Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Direct marketing is a form of advertising where organizations communicate directly to customers through a variety of media including cell phone text messaging, websites, online adverts, database marketing, catalog distribution, promotional letters, targeted television, magazine advertisements, outdoor advertising. Among practitioners, it is known as direct response marketing; the prevalence of direct marketing and the unwelcome nature of some communications has led to regulations and laws such as the CAN-SPAM Act, requiring that consumers in the United States be allowed to opt out. A 2010 study by the Direct Marketing Association reports that in 2010, marketers—commercial and nonprofit—spent $153.3 billion on direct marketing, which accounted for 54.2% of all ad expenditures in the United States. Measured against total US sales, these advertising expenditures generated $1.798 trillion in incremental sales. In 2010, direct marketing accounted for 8.3% of total US gross domestic product. In 2010, there were 1.4 million direct marketing employees in the US.
Their collective sales efforts directly supported 8.4 million other jobs, accounting for a total of 9.8 million US jobs. Direct marketing, using catalogues was practiced in 15th-century Europe; the publisher Aldus Manutius of Venice printed a catalogue of the books. In 1667, the English gardener, William Lucas, published a seed catalogue, which he mailed to his customers to inform them of his prices. Catalogues spread to colonial America, where Benjamin Franklin is believed to have been the first cataloguer in British America. In 1744, he produced a catalogue of academic books. Meeting the demands of the consumer revolution and growth in wealth of the middle classes that helped drive the Industrial Revolution in Britain, the Following the industrial revolution of the late 18th-century, a growing middle class created new demand for goods and services. Entrepreneurs, including Matthew Boulton and pottery manufacturer, Josiah Wedgwood, pioneered many of the marketing strategies used today, including direct marketing.
The Welsh entrepreneur Pryce Pryce-Jones set up the first modern mail order in 1861. Starting off as an apprentice to a local draper in Newtown, Wales, he took over the business in 1856 and renamed it the Royal Welsh Warehouse, selling local Welsh flannel. Improvements in transportation systems combined with the advent of the Uniform Penny Post in the mid-19th century provided the necessary conditions for rapid growth in mail order services. In 1861, Pryce-Jones hit upon a unique method of selling his wares, he distributed catalogues of his wares across the country, allowing people to choose the items they wished and order them via post. It was an ideal way of meeting the needs of customers in isolated rural locations who were either too busy or unable to get into Newtown to shop directly; this was the world's first mail order business, an idea which would change the nature of retail in the coming century. One of Price-Jones most popular products was the Euklisia Rug, the forerunner of the modern sleeping bag, which Pryce-Jones exported around the world, at one point landing a contract with the Russian Army for 60,000 rugs.
By 1880, he had more than 100,000 customers and his success was rewarded in 1887 with a knighthood. In the 19th century, the American retailer, Aaron Montgomery Ward, believed that using the technique of selling products directly to the customer at appealing prices could, if executed and efficiently, revolutionize the market industry and therefore be used as a model for marketing products and creating customer loyalty; the term "direct marketing" was coined long after Montgomery Ward's time. In 1872, Ward produced the first mail-order catalog for his Montgomery Ward mail order business. By buying goods and reselling them directly to customers, Ward was removing the middlemen at the general store and, to the benefit of the customer, drastically lowering the prices; the Direct Mail Advertising Association, predecessor of the present-day Direct Marketing Association, was first established in 1917. Third class bulk mail postage rates were established in 1928. In 1967, Lester Wunderman identified and defined the term "direct marketing".
Wunderman—considered to be the father of contemporary direct marketing—is behind the creation of the toll-free 1-800 number and numerous loyalty marketing programs including the Columbia Record Club, the magazine subscription card, the American Express Customer Rewards program. Direct marketing is attractive to many marketers because its results, positive or otherwise, can be measured directly. For example, if a marketer sends out 1,000 solicitations by mail and 100 respond to the promotion, the marketer can say with confidence that campaign led directly to a 10% conversion; this metric is known as the'response rate', it is one of many quantifiable success metrics employed by direct marketers. In contrast, general advertising uses indirect measurements, such as awareness or engagement, since there is no direct response from a consumer. Measurement of results is a fundamental element in successful direct marketing. One of the other significant benefits of direct marketing is that it enables promoting products or services that might not be known to consumers.
