Carlotta Mercedes Agnes McCambridge was an American actress of radio, stage and television. Orson Welles called her "the world's greatest living radio actress." She won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for All the King's Men and was nominated in the same category for Giant. She provided the voice of Pazuzu in The Exorcist. McCambridge was born in Joliet, the daughter of Irish-American Roman Catholic parents Marie and John Patrick McCambridge, a farmer, she graduated from Mundelein College in Chicago before embarking on a career. McCambridge began her career as a radio actor during the 1930s while performing on Broadway. In 1941, she played Judy's girlfriend in A Date with Judy, she had the title role in Defense Attorney, a crime drama broadcast on ABC in 1951-52. Her other work on radio included: episodes of Lights Out episodes of Inner Sanctum episodes of the Bulldog Drummond radio series episodes of Gang Busters episodes of Murder at Midnight episodes of Studio One Episode of Alfred Hitchcock Presents as Dr. Constance Peterson in Spellbound episodes of Screen Directors Playhouse episodes of Ford Theater Rosemary Levy on Abie's Irish Rose Peggy King Martinson on This is Nora Drake various characters on the radio series I Love A Mystery in both its West Coast and East Coast incarnations She did feature roles on the CBS Radio Mystery Theater, was an original cast member on Guiding Light.
She starred in her own show, Defense Attorney on ABC 1951–52, as Martha Ellis Bryan. From June 22, 1953, to March 5, 1954, McCambridge starred in the soap opera Family Skeleton on CBS. McCambridge played Katherine Wells in Wire Service, a drama series that aired on ABC during 1956-7, produced by Desilu Productions; the series starred McCambridge, George Brent, Dane Clark as reporters for the fictional Trans Globe Wire Service. McCambridge's film career took off when she was cast as Sadie Burke opposite Broderick Crawford in All the King's Men. McCambridge won the 1949 Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role, while the film won Best Picture for that year. McCambridge won the Golden Globe Awards for Best Supporting Actress and New Star of the Year - Actress for her performance. In 1954, the actress co-starred with Joan Crawford and Sterling Hayden in the offbeat western drama, Johnny Guitar, now regarded as a cult classic. McCambridge and Hayden publicly declared their dislike of Crawford, with McCambridge labeling the film's star "a mean, powerful, rotten-egg lady."McCambridge played the supporting role of Luz in the George Stevens classic Giant, which starred Elizabeth Taylor, Rock Hudson, James Dean.
She was nominated for another Academy Award as Best Supporting Actress but lost to Dorothy Malone in Written on the Wind. In 1959, McCambridge appeared opposite Katharine Hepburn, Montgomery Clift and Elizabeth Taylor in the Joseph L. Mankiewicz film adaptation of Tennessee Williams' Suddenly, Last Summer. McCambridge provided the dubbed voice of Pazuzu, the demon possessing the young girl Regan in The Exorcist. To sound as disturbing as possible, McCambridge insisted on swallowing raw eggs, chain smoking and drinking whiskey to make her voice harsh and her performance aggressive. Director William Friedkin arranged for her to be bound to a chair during recordings, so that the demon seemed to be struggling against its restraints. According to Friedkin, she requested no credit for the film—fearing it would take away from the attention of Blair's performance—but complained about her absence of credit during the film's premiere, her dispute with Friedkin and the Warner Bros. over her exclusion ended when, with the help of the Screen Actors Guild, she was properly credited for her vocal work in the film.
In the 1970s, she toured in a road company production of Cat on a Hot Tin Roof as Big Mama, opposite John Carradine as Big Daddy. She appeared as a guest artist in college productions, such as El Centro College's 1979 The Mousetrap, in which she received top billing despite her character being murdered fewer than 15 minutes into the play. El Centro brought her back the following year in the title role of The Madwoman of Chaillot, she starred with longtime character actor Lyle Talbot in the 1970 production of Come Back, Little Sheba in the University of North Alabama Summer Theatre Productions. In the mid-1970s, McCambridge took a position as director of Livingrin, a Pennsylvania rehabilitation center for alcoholics, she was at the same time putting the finishing touches on her soon-to-be released autobiography, The Quality of Mercy: An Autobiography, ISBN 0-8129-0945-3. McCambridge married William Fifield, in 1939 when she was 23 years old; the couple had a son, John Lawrence Fifield, born in December, 1941.
