY carried basketball games involving the Big East Conference; the network carried coaches shows focusing on the Seton Hall University and St. John's University basketball teams, both members of the old Big East. From its launch, SNY carried football and basketball games from the Big Ten Conference that were not scheduled to be televised on a national network. SNY televised college basketball games from the Sun Belt Conference through ESPN Plus dropping these events in 2008, in order to focus its college sports coverage on the Big East Conference. In August 2010, the University of Connecticut announced a multi-year deal with SportsNet New York to become "the official television home" of UConn Huskies football and men's basketball.
SNY will feature 300 hours of Huskies-related programming annually, including 120 hours of game coverage. In May 2012, SNY signed a four-year agreement with the university to become the exclusive broadcaster of the Huskies women's basketball team, agreeing to air a minimum of 17 games per year. On October 31, 2013, SportsNet New York signed a broadcasting agreement with the Atlantic 10 Conference to televise the conference's college basketball games. Covino and Rich – Debuted in October 2013, a half-hour program with a light format (ai
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports; the organization is headquartered in Indiana. In its 2016–17 fiscal year the NCAA took in $1.06 billion in revenue, over 82% of, generated by the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term "Division I-AAA" was added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer used by the NCAA.
In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision. Controversially, the NCAA caps the benefits that collegiate athletes can receive from their schools. There is a consensus among economists that these caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools at the expense of athletes. Intercollegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard and Yale universities met in a challenge race in the sport of rowing; as rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and had to be adapted for each contest.
The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football which had "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport." Following those White House meetings and the reforms which had resulted, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules. The IAAUS was established on March 31, 1906, took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. More rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939. A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II; the "Sanity Code" – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses.
Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, member schools were concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers a part-time executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri in 1952. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association. A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Association's Council, legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games; as college athletics grew, the scope of the nation's athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, III.
Five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed women's collegiate sports in the United States; the AIAW was in a vulnerable position. Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged women's championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, most member schools continued their women's athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA. By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics. A year in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan women's athletic program services and pushed for a women's championship program. By the 1980s, televised college football had become a larger source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma.
The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football tel
New York Post
The New York Post is a daily newspaper in New York City. The Post operates the celebrity gossip site PageSix.com, the entertainment site Decider.com, co-produces the television show Page Six TV. The modern version of the paper is published in tabloid format. Established in 1801 by Federalist and Founding Father Alexander Hamilton, it became a respected broadsheet in the 19th century, under the name New York Evening Post. In 1976, Rupert Murdoch bought the Post for US$30.5 million. Since 1993, the Post has been owned by News Corporation and its successor, News Corp, which had owned it from 1976 to 1988, its editorial offices are located at 1211 Avenue of the Americas. Its distribution ranked 5th in the US in 2018; the New York Post, established on November 16, 1801, as the New-York Evening Post, describes itself as the nation's oldest continuously published daily newspaper. The Providence Journal, which began daily publication on July 21, 1829 bills itself as the nation's oldest continuously published daily newspaper because the New York Post halted publication during strikes in 1958 and 1978.
The Hartford Courant, believed to be the oldest continuously published newspaper, was founded in 1764 as a semi-weekly paper. The New Hampshire Gazette, which has trademarked its claim of being The Nation's Oldest Newspaper, was founded in 1756 as a weekly. Since the 1890s it has been published only on weekends; the Post was founded by Alexander Hamilton with about US$10,000 from a group of investors in the autumn of 1801 as the New-York Evening Post, a broadsheet. Hamilton's co-investors included other New York members of the Federalist Party, such as Robert Troup and Oliver Wolcott, who were dismayed by the election of Thomas Jefferson as U. S. President and the rise in popularity of the Democratic-Republican Party; the meeting at which Hamilton first recruited investors for the new paper took place in the then-country weekend villa, now Gracie Mansion. Hamilton chose William Coleman as his first editor; the most famous 19th-century Evening Post editor was the poet and abolitionist William Cullen Bryant.
So well respected was the Evening Post under Bryant's editorship, it received praise from the English philosopher John Stuart Mill, in 1864. In the summer of 1829, Bryant invited William Leggett, the Locofoco Democrat, to write for the paper. There, in addition to literary and drama reviews, Leggett began to write political editorials. Leggett's classical liberal philosophy entailed a fierce opposition to central banking, a support for voluntary labor unions, a dedication to laissez-faire economics, he was a member of the Equal Rights Party. Leggett became a co-owner and editor at the Post in 1831 working as sole editor of the newspaper while Bryant traveled in Europe in 1834 through 1835. Another co-owner of the paper was John Bigelow. Born in Malden-on-Hudson, New York, John Bigelow, Sr. graduated in 1835 from Union College, where he was a member of the Sigma Phi Society and the Philomathean Society, was admitted to the bar in 1838. From 1849 to 1861, he was one of the co-owners of the Evening Post.
