A senate is a deliberative assembly the upper house or chamber of a bicameral legislature. The name comes from the ancient Roman Senate, so-called as an assembly of the senior and therefore wiser and more experienced members of the society or ruling class. Thus, the literal meaning of the word "senate" is Assembly of Elders. Many countries have an assembly named a senate, composed of senators who may be elected, have inherited the title, or gained membership by other methods, depending on the country. Modern senates serve to provide a chamber of "sober second thought" to consider legislation passed by a lower house, whose members are elected. Most senates have asymmetrical duties and powers compared with their respective lower house meaning they have special duties, for example to fill important political positions or to pass special laws. Conversely many senates have limited powers in changing or stopping bills under consideration and efforts to stall or veto a bill may be bypassed by the lower house or another branch of government.
The modern word Senate is derived from the word senātus, which comes from senex, “old man”. The members or legislators of a senate are called senators; the Latin word senator was adopted into English with no change in spelling. Its meaning is derived from a ancient form of social organization, in which advisory or decision-making powers are reserved for the eldest men. For the same reason, the word senate is used when referring to any powerful authority characteristically composed by the eldest members of a community, as a deliberative body of a faculty in an institution of higher learning is called a senate; this form adaptation was used to show the power of those in body and for the decision-making process to be thorough, which could take a long period of time. The original senate was the Roman Senate, which lasted until at least AD 603, although various efforts to revive it were made in Medieval Rome. In the Eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine Senate continued until the Fourth Crusade, circa 1202–1204.
Modern democratic states with bicameral parliamentary systems are sometimes equipped with a senate distinguished from an ordinary parallel lower house, known variously as the “House of Representatives”, “House of Commons”, “Chamber of Deputies”, “National Assembly”, “Legislative Assembly”, or "House of Assembly", by electoral rules. This may include minimum age required for voters and candidates, proportional or majoritarian or plurality system, an electoral basis or collegium; the senate is referred to as the upper house and has a smaller membership than the lower house. In some federal states senates exist at the subnational level. In the United States all states with the exception of Nebraska have a state senate. There is the US Senate at the federal level. In Argentina, in addition to the Senate at federal level, eight of the country's provinces, Buenos Aires, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Salta, San Luis and Santa Fe, have bicameral legislatures with a Senate. Córdoba and Tucumán changed to unicameral systems in 2003 respectively.
In Australia and Canada, only the upper house of the federal parliament is known as the Senate. All Australian states other than Queensland have an upper house known as a Legislative council. Several Canadian provinces once had a Legislative Council, but these have all been abolished, the last being Quebec's Legislative council in 1968. In Germany, the last Senate of a State parliament, the Senate of Bavaria, was abolished in 1999. Senate membership can be determined either through appointments. For example, elections are held every three years for half the membership of the Senate of the Philippines, the term of a senator being six years. In contrast, members of the Canadian Senate are appointed by the Governor General upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister of Canada, holding the office until they resign, are removed, or retire at the mandatory age of 75; the terms senate and senator, however, do not refer to a second chamber of a legislature: The Senate of Finland was, until 1918, the executive branch and the supreme court.
The Senate of Latvia fulfilled a similar judicial function during the interbellum. In German politics:In the Bundesländer of Germany which form a City State, i.e. Berlin and Hamburg, the senates are the executive branch, with senators being the holders of ministerial portfolios. In a number of cities which were former members of the Hanse, such as Greifswald, Lübeck, Stralsund, or Wismar, the city government is called a Senate. However, in Bavaria, the Senate was a second legislative chamber until its abolition in 1999. In German jurisdiction:The term Senat in higher courts of appeal refers to the "bench" in its broader metonymy meaning, describing members of the judiciary collectively occupied with a particular subject-matter jurisdiction. However, the judges are not called "senators"; the German term Strafsenat in a German court translates to Bench of penal-law jurisdiction and Zivilsenat to Bench of private-law jurisdiction. The Federal Constitutional Court of Germany consists of two senates of eight judges each.