Products or service with a sound value proposition, matched with an attractive offer, supported with effective communication, delivered through a suitable direct marketing channel and targeting the relevant customer segment can result in a effective cost of acquisition. Relative to other channels of distribution direct marketing as a practice principally relies on the proposition, comm
Thomson Reuters Corporation is a Canadian multinational mass media and information firm. The firm was founded in Toronto, Canada, where it is headquartered at 333 Bay Street in Downtown Toronto. Thomson Reuters shares are cross listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange. Thomson Reuters was created by the Thomson Corporation's purchase of the British company Reuters Group in April 2008, is majority owned by The Woodbridge Company, a holding company for the Thomson family. Thomson Reuters was ranked as Canada's "leading corporate brand" in the 2010 Interbrand Best Canadian Brands ranking. Thomson Reuters operates in more than 100 countries, has more than 45,000 employees; the company was founded by Roy Thomson in 1934 in Ontario as the publisher of The Timmins Daily Press. In 1953, Thomson moved to Scotland the following year, he consolidated his media position in Scotland in 1957 when he won the franchise for Scottish Television. In 1959, he bought the Kemsley Group, a purchase that gave him control of the Sunday Times.
He separately acquired the Times in 1967. He moved into the airline business in 1965, when he acquired Britannia Airways and into oil and gas exploration in 1971 when he participated in a consortium to exploit reserves in the North Sea. In the 1970s, following the death of Thomson, the company withdrew from national newspapers and broadcast media, selling the Times, the Sunday Times and Scottish Television and instead moved into publishing, buying Sweet & Maxwell in 1988; the company at this time was known as the International Thomson Organisation Ltd. In 1989, ITOL merged with Thomson Newspapers. In 1996, The Thomson Corporation acquired West Publishing, a purveyor of legal research and solutions including Westlaw; the Company was founded by Paul Julius Reuter in 1851 in London as a business transmitting stock market quotations. Reuter set up his "Submarine Telegraph" office in October 1851 and negotiated a contract with the London Stock Exchange to provide stock prices from the continental exchanges in return for access to London prices, which he supplied to stockbrokers in Paris, France.
In 1865, Reuters in London was the first organization to report the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. The company was involved in developing the use of radio in 1923, it was acquired by the British National & Provincial Press in 1941 and first listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1984. Reuters began to grow in the 1980s, widening the range of its business products and expanding its global reporting network for media and economic services: key product launches included Equities 2000, Dealing 2000-2, Business Briefing, Reuters Television for the financial markets, 3000 Series and the Reuters 3000 Xtra service; the Thomson Corporation acquired Reuters Group PLC to form Thomson Reuters on April 17, 2008. Thomson Reuters operated under a dual-listed company structure and had two parent companies, both of which were publicly listed — Thomson Reuters Corporation and Thomson Reuters PLC. In 2009, it unified its dual listed company structure and stopped its listing on the London Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
It is now listed only as Thomson Reuters Corporation on the New York Stock Exchange and Toronto Stock Exchange. On February 13, 2013, Thomson Reuters announced it would cut 2,500 jobs to cut cost in its Legal and Risk division. On October 29, 2013, Thomson Reuters announced it would cut another 3,000 jobs in those same three divisions; the Thomson-Reuters merger transaction was reviewed by the U. S. Department of Justice and by the European Commission. On February 19, 2008, both the Department of Justice and the Commission cleared the transaction subject to minor divestments; the Department of Justice required the parties to sell copies of the data contained in the following products: Thomson's WorldScope, a global fundamentals product. The proposed settlement further requires the licensing of related intellectual property, access to personnel, transitional support to ensure that the buyer of each set of data can continue to update its database so as to continue to offer users a viable and competitive product.
The European Commission imposed similar divestments: according to the Commission's press release, "the parties committed to divest the databases containing the content sets of such financial information products, together with relevant assets and customer base as appropriate to allow purchasers of the databases and assets to establish themselves as a credible competitive force in the marketplace in competition with the merged entity, re-establishing the pre-merger rivalry in the respective fields."These remedies were viewed as minor given the scope of the transaction. According to the Financial Times, "the remedy proposed by the competition authorities will affect no more than $25m of the new Thomson Reuters group’s $13bn-plus combined revenues."The transaction was cleared by the Canadian Competition Bureau. In November 2009, The European Commission opened formal anti-trust proceedings against Thomson Reuters concerning a potential infringement of the EC Treaty's rules on abuse of a dominant market position.
