Great Darling Anabranch
The anabranch flows approximately 460 to 488 kilometres from its offtake on the Darling River south of Menindee, southward to the Murray River, west of Wentworth. There are approximately twenty ephemeral deflation basin lakes, called the Anabranch Lakes, the Anabranch Lakes and associated marginal vegetation are listed in the Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia and collectively cover an area of 269,000 hectares. The Darling Anabranch was managed by Indigenous Australians prior to European settlement and is rich in archaeological cultural material, the Darling Anabranch is a naturally ephemeral system. After the completion of the Menindee Lakes scheme in the 1960s the system was managed as a permanent water supply for stock, a series of 17 weir pools were replenished with an annual replenishment flow, most of which evaporated. Over the 40 years of this flow management there was a decline in the health of the system, including water quality, decreased numbers of native fish. In 2007 a pipeline was constructed along the length of the Darling Anabranch to supply water to adjacent landholders, the Darling Anabranch was returned to an ephemeral system, with the removal of most structures within the channel, and the first dry phase for over four decades.
Initial results from a monitoring program have showed a marked ecological response to the restoration of the Darling Anabranch. Menindee Lakes Rivers of New South Wales Darling Anabranch Adaptive Management Monitoring Program 2014–2017, barwon and Far Western catchments. Department of Primary Industries, Office of Water
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country, with a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australias states and territories. Other population centres in the state are relatively small, the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in Adelaide, most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along the south-eastern coast and River Murray. The states colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province. Official settlement began on 28 December 1836, when the colony was proclaimed at the Old Gum Tree by Governor John Hindmarsh, as with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages. The first British settlement to be established was Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, the guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield that was employed by the New Zealand Company.
The goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties, although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for its wine and numerous cultural festivals. The states economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries, the state has an increasingly significant finance sector as well. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity, in addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited long before the island was cut off by rising sea levels, thijssen named his discovery Pieter Nuyts Land, after the highest ranking individual on board. The complete coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders, the land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales.
Although the new colony included almost two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and it took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. In 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, the act stated that 802,511 square kilometres would be allotted to the colony and it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province, although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island. The first immigrants arrived at Holdfast Bay in November 1836, the Colonisation Commissioners intended to establish a police service as soon as misconduct within the increasing population warranted it
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
A drover in Australia is a person, typically an experienced stockman, who moves livestock, usually sheep and horses on the hoof over long distances. Reasons for droving may include, delivering animals to a new property, taking animals to market. Moving a small mob of cattle is relatively easy. Movement of large mobs of stock was carried out by contract drovers. A drover had to be independent and tough, an excellent horseman, the boss drover who had a plant contracted to move the mob at a predetermined rate according to the conditions, from a starting point to the destination. The priorities for a boss drover were the livestock, the horses, Drovers were sometimes on the road for as long as two years. The drovers who covered very long distances to open up new country were known as overlanders, traditional droving could not have been done without horses. The horse plant was made up of work-horses, night-horses and packhorses, the horse tailer was the team member responsible for getting horses to water and feed, and bringing them to the camp in the morning. A good night-horse was highly prized for its vision, temperament.
The standard team of men employed to move 1,200 cattle consisted of seven men, the drover, four stockmen, a cook. Store cattle were moved in larger mobs, of up to 1,500 head, while fat bullocks going to meatworks were taken in mobs of about 650 head, i. e. three train loads. The stockmen will ride in formation at the front and back of the mob, cattle are expected to cover about ten miles a day, sheep about six miles, and are permitted to spread up to 800 metres on either side of the road. Occasionally mobs of horses were moved by drovers, a short camp is made for a lunch break, after which the cook and horse-tailer will move ahead to set up the night camp. A continual watch is kept over cattle during the camp, usually with one horseman riding around the mob. A rush can be started by a noise such as a dingo howl. Drovers tell vivid stories of the chaotic conditions that occur when several hundred cattle start a rush at night. If they head towards the camp, the best option may be to climb a sturdy tree.
Many drovers have been trampled to death in a rush, sometimes still in their swags, a good night-horse can be given its head, and will gradually wheel the leading cattle around until the mob is moving in a circle, and calm can be restored
The Kaurna people are a group of Indigenous Australians whose traditional lands include the area around the Adelaide Plains of South Australia. Pronunciation of the word Kaurna varies slightly by the background and origin of the speaker, Kaurna culture and language were almost completely destroyed within a few decades of the European settlement of South Australia in 1836. However, extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both language and culture, the name Kaurna was not widely used for the language group until popularised by Norman B. It most likely derives from the Ramindjeri or Ngarrindjeri word kornar meaning men or people, uncle Lewis OBrien, a Kaurna Elder during the 1990s, suggested that a more appropriate name for