In its case the division is of an organization
Oeiras is a municipality in the western part of Lisbon Metropolitan Area, a subregion of Greater Lisbon, in continental Portugal. It is part of the urban agglomeration of Lisbon; the population in 2011 was 172,120 living in an area of 45.88 km2, making the municipality the fifth-most densely populated in Portugal. Oeiras is an important economic hub, being one of the most developed municipalities of Portugal and Europe, it has the highest GDP per capita in the country, being the second highest municipality in terms of purchasing power as well as the second one collecting taxes in the country. These economic indicators reflect the inhabitants' studies, as Oeiras is the municipality with the highest concentration of population with higher education in the country, it has the lowest unemployment rate in the Lisbon area. The mild climate, access to water, quality of its soils and geographically advantageous location at the mouth of the Tagus River attracted early settlement to this region; the rugged hilltops of the interior conditioned cultivation and allowed the settlement of several small agricultural castros within the region's limits, such as Castro of Leceia.
This archaeological site is a witness to the early settlements and defensive structures that developed during the Chalcolithic period, although Paleolithic camps such as Gruta da Ponte da Laje are indicative of earlier settlements. Remnants of the Roman occupation of the Iberian peninsula are evident in many places throughout the municipality, including mosaics along the Rua das Alcássimas, a Roman bridge; the Arab conquest left behind several toponymic markers, including Arab/Moorish place names such as Alcássimas, Algés, Alpendroado and Quinta da Moura. The settlement of Oeiras dates back to 1208, when the area was colonized by Christian tribes from the northern Portugal, moving south into warmer agricultural lands. At the beginning of the Age of Discoveries, Oeiras became the industrial and commercial warehouse of Lisbon; the development of the Gunpowder Factory in Barcarena was therefore important in the expansion of the Portuguese dominions of the Orient, in addition to the aggregate extraction and calcium oxide furnaces in Paço de Arcos.
These industries were supported and guarded by the construction of several fortifications along a maritime defensive line that ringed the southern coast to Lisbon and that controlled navigation in the Tagus estuary from the 16th to 18th centuries. This perimeter included the Fort of São Lourenço da Cabeça Seca, rising from a tiny islet in the middle of the Tagus River, as well as the Fort of São Julião da Barra, both examples of Renaissance military architecture; the municipality was founded in 1759 by the Marquis of Pombal as a reward by King Joseph I to his minister for his efforts in rebuilding Lisbon's historical downtown after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. A royal charter, dated 7 June 1759, gave jurisdiction over the lands within Oeiras to the King's loyal minister, who became the first Count of Oeiras. A month the small village was elevated to the status of town, gained municipal status on 13 June 1759. Although Oeiras had a history of earlier settlement, it was during the reign of Joseph I that economic and social development, conditioned by the influence of the King's Minister, who promoted innovation and supported local economic activities, began to flourish.
In 1770, the first agricultural and industrial fair was established in Oeiras, representing a unique national event that contributed to the creation of fishing shelters and a new customhouse and factory, among other projects. One of the principal developments was the construction of the estate of the Marquess of Pombal, which today exists in its original form, with garden and agricultural dependencies, such as the wine cellar and other buildings, today housing the national institutions responsible for bio-science. In 1894, the municipality was abolished, but it was reestablished four years on 13 January 1898, it was reconstituted without Carcavelos, annexed to Cascais, while gaining the civil parish of Benfica. In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, several estates and palaces began to be constructed in order to explore agricultural production, principally cereals and vineyards, which supported the growing markets of Lisbon. However, this activity began to decline by the 19th century and was replaced by new industry, supported by the Lisbon-Cascais railway link, first inaugurated in 1889.
Large factories began to locate in the municipality, among them the Fábrica do Papel, the Fundição de Oeiras, a Lusalite and Fermentos Holandeses. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the growth of leisure activities along the coast transformed Oeiras, which became a privileged location for the Portuguese elite. By the beginning of the 20th century, many of the beaches in Oeiras were occupied by the higher social classes, who travelled to the municipality for medical reasons; the construction of National Roadway 6 would link Lisboa to Cascais, permitting new travellers to experience the area, resulting in an influx of new residents that expanded the urban centres, giving rise to beach "chalets" and summer cottages. The concentration of economic activities in Lisbon and surrounding urban municipalities meant that Oeiras had direct access to the capital. After 1940-50, the municipality began to function as a suburb and bedroom community, attracting more residential growth along the coast.