The Commission investigated Thomson Reuters' practices in the area of real-time market datafeeds, in particular whether customers or competitors were prevented from translating Reuters Instrument Codes to alternative identification codes of other datafeed suppliers to the detriment of competition. In Dec
Berkeley Heights, New Jersey
Berkeley Heights is a township in Union County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 13,183, reflecting a decline of 224 from the 13,407 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,427 from the 11,980 counted in the 1990 Census. Berkeley Heights was incorporated as New Providence Township by the New Jersey Legislature on November 8, 1809, from portions of Springfield Township, while the area was still part of Essex County. New Providence Township became part of the newly formed Union County at its creation on March 19, 1857. Portions of the township were taken on March 23, 1869, to create Summit, on March 14, 1899, to form the borough of New Providence. On November 6, 1951, the name of the township was changed to Berkeley Heights, based on the results of a referendum held that day; the township was named for John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton, one of the founders of the Province of New Jersey. In Money magazine's 2013 Best Places to Live rankings, Berkeley Heights was ranked 6th in the nation, the highest among the three places in New Jersey included in the top 50 list.
The magazine's 2007 list had the township ranked 45th out of a potential 2,800 places in the United States with populations above 7,500 and under 50,000. In its 2010 rankings of the "Best Places to Live", New Jersey Monthly magazine ranked Berkeley Heights as the 19th best place to live in New Jersey. In its 2008 rankings of the "Best Places To Live" New Jersey Monthly magazine ranked Berkeley Heights as the 59th best place to live in New Jersey; the Lenape Native Americans were known to inhabit the region, including the area now known as Berkeley Heights, dating back to the 1524 voyage of Giovanni da Verrazzano to what is now the lower New York Bay. The earliest construction in Berkeley Heights began in an area, now part of the 1,960 acres Watchung Reservation, a Union County park that includes 305 acres of the township; the first European settler was Peter Willcox, who received a 424 acres land grant in 1720 from the Elizabethtown Associates. This group bought much of northern New Jersey from the Lenape in the late 17th century.
Willcox built a lumber mill across Green Brook. In 1793, a regional government was formed, it encompassed the area from present-day Springfield Township, New Providence, Berkeley Heights, was called Springfield Township. Growth continued in the area, by 1809, Springfield Township divided into Springfield Township and New Providence Township, which included present day Summit, New Providence, Berkeley Heights. In 1845, Willcox's heirs sold the mill to a paper manufacturer from New York. Felt built a small village around the mill aptly named Feltville, it included homes for workers and their families, orchards, a post office and a general store with a second floor church. In 1860, Feltville was sold to sarsaparilla makers. Other manufacturing operations continued until Feltville went into bankruptcy in 1882; when residents moved away, the area became known as Deserted Village. Village remains consist of a store, the mill and a barn. Deserted Village is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is undergoing restoration by the Union County Parks Department.
Restoration grants of $2 million were received from various state agencies. Deserted Village, in the Watchung Reservation, is open daily for unguided walking tours during daylight hours. On March 23, 1869, Summit Township seceded from New Providence Township. On March 14, 1899, the Borough of New Providence seceded from New Providence Township. Present day Berkeley Heights remained as New Providence Township. Many of the townships and regional areas in New Jersey were separating into small, locally governed communities at that time due to acts of the New Jersey Legislature that made it economically advantageous for the communities to due so. Due to confusion between the adjacent municipalities of the Borough of New Providence and the Township of New Providence, the township conducted a referendum in 1952 and voted to change the name to Berkeley Heights Township; the origin of the township's name has never been established, but is believed to have been taken from an area of town, referred to by this moniker, which itself was assumed to be derived from Lord John Berkeley, co-proprietor of New Jersey from 1664 to 1674.