In 1881 Henry Villard took control of the Evening Post, as well as The Nation, which became the Post's weekly edition. With this acquisition, the paper was managed by the triumvirate of Carl Schurz, Horace White, Edwin L. Godkin; when Schurz left the paper in 1883, Godkin became editor-in-chief. White became editor-in-chief in 1899, remained in that role until his retirement in 1903. In 1897, both publications passed to the management of Villard's son, Oswald Garrison Villard, a founding member of both the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the American Civil Liberties Union. Villard sold the paper in 1918, after widespread allegations of pro-German sympathies during World War I hurt its circulation; the new owner was Thomas Lamont, a senior partner in the Wall Street firm of J. P. Morgan & Co.. Unable to stem the paper's financial losses, he sold it to a consortium of 34 financial and reform political leaders, headed by Edwin Francis Gay, dean of the Harvard Business School, whose members included Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
Conservative Cyrus H. K. Curtis—publisher of the Ladies Home Journal—purchased the Evening Post in 1924 and turned it into a non-sensational tabloid in 1933. In 1934, J. David Stern purchased the paper, changed its name to the New York Post, restored its broadsheet size and liberal perspective. In 1939, Dorothy Schiff purchased the paper, her husband, George Backer, was named publisher. Her second editor Ted Thackrey became co-publisher and co-editor with Schiff in 1942. Together, they recast the newspaper into its current tabloid format. In 1948 The Bronx Home News merged with it. In 1949, James Wechsler became editor of the paper, running both the editorial pages. In 1961, he turned over the news section to Paul Sann and remained as editorial-page editor until 1980. Under Schiff's tenure the Post was devoted to liberalism, supporting trade unions and social welfare, featured some of the most-popular columnists of the time, such as Joseph Cookman, Drew Pearson, Eleanor Roosevelt, Max Lerner, Murray Kempton, Pete Hamill, Eric Sevareid, in addition to theatre critic Richard Watts, Jr. and gossip columnist Earl Wilson.
In November 1976, it was announced that Rupert Murdoch had bought the Post from Schiff with the intention she would remain as a consultant for five years. It emerged that Murdoch bought the newspaper for US$30.5 million. The Post at this point was the only surviving afternoon daily in New York City and its circulation under Schiff had grown by two-thirds after the failure of the competing World Journal Tribu
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is a men's professional basketball league in North America. It is considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world; the NBA is an active member of USA Basketball, recognized by FIBA as the national governing body for basketball in the United States. The NBA is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. NBA players are the world's best paid athletes by average annual salary per player; the league was founded in New York City on June 1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3, 1949, after merging with the competing National Basketball League; the league's several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in New Jersey; the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada.
On November 1, 1946, in Toronto, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, in a game the NBA now refers to as the first game played in NBA history. The first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers. Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the NBL, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play in large arenas in major cities. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that league's 1948 title, the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers won the 1949 BAA title. Prior to the 1948–49 season, however, NBL teams from Fort Wayne, Indianapolis and Rochester jumped to the BAA, which established the BAA as the league of choice for collegians looking to turn professional.
On August 3, 1949, the remaining NBL teams–Syracuse, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan and Waterloo–merged into the BAA. In deference to the merger and to avoid possible legal complications, the league name was changed to the present National Basketball Association though the merged league retained the BAA's governing body, including Podoloff. To this day, the NBA claims the BAA's history as its own, it now reckons the arrival of the NBL teams as an expansion, not a merger, does not recognize NBL records and statistics. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1953–54, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises: the New York Knicks, Boston Celtics, Philadelphia Warriors, Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals, Fort Wayne Pistons, Tri-Cities Blackhawks, Syracuse Nationals, all of which remain in the league today.
The process of contraction saw. The Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, to St. Louis in 1955; the Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957 and the Pistons relocated from Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Detroit in 1957. Japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks, he remained the only non-white player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter, signing with the Washington Capitols in 1950. Hunter was cut from the team during training camp, but several African-American players did play in the league that year, including Chuck Cooper with the Celtics, Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton with the Knicks, Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as the league's first dynasty. To encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.
If a team does not attempt to score a field goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped and the ball given to its opponent. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, which featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new single game records in scoring and rebounding. Russell's rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports; the 1960s were dominated by the Celtics. Led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966; this championship streak is the longest in NBA history. They did not win the title in 1966–67, but regained it in the 1967–68 season and repeated in 1969; the domination totaled nine of the ten championship banners of the 1960s.
Through this period, the NBA continued to evolve with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers, the St. Louis Hawks moving to Atlanta, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises; the Chicago Packers (now Wa