This culminated in the 1970s with the
Joseph I of Portugal
Joseph I, "The Reformer", was the King of Portugal from 31 July 1750 until his death. Among other activities, Joseph was devoted to the opera. Indeed, he assembled one of the greatest collections of operatic scores in Europe. Joseph was the third child of his wife Maria Anna of Austria. Joseph had an older sister Barbara and three younger brothers. At the death of his elder brother, who died at the age of two in 1714, Joseph became Prince of Brazil as the heir apparent of the king, Duke of Braganza. On 19 January 1729, Joseph married the Spanish Infanta Mariana Victoria of Spain, daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese, his elder sister Barbara of Portugal married the future Ferdinand VI of Spain. Mariana Victoria loved music and hunting, just like her husband, but she was a serious woman who disapproved of the king's love affairs and did not hesitate to expose them to acquaintances. Joseph succeeded to the Portuguese throne in 1750, when he was 36 years old, immediately placed effective power in the hands of Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, better known today as the Marquess of Pombal.
Indeed, the history of Joseph's reign is that of Pombal himself. King Joseph declared his eldest daughter Maria Francisca as the official heiress of the throne and proclaimed her Princess of Brazil. By this time, the king did not believe he would father a son by his queen. One of the most difficult situations faced by the king was the Franco-Spanish invasion of Portugal, in the end of the Seven Years' War. France and Spain sent an ultimatum in order to force Portugal to abandon its alliance with Great Britain and close her ports to British ships. D. José I refused to submit and asked for British help since both the country and the army were in a poor condition because of the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake. England sent a force of 7,104 men led by Loudon and Burgoyne, an exceptional military leader, the count of Lippe, which reformed the Portuguese army and led the allied army of 14-15, 000 men in a victorious war; the Bourbon invaders first led by Sarria and by Aranda were thrice defeated by a combination of popular uprising, scorched earth strategy/famine and encircling movements by the regular Anglo-Portuguese troops, which like the militia, skilfully used the mountainous terrain at their advantage.
The Spanish and French troops suffered staggering losses when they were driven out from Portugal and chased into Spain. As synthesized by historian Walter Dorn: … Effort of the Bourbon powers to set up the beginnings of a'continental system' by sending a summons to Portugal to close her ports to British ships and exclude Englishmen from Brazil trade, but the Portuguese minister, the Marquis of Pombal and with the assistance of Count Lippe and the English General Burgoyne broke the offensive of the Spanish invading army. D'Aranda, the Spanish General, was forced to retreat in disgrace. With the utter failure of the Spanish war machine everywhere, all the hopes which Choiseul had placed on the Spanish alliance vanished.'Had I known', he wrote,'what I now know, I should have been careful to cause to enter the war a power which by its feebleness can only ruin and destroy France'. In South America, the war ended in a draw; the Treaty of Paris restored the status quo ante bellum. The rich and huge territory of Rio Grande do Sul would be retaken from the Spanish army during the undeclared war of 1763-1777.
The powerful Marquess of Pombal sought to overhaul all aspects of economic and colonial policy to make Portugal a more efficient contender with the other great powers of Europe, thus enhance his own political stature. A conspiracy of nobles aimed at murdering King Joseph and Pombal gave him the opportunity to neutralize the Távora family in the Távora affair, to expel the Jesuits in September 1759, thus gaining control of public education and a wealth of church lands and ushering Portugal into the Age of the Enlightenment; the reign of Joseph is noteworthy for the Lisbon earthquake and tsunami of 1 November 1755, in which between 30,000 and 40,000 people died. The earthquake caused Joseph to develop a severe case of claustrophobia, he was never again comfortable living within a walled building, he moved the royal court to an extensive complex of tents in the hills of Ajuda. The capital was rebuilt at great cost, an equestrian statue of King Joseph still dominates the Praça do Comércio, Lisbon's main plaza.