Early life in Berkeley Heights is documented in the Littell-Lord Farmhouse Museum & Farmstead, an 18-acre museum surrounding two houses, one of, built in the 1750s and the other near the start of the 19th century. Among the exhibits are a Victorian master bedroom and a Victorian children's room, furnished with period antiques; the children's room has reproductions of antique toys, which visitors can play with. The museum, on the National Register of Historic Places includes an outbuilding, used as a summer kitchen, a corn crib dating to the 19th century and a spring house built around a spring and used for refrigeration; the museum is open 2-4 p.m. on the third Sunday of each month from April through December, or by appointment. The township owes its rural character to its late development; until 1941, when the American Telephone and Telegraph Company built the AT&T Bell Laboratories research facility in the township, it was a sleepy farming and resort community. Berkeley Heights is host to a traditional religious procession and feast carried out by members of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Society.
The feast is capped by one of the largest fireworks shows in the state. The Feast of Mt. Carmel has been a town tradition since 1909. In 1958, part of a Nike missile battery
International Biographical Centre
The International Biographical Centre is a publisher owned by Melrose Press Ltd that specializes in producing biographical publications, such as the Dictionary of International Biography, Great Men and Women of Science and other vanity awards. It is situated in Cambridgeshire in the United Kingdom. Government consumer advocates have described it as a "scam" or as "pretty tacky"; the International Biographical Centre offers them widely. In 2004, an award was said to cost the recipient US$495 or £295, but in 2010 the cost could be as high as $395 for a Commemorative Medal or US$440 for a laminated certificate; the IBC states that "entry into our books is based on merit alone and we never charge for inclusion." It is possible to nominate a person, an organization, or oneself on their website for inclusion. The Department of Commerce of the Government of Western Australia classified the Centre's offers as a scam and said: "The material promoting the International Biographical Centre creates a false impression about the credentials of the organisation.
It wrongly implies that the receiver of the letter has been picked through a special research process considering their work and qualifications."It quoted blog users who describe the publications as a "Who’s Who of gullible people". 2000 Outstanding Europeans of the 21st Century 2000 Outstanding Intellectuals of the 20th Century 2000 Outstanding Intellectuals of the 21st Century 2000 Outstanding Scientists - 2010 The Cambridge Blue Book Dictionary of International Biography Great Men and Women of Science International Who's Who in Music Men of achievement Outstanding People of the 20th Century Outstanding People of the 21st Century Outstanding Scientists of the 21st Century Who’s Who in the 21st Century World Who's Who of Women Who's Who scam International Biographical Centre website Photos of some of the IBC medals Rothke, Ben. "What's What with the Who's Who? Who would be so foolish as to pay for inclusion in a Who's Who book that no one reads?". CSOonline.com. Framingham, Massachusetts: CXO Media
Oregon Department of Justice
The Oregon Department of Justice, headed by the Oregon Attorney General, is the main legal branch of the government of the U. S. state of Oregon. The DOJ is part of Oregon's executive branch, most of its employees work in Oregon's capital, Salem. Employing about 1200 employees statewide, the department's biennial budget is US$280 million; the DOJ provides legal counsel to the state anytime Oregon is a party or has an interest in a civil action or other legal proceeding. As ordered by the Oregon State Legislature, the Department of Justice is tasked with running programs concerning child support payments, charitable activity enforcement, district attorney assistance, crime victim compensation, protecting consumers; the divisions responsible for these and other programs are the Trial Division, Appellate Division, Criminal Justice Division, General Counsel Division, Administrative Services Division, Child Support Division, Civil Enforcement Divisions, the Crime Victims' Services Division. Official website "Oregon Department of Justice – Administrative Overview".
Oregon Blue Book. Salem, Oregon: Oregon Secretary of State. 2007. Retrieved July 19, 2012
ITT Inc. ITT Corporation, is an American worldwide manufacturing company based in White Plains, New York; the company produces specialty components for the aerospace, transportation and industrial markets. ITT’s three businesses include Industrial Process, Motion Technologies, Connect and Control Technologies. ITT has 10,000 employees in more than 35 countries and serves customers in well over 100 countries; the company’s long-standing brands include Goulds Pumps, Cannon connectors, KONI shock absorbers and Enidine energy absorption components. The company was founded in 1920 as International Telegraph. During the 1960s and 1970s, under the leadership of CEO Harold Geneen, the company rose to prominence as the archetypal conglomerate, deriving its growth from hundreds of acquisitions in diversified industries. ITT divested its telecommunications assets in 1986, in 1995 spun off its non-manufacturing divisions purchased by Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide. In 1996, the current company was founded as a spinoff of ITT as Inc..