Romina Francesca Power is an American actress and singer born in Los Angeles. She is part of the musical duo Al Bano and Romina Power, together with her ex-husband Albano Carrisi. Born in Los Angeles, Romina Power is the eldest daughter of American screen idol Tyrone Power and his second wife, Mexican actress Linda Christian. After her parents divorced in 1956, she and her younger sister Taryn lived with their mother in various places in Mexico and Italy where she and her sister spent much of their childhood, although Romina attended college in England, her interest in music was evoked in her childhood by American musicals from the 1950s, Mexican Mariachi bands and Italian music from the 1960s. In her early teens, Power discovered The Beatles and Bob Dylan. After receiving a guitar as a birthday gift, she wrote her first songs, she appeared in several Italian-language films from the age of 14, including the 1969 adaptation of the Marquis de Sade's novel Justine, directed by Jesus Franco. She met her actor husband Al Bano while acting in films in the 1960s.
They married in 1970. In 1975 they formed a singing duo, which became well known in Italy, Austria, France, Greece, Latin America, Eastern Europe and the USSR, releasing multiple albums in different languages and achieving 7th place in both the 1976 and 1985 Eurovision Song Contest for Italy, their biggest hits included "Felicità", "Sharazan", "Tu soltanto tu", "Ci sarà", "Sempre sempre", "Libertà". The couple divorced in 1999, they have four children: Ylenia Maria Sole, who went missing in New Orleans, Louisiana in January 1994 Yari, their only son Cristèl Chiara, who appeared in Italian reality TV show La Fattoria 2 Romina Jolanda, who appeared in the 2005 edition of Italian reality TV show Isola dei Famosi with her fatherIn 2005 Power was a judge in the Italian TV show Ballando con le Stelle. Between 2006 and 2007 she organized exhibitions of her paintings in Milan. At the same time she dedicated herself to directing her film Upaya. In spring 2007 Power bought a house in Sedona and decided to leave Italy forever and move to the United States.
The clamorous interview in which she revealed her plans was published in an Italian magazine Diva e donna. According to Romina, she was perceived by the Italian public as a performer of Il ballo del qua-qua, for her it was difficult to establish herself in Italy as a painter and writer. Furthermore, she was disturbed by the intrusive attention of the local press, that published multiple articles with speculations about her private life and the disappearance of her daughter Ylenia. Shortly after her relocation, in 2008, her mother Linda Christian was diagnosed with colon cancer, so she went to live in her mother's house in Palm Springs where she remained for three years, until her mother's death on 22 July 2011. In a November 2009 interview she gave to Italian TV she stated she had considered, at least for some time, a possible return to Italy. At present Romina Power is permanently living and working in the United States where she resides full-time. In the fall of 2012 her album Da lontano was released, containing songs written in 1999.
In the summer of 2013 Al Bano and Romina Power reunited only on a professional basis and for one final time, for a concert performance in Moscow. In 2015 Al Bano and Romina Power reunited again for a guest appearance in the Sanremo Festival. Power is a polyglot who speaks five languages: English, Spanish and Dutch. Menage all'italiana Come imparai ad amare le donne Assicurasi vergine L'oro del mondo Vingt-quatre heures de la vie d'une femme Il suo nome è Donna Rosa Pensando a te Marquis de Sade: Justine Carnal Circuit Las trompetas del apocalipsis Mezzanotte d'amore Angeli senza paradiso Champagne in paradiso Il ritorno di Sandokan Tutti i sogni del mondo Upaya Go Go Tales " Il segreto di Italia." 12 canzoni e una poesia Ascolta, ti racconto di un amore Con un paio di Blue-Jeans Da lontano Atto I 1978 Aria pura Sharazan Felicità Felicidad Che angelo sei Que ángel será The Golden Orpheus Festival 1984 Effetto amore Sempre sempre Siempre siempre Libertà! Libertad Fragile Fragile Fotografia di un momento Fotografía de un momento Weihnachten bei uns zu Hause Navidad ha llegado Vincerai Vencerás Notte e giorno El tiempo de amarse Emozionale Amor sagrado Ancora...
Zugabe The Very Best – Live aus Verona Al Bano & Romina Power: Autoritratto all A dalla R Cercando mio padre, Ho sognato don Chisciotte, Kalifornia, Ti prendo per mano, Romina Power – Official site Official YouTube
Sylva Koscina was an Italian actress, maybe best-remembered for her role as Iole, the bride of Hercules in Hercules and Hercules Unchained. She played Paul Newman's romantic interest in The Secret War of Harry Frigg, she was born "Silvija Košćina" to a Greek father, who had a hotel in the "West Coast" section of Split, a Polish mother. During World War II, as a teenager, she moved to Italy to live with her sister, who had married an Italian citizen. After winning beauty contests as a teenager, she was offered modelling work. In 1954, while studying physics at the University of Naples, living in a boarding school of nuns, she was asked to be "Miss Di Tappa", who presents flowers to the winner of a stage of the 1954 Giro d'Italia bicycle race at Naples, she was convinced, but with difficulty because of her shyness a picture of her, kissing the winner, was published in newspapers all over Europe. Eduardo De Filippo noticed her and decided to cast her in a small role for the movie "Questi fantasmi", about to be filmed.