With Joseph's death on 24 February 1777, the throne passed to his daughter Maria I and brother/son-in-law Peter III. Pombal's iron rule was brought to an end, because Maria disliked him since she had been influenced by the Portuguese old nobility that opposed Pombal. Joseph I fathered eight children by the Queen, but only four daughters survived: Maria Francisca Isabel Rita Gertrudes Joanna, married her uncle Infante Peter of Portugal, with issue. Queen regnant of Portugal. Maria Ana Francisca Dorotea Josefa Antonia Gertrudes Rita Joanna Efigenia, potential bride for Louis, Dauphin of France, but her mother refused to consent to the marriage, died unmarried. Stillborn son. Maria Francisca Doroteia Josefa Antónia Gertrudes Rita Joanna Efigénia de Braganca (21 September 1
Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal
Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal, 1st Count of Oeiras, popularly known as Marquis of Pombal, was an 18th-century Portuguese statesman. He was Secretary of the State of Internal Affairs of the Kingdom in the government of Joseph I of Portugal from 1750 to 1777. Undoubtedly the most prominent minister in the government, he is considered to have been its de facto head. Pombal is notable for his swift and competent leadership in the aftermath of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, he implemented sweeping economic policies in Portugal to regulate commercial activity and standardise quality throughout the country, was instrumental in weakening the grip of the Inquisition. The term Pombaline is used to describe not only his tenure, but the architectural style adopted in Lisbon after the great earthquake. Pombal, considered an estrangeirado, introduced many fundamental administrative, educational and ecclesiastical reforms justified in the name of "reason" and instrumental in advancing secularisation in Portugal.
However, historians argue that Pombal's implementation of the ideas of the "Enlightenment", while far-reaching, was a mechanism for enhancing autocracy at the expense of individual liberty and an apparatus for crushing opposition, suppressing criticism, furthering colonial economic exploitation as well as intensifying print censorship and consolidating personal control and profit. He was the leading opponent of the Jesuits across Europe. Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo was born in Lisbon, the son of Manuel de Carvalho e Ataíde, a country squire with properties in the Leiria region, of his wife Teresa Luísa de Mendonça e Melo. During his youth he studied at the University of Coimbra and served in the army, he moved to Lisbon and eloped with Teresa de Mendonça e Almada, the niece of the Count of Arcos. The marriage was a turbulent one, her parents made life unbearable for the young couple. In 1738, Pombal received his first public appointment as the Portuguese ambassador to Great Britain, where, in 1740, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
In 1745, he served as the Portuguese ambassador to Austria. The Queen consort of Portugal, Archduchess Mary Anne Josepha of Austria, was fond of him; the King, John V, was not pleased and recalled him in 1749. John V died his son Joseph I of Portugal was crowned king. Joseph I was fond of Pombal; as the King's confidence in him increased, the King entrusted him with more control of the state. By 1755, the King appointed him Prime Minister. Impressed by English economic success which he had witnessed as ambassador, Pombal implemented similar economic policies in Portugal, he abolished slavery in Portugal and the Portuguese colonies in India, reorganised the army and the navy, abolished the Autos-de-fé and ended the Limpeza de Sangue civil statutes and their discrimination against New Christians, the Jews that had converted to Christianity, their descendants regardless of genealogical distance, to escape the Portuguese Inquisition. The Pombaline Reforms were a series of reforms intended to make Portugal an economically self-sufficient and commercially strong nation, by means of expanding Brazilian territory, streamlining the administration of colonial Brazil, fiscal and economic reforms both in the colony and in Portugal.