It changed its name to ITT Corporation in 2006. In 2011, ITT spun off its defense businesses into a company named Exelis, its water technology business into a company named Xylem Inc. ITT Corporation changed its name to ITT Inc. in 2016. International Telephone & Telegraph was formed in 1920, created by brokers Colonel Sosthenes Behn and his brother Hernan Behn; the brothers had acquired the Puerto Rico Telephone Company in 1914 along with the Cuban-American Telephone and Telegraph Company and a half-interest in the Cuban Telephone Company. ITT's first major expansion was in 1923 when it consolidated the Spanish Telecoms market into what is now Telefónica. From 1922 to 1925 it purchased a number of European telephone companies. In 1925, ITT purchased several companies from Western Electric, as Bell has agreed to "divest" itself of its international operations, they included the Bell Telephone Manufacturing Company of Antwerp, which manufactured rotary system switching equipment, the British International Western Electric, renamed Standard Telephones and Cables.
Compagnie Générale d'Electricité purchased BTM. In the 1930s, ITT purchased German electronic companies Standard Elektrizitätsgesellschaft and Mix & Genest, both of which were internationally active companies and Romanian telecommunications monopoly Societatea Anonima Română de Telefoane, its only serious rival was the Theodore Gary & Company conglomerate, which operated a subsidiary, Associated Telephone and Telegraph, with manufacturing plants in Europe. In the United States, ITT acquired the various companies of the Mackay Companies in 1928 through a specially organized subsidiary corporation, Postal Telegraph & Cable; these companies included the Commercial Cable Company, the Commercial Pacific Cable Company, Postal Telegraph, the Federal Telegraph Company. On 3 August 1933 Hitler received in one of the first meetings with US businessmen Sosthenes Behn the CEO of ITT, his German representative, Henry Mann. Antony C. Sutton, in his book Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler, makes the claim that ITT subsidiaries made cash payments to SS leader Heinrich Himmler.
ITT, through its subsidiary C. Lorenz AG, owned 25% of Focke-Wulf, the German aircraft manufacturer, builder of some of the most successful Luftwaffe fighter aircraft. In the 1960s, ITT Corporation won $27 million in compensation for damage inflicted on its share of the Focke-Wulf plant by Allied bombing during World War II. In addition, Sutton’s book uncovers that ITT owned shares of Signalbau AG, Dr. Erich F. Huth, which produced for the German Wehrmacht radar equipment and transceivers in Berlin and other places. While ITT - Focke-Wulf planes were bombing Allied ships, ITT lines were passing information to German submarines, ITT direction finders were saving other ships from torpedoes. In 1943 ITT became the largest shareholder of Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau GmbH for the remainder of the war with 29%; this was due to Kaffee HAG's share falling to 27% after the death in May of Kaffee HAG chief, Dr Ludwig Roselius. OMGUS documents reveal that the role of the HAG conglomerate could not be determined during WWII.
In 1951, ITT purchased Philo Farnsworth's television company to break into that market. At the time Farnsworth was developing the Fusor fusion reactor, funded by ITT until 1967. In 1951, ITT bought a majority interest in the Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Company, founded in 1897 as a pioneer in "divided-multiple" telephone switchboards, bought the remaining shares the next year. ITT changed the company's name to ITT Kellogg. After merging Federal Telephone and Radio Corporation into ITT Kellogg and combining manufacturing operations the name was again changed to ITT Telecommunications reverting to ITT Kellogg. One prominent subsidiary of this was the American Cable and Radio Corporation, which operated the transatlantic cables of the Commercial Cable Company, among other ventures, it bought Philadelphia based air conditioning manufacturer John J. Nesbitt Inc.. In 1968 the company purchased Levittown homebuilder Sons for a reported $90 million. In 1972, the KONI Group, manufacturer of shock absorbers was added to the list of acquisitions and remains a leader worldwide as the quality shock absorber specialist, focusing on high performing suspension-damping technology for Cars, Specialty Trucks, Trailers and Railway Rolling Stock.
International telecommunications manufacturing subsidiaries included STC in Britain and Australia, SEL and Intermetall Gesellschaft für Metallurgie und Elektronik mbH (acqu