This did not happen, but it did lead to a small part, of an aspiring actress, alongside Totò in Are We Men or Corporals? by Camillo Mastrocinque, leading to her breakout role, portraying Giulia, daughter of the train engineer Andrea, in Pietro Germi's The Railroad Man. Koscina returned in Guendalina. A lead player in popular comedies, such as Nonna Sabella, Ladro lui, ladra lei, Poveri milionari, Koscina alternated cleverly between roles as vamp and ingenue, she represented women in search of social upward mobility, the image of an Italy that had left its worst problems behind. Koscina was suited to sophisticated comedies like Mogli pericolose, where she made a direct sentimental challenge to poor Giorgia Moll, she played Hercules' fiancée in a prototype of this kind of film. In Italy, a police officer let; as a guest on a television program, she thanked the policeman, thus getting him into trouble with the police department. The incident and its aftermath inspired the movie Il vigile. In the first half of the 1960s, she married her lover, Raimondo Castelli, a small producer connected with Minerva Films.
She managed to keep well afloat with roles in Damiano Damiani's Il sicario. In La lepre e la tartaruga, an episode in Le quattro verita, the director Blasetti constructed a duel between Koscina and Monica Vitti. In 1965, Koscina appeared in Giulietta degli spiriti, she was a television personality and made special guest appearances on variety shows. She co-starred in Jesus Franco's Marquis de Sade: Justine, as well as Mario Bava's 1972 film Lisa and the Devil. From the early 1960s, she invested most of her considerable earnings in a luxurious villa, in the well-to-do district of Marino, complete with 16th-century furniture and artistic paintings; that lasted until her spending overcame her dwindling income, she had to face a tax evasion inquest, when she was forced to sell her house in 1976. Living with Raimondo Castelli since 1960, they did not marry due to Italian law and because his wife Marinella refused him an annulment. Castelli and Koscina married in Mexico in 1967. Angelo Frontoni photographed Koscina for the American edition of Playboy in May 1967.
After passing 30, she partnered with actors such as Kirk Douglas in A Lovely Way to Die and Paul Newman in The Secret War of Harry Frigg, but without any luck. Her career was given a boost in the second half of the 1960s when she was photographed bare-breasted in the Italian edition of Playboy magazine. Mauro Bolognini's L'assoluto naturale was released, she starred in the 1967 comedy caper Three Bites of the Apple with David McCallum, Deadlier Than the Male, in which Elke Sommer and she portrayed sophisticated professional killers dueling with Bulldog Drummond. She played Danica in the Yugoslavian movie The Battle of Neretva, in 1969, she played Bianca, in Hornets' Nest with Rock Hudson. On her infamous love scene in L'assoluto naturale – "Of course, if it had not been for the director, I wouldn't have done this film." Sylva Koscina died in Rome in 1994. La commedia del Decamerone by Mario Amendola and Bruno Corbucci with Sylva Koscina, Marisa Solinas, Vittorio Congia, Anna Campori. Directed by Amendola & Corbucci.
Sylva Koscina on IMDb
Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that the pursuit of pleasure and intrinsic goods are the primary or most important goals of human life. A hedonist strives to maximize net pleasure; however upon gaining said pleasure, happiness may remain stationary. Ethical hedonism is the idea that all people have the right to do everything in their power to achieve the greatest amount of pleasure possible to them, it is the idea that every person's pleasure should far surpass their amount of pain. Ethical hedonism is said to have been started by Aristippus of a student of Socrates, he held the idea. The name derives from the Greek word for "delight". An strong aversion to hedonism is hedonophobia; the condition of being unable to experience pleasure is anhedonia. In the original Old Babylonian version of the Epic of Gilgamesh, written soon after the invention of writing, Siduri gave the following advice: "Fill your belly. Day and night make merry. Let days be full of joy. Dance and make music day and night These things alone are the concern of men."