During the Age of Enlightenment Portugal was considered unprogressive. It was a country of three million people in 1750; the economy of Portugal before the reforms was a stable one, though it had become dependent on colonial Brazil for much of its economic support, England for much of its manufacturing support, based on the Methuen Treaty of 1703. Exports from Portugal went through expatriate merchants like the English port wine shippers and French businessmen like Jácome Ratton, whose memoirs are scathing about the efficiency of his Portuguese counterparts; the need to grow a manufacturing sector in Portugal was made more imperative by the excessive spending of the Portuguese crown, the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the expenditures on wars with Spain for South American territories, the exhaustion of gold mines and diamond mines in Brazil. His greatest reforms were, however and financial, with the creation of several companies and guilds to regulate every commercial activity, he created the Douro Wine Company which demarcated the Douro wine region for production of Port, to ensure the wine's quality.
He ruled with a heavy hand, imposing strict laws upon all classes of Portuguese society, from the high nobility to the poorest working class, via his widespread review of the country's tax system. These reforms gained him enemies in the upper classes among the high nobility, who despised him as a social upstart. Further important reforms were carried out in education by Pombal: he expelled the Jesuits in 1759, created the basis for secular public primary and secondary schools, introduced vocational training, created hundreds of new teaching posts, added departments of mathematics and natural sciences to the University of Coimbra, introduced new taxes
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group, the chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. In some organizations, the chairman position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president, the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator and convenor; the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is called the speaker. The term chair is sometimes used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist, it is used today, has been used as a substitute for chairman since the middle of the 17th century, with its earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary dated 1658–1659, only four years after the first citation for chairman.
Major dictionaries state that the word derives from a person. A 1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as "chairman", to most presiding women as "chairperson" or as "chairwoman"; the Chronicle of Higher Education uses "chairman" for men and "chairperson" for women. An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times and chairwoman 68 times; the National Association of Parliamentarians adopted a resolution in 1975 discouraging the use of “chairperson” and rescinded it in 2017. The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and United Press International all use "chairwoman" or "chairman" when referring to women, forbid use of "chair" or of "chairperson" except in direct quotations. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called "Mr. Chairman" and female chairs are called "Madame Chair"; the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using "chair" or "chairperson", rather than "chairman".
The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the gender-neutral forms are gaining ground. It advocates using "chair" to refer both to women; the Telegraph style guide bans the use of both "Chair" and "Chairperson" on the basis that "Chairman" is correct English. The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be "in the chair" and is referred to as "the chair". Parliamentary procedure requires that members address the "chair" as "Mr. Chairman" rather than using a name – one of many customs intended to maintain the presiding officer's impartiality and to ensure an objective and impersonal approach. In the United States, the presiding officer of the lower house of a legislative body, such as the House of Representatives, is titled the Speaker, while the upper house, such as the Senate, is chaired by a President. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U.
S. President George H. W. Bush used "chairman" for men and "chair" for women. In the British music hall tradition, the Chairman was the master of ceremonies who announced the performances and was responsible for controlling any rowdy elements in the audience; the role was popularised on British TV in the 1960s and 1970s by Leonard Sachs, the Chairman on the variety show The Good Old Days."Chairman" as a quasi-title gained particular resonance when socialist states from 1917 onward shunned more traditional leadership labels and stressed the collective control of soviets by beginning to refer to executive figureheads as "Chairman of the X Committee". Vladimir Lenin, for example functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president but in roles such as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR". Note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong: "Chairman Mao". In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the chairman has the duties of presiding over meetings.
Such duties at meetings include: Calling the meeting to order Determining if a quorum is present Announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up Recognition of members to have the floor Enforcing the rules of the group Putting questions to a vote Adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the chairman should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group. In committees or small boards, the chairman votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the chairman should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the chairman only has one vote; the powers of the chairman vary across organizations. In some organizations the chairman has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the chairman only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the chairman has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the chairman depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself.
If the chairman exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform t
History of Portugal
The history of Portugal can be traced from circa 400,000 years ago, when the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Homo heidelbergensis. The oldest human fossil is the skull discovered in the Cave of Aroeira in Almonda. Neanderthals roamed the northern Iberian peninsula. Homo sapiens arrived in Portugal around 35,000 years ago. Pre-Celtic tribes such as the Cynetes lived in the Algarve and Lower Alentejo regions before the 6th century BC, developed the city of Tartessos and the written Tartessian language, left many stelae in the south of the country. Early in the first millennium BC, waves of Celts from Central Europe invaded and intermarried with the local populations to form several ethnic groups and many tribes, their presence is traceable, through archaeological and linguistic evidence. Although they dominated much of the northern and central area, they were unable to establish in the south, which retained its non-Indo-European character until the Roman conquest; some small, semi-permanent coastal settlements were founded by Phoenician-Carthaginians on the southern coast.
The Roman invasion in the 3rd century BC lasted several centuries, developed the Roman provinces of Lusitania in the south and Gallaecia in the north. Numerous Roman sites include works of engineering, temples, roads, theatres, layman's homes, coins and ceramics; as elsewhere in Western Europe, there was a sharp decline in urban life during the Dark Ages following the fall of Rome. Germanic tribes controlled the territory between the 7th centuries; these included the Kingdom of the Suebi centred at the Visigothic Kingdom in the south. Under the Visigoths a new class emerged, a nobility, which played a tremendous social and political role during the Middle Ages; the Church began to play a important part within the state, but since the Visigoths did not know Latin the Catholic bishops continued the Roman system of governance. The clergy started to emerge as a high-ranking class. In 711 an invasion by the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate, comprising Berbers from North Africa and Arabs from the Middle East plus other Muslims from all around the Islamic world, conquered the Visigoth Kingdom and founded the Islamic state of Al Andalus.
The Umayyads reigned supreme and advanced through Iberia and France until the Battle of Tours but endured across Iberia until the fall of the Kingdom of Granada in 1492. But Lisbon, Gharb Al-Andalus, the rest of what would become Portugal, was reconquered by the early 12th century. At the end of the 9th century, a small minor county based in the area of Portus Cale was established under King Alfonso III of Asturias, by the 10th century the Counts were known as the Magnus Dux Portucalensium; the Kingdom of Asturias was divided so that northern "Portugal" became part of the Kingdom of León. As a vassal of the Kingdom of León, Portugal grew in power and territory and gained de facto independence during weak Leonese reigns. In 1071 Garcia II of Galicia was declared King of Portugal and in 1095, Portugal broke away from the Kingdom of Galicia. At the end of the 11th century, the Burgundian knight Henry became count of Portugal and defended its independence by merging the County of Portugal and the County of Coimbra.
Henry's son Afonso Henriques proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal on 24 June 1128 and King of Portugal in 1139. In 1179 a papal bull recognised Afonso I as king; the Algarve was conquered from the Moors in 1249, in 1255 Lisbon became the capital. Portugal's land boundaries have remained unchanged since the 13th century; the Treaty of Windsor created an alliance between Portugal and England that remains in effect to this day. From the late Middle Ages, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal ascended to the status of a world power during Europe's "Age of Discovery" as it built up a vast empire, including possessions in South America, Africa and Oceania. Over the following two centuries, Portugal kept most of its colonies, but lost much of its wealth and status as the Dutch and French took an increasing share of the spice and slave trades by surrounding or conquering the scattered Portuguese trading posts and territories. Signs of military decline began with two disastrous battles: the Battle of Alcácer Quibir in Morocco in 1578 and Spain's abortive attempt to conquer England in 1588 by means of the Spanish Armada – Portugal was in a dynastic union with Spain and contributed ships to the Spanish invasion fleet.
The country was further weakened by the destruction of much of its capital city in an earthquake in 1755, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars and the loss of its largest colony, Brazil, in 1822. From the middle of the 19th century to the late 1950s, nearly two million Portuguese left Portugal to live in Brazil and the United States. In 1910, there was a revolution. Amid corruption, repression of the church, the near bankruptcy of the state, a military coup in 1926 installed a dictatorship that remained until another coup in 1974; the new government instituted sweeping democratic reforms and granted independence to all of Portugal's African colonies in 1975. Portugal is a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the European Free Trade Association, it entered the European Economic Community in 1986. The word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Cale or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic deity and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River (present-day