This may represent the first recorded advocacy of a hedonistic philosophy. Scenes of a harper entertaining guests at a feast were common in ancient Egyptian tombs, sometimes contained hedonistic elements, calling guests to submit to pleasure because they cannot be sure that they will be rewarded for good with a blissful afterlife; the following is a song attributed to the reign of one of the pharaohs around the time of the 12th dynasty, the text was used in the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties. Democritus seems to be the earliest philosopher on record to have categorically embraced a hedonistic philosophy; the Cyrenaics were an ultra-hedonist Greek school of philosophy founded in the 4th century BC by Aristippus of Cyrene, although many of the principles of the school are believed to have been formalized by his grandson of the same name, Aristippus the Younger. The school was so called after the birthplace of Aristippus, it was one of the earliest Socratic schools. The Cyrenaics taught that the only intrinsic good is pleasure, which meant not just the absence of pain, but positively enjoyable momentary sensations.
Of these, physical ones are stronger than those of memory. They did, recognize the value of social obligation, that pleasure could be gained from altruism. Theodorus the Atheist was a latter exponent of hedonism, a disciple of younger Aristippus, while becoming well known for expounding atheism; the school died out within a century, was replaced by Epicureanism. The Cyrenaics were known for their skeptical theory of knowledge, they reduced logic to a basic doctrine concerning the criterion of truth. They thought that we can know with certainty our immediate sense-experiences but can know nothing about the nature of the objects that cause these sensations, they denied that we can have knowledge of what the experiences of other people are like. All knowledge is immediate sensation; these sensations are motions which are purely subjective, are painful, indifferent or pleasant, according as they are violent, tranquil or gentle. Further, they are individual and can in no way be described as constituting absolute objective knowledge.
Feeling, therefore, is the only possible criterion of knowledge and of conduct. Our ways of being affected are alone knowable, thus the sole aim for everyone should be pleasure. Cyrenaicism deduces a single, universal aim for all people, pleasure. Furthermore, all feeling is homogeneous, it follows that past and future pleasure have no real existence for us, that among present pleasures there is no distinction of kind. Socrates had spoken of the higher pleasures of the intellect. Momentary pleasure, preferably of a physical kind, is the only good for humans; however some actions which give immediate pleasure can create more than their equivalent of pain. The wise person should be in control of pleasures rather than be enslaved to them, otherwise pain will result, this requires judgement to evaluate the different pleasures of life. Regard should be paid to law and custom, because though these things have no intrinsic value on their own, violating them will lead to unpleasant penalties being imposed by others.
Friendship and justice are useful because of the pleasure they provide. Thus the Cyrenaics believed in the hedonistic value of altruistic behaviour. Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Leucippus, his materialism led him to the idea of divine intervention. Following Aristippus—about whom little is known—Epicurus believed that the greatest good was to seek modest, sustainable "pleasure" in the form of a state of tranquility and freedom from fear and absence of bodily pain through knowledge of the workings of the world and the limits of our desires; the combination of these two states is supposed to constitute happiness in its highest form. Althoug
Akim Mikhailovich Tamiroff was an Armenian-American actor. He won the first Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor, was nominated twice for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, appeared in at least 80 American motion pictures in a career spanning thirty-seven years. Tamiroff was born in Baku, Azerbaijan, to an Armenian family, he trained at the Moscow Art Theatre drama school for nine years. He arrived in the U. S. for the first time, in January 1923 on a three-month tour with a troupe of actors. He returned in November and stayed until 1924, his final trip with his theatre group was in October 1927. Tamiroff managed to develop a career in Hollywood despite his thick accent. Tamiroff's film debut came in 1932 in an uncredited role in Okay, America!. He performed in several more uncredited roles until 1935, when he co-starred in The Lives of a Bengal Lancer, he appeared in the lavish epic China Seas in 1935 with Clark Gable, Wallace Beery, Jean Harlow, Rosalind Russell and Robert Benchley.
The following year, he was cast in the titular role in The General Died at Dawn. He appeared in the 1937 musical High and Handsome with Irene Dunne and Randolph Scott, the 1938 proto-noir Dangerous to Know opposite Anna May Wong singled out as his best role. In the following decade, he appeared in such films as The Buccaneer with Fredric March, The Great McGinty, The Corsican Brothers, Tortilla Flat with Spencer Tracy, Hedy Lamarr and John Garfield, Five Graves to Cairo with Erich von Stroheim as Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, Frank Borzage's His Butler's Sister, For Whom the Bell Tolls with Gary Cooper and Ingrid Bergman, for which he received another Oscar nomination, Preston Sturges' The Miracle of Morgan's Creek. In years, Tamiroff appeared in Ocean's 11 with Frank Sinatra and Dean Martin's Rat Pack, Topkapi with Peter Ustinov and Simone Signoret and had a long collaboration with Orson Welles including Touch of Evil with Charlton Heston, Mr Arkadin, The Trial and Welles' unfinished version of Don Quixote, in which he played Sancho Panza.
While Tamiroff may not be a household name now, his malapropistic performance as the boss in The Great McGinty is thought to have been the inspiration for the cartoon character Boris Badenov, the male half of the villainous husband-and-wife team Boris and Natasha on The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show. He was spoofed in a 1969 episode of the TV show H. R. Pufnstuf entitled "The Stand-in" in which a frog named "Akim Toadanoff" directs a movie on Living Island. Tamiroff's accepted birth year was 1899, although in at least two instances this appeared to be different. In his second trip to America in November 1923 his age is given as 27 and in the 1930 census as 32, he married fellow actress Tamara Shayne, with whom he performed nightclub acts, in February 1933 in Los Angeles. Yet, according to the above-mentioned 1930 census, the couple was living in Chicago, Illinois as married under the name Tameriroff, it appears that this was his second marriage. Tamiroff died on September 1972, from cancer. In 1944 Tamiroff was the first Golden Globe Award winner for his work in For Whom the Bell Tolls.
He was twice nominated for both times for Actor in a Supporting Role. The first was for his work in The General Died at Dawn, the second was for his work in For Whom the Bell Tolls. Tamiroff was mentioned in J. D. Salinger's "Uncle Wiggily in Connecticut", he is mentioned in Walker Percy's 1961 novel The Moviegoer. Media related to Akim Tamiroff at Wikimedia Commons Akim Tamiroff on IMDb Akim Tamiroff at WFMU Akim Tamiroff at the TCM Movie Database Akim Tamiroff at the Internet Broadway Database Akim Tamiroff at Katz's Film Encyclopedia Akim Tamiroff at Great Character Actors Akim Tamiroff at Find a Grave
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
A virago is a woman who demonstrates exemplary and heroic qualities. The word comes from the Latin word virāgō ( meaning variously'a man-like, heroic maiden, a female warrior, heroine..' from vir meaning'man' to which the suffix -āgō is added, a suffix that creates a new noun of the third declension with feminine grammatical gender. The word virago has always had an association with cultural gender transgression. A virago, of whatever excellence, was still identified by her gender. There are recorded instances of viragos fighting battles, wearing men's clothing, or receiving the tonsure; the word virago could be used disparagingly, to imply that a virago was not excellent or heroic, but was instead violating cultural norms. Thus virago joined pejoratives such as termagant, mannish and shrew to demean women who acted aggressively or like men; the concept of a virago reaches back into antiquity where Hellenistic philosophy asserted that elite and exceptionally heroic men had virtus. Virtus defined the traits of excellence for a man in ancient Rome, including valor and heroism, but morality and physical strength.
Women and non-elite or unheroic men were considered a lesser category, believed to be less excellent in Roman morality. A woman, however, if exceptional enough could earn the title virago. In doing so, she surpassed the expectations for what was believed possible for her gender, embodied masculine-like aggression and/or excellence. Virago was a title of respect and admiration. In Christianity, a nun or holy woman who had become equal in divinity to male monks through practiced celibacy, exemplary religious practice and devotion, intact virginity, was considered to have surpassed the limitations of her femaleness and was called virago. Firmicus Maternus describes virago as women who take on a man's character and desire intercourse with women like men. Standard modern dictionaries define virago as either, in order of definition, a "loud overbearing woman"; the Vulgate Bible, translated by Jerome and others in the 4th century C. E. was an early Latin translation of the Hebrew Bible Old Testament.
In Genesis 2:23, Jerome uses the words Vir for man and Virago for "woman" attempting to reproduce a pun on "male" and "female" that existed in the Hebrew text. The Vulgate reads: Dixitque Adam hoc nunc os ex ossibus meis et caro de carne mea haec vocabitur virago quoniam de viro sumpta est. "And Adam said: This now is bone of my bones, flesh of my flesh. The Middle English poem Cursor Mundi retains the Latin name for the woman in its otherwise Middle English account of the creation: Quen sco was broght be-for adam, Virago he gaf her to nam. "When she was brought before Adam, Virago was the name. Amazons Sexual slur Caterina Sforza. 1, pp. 29–55 Morris, Richard. Cursor Mundi: A Northumbrian Poem of the XIV Century. London: Oxford UP, 1874. Republished 1961. Barbara Newman. From virile woman to womanChrist: studies in medieval religion and literature. University of Pennsylvania Press Jane Tibbetts Schulenburg. Forgetful of their sex: female sanctity and society, ca. 500-1100. University Of Chicago Press Yenna Wu, The Chinese virago: a literary theme, Mass.: Harvard Univ.
Press, 1995 Michael Bialys, The Chronicles of the Virago Published 2018 Original Publication Book 1 2006 by Publish America ISBN 978-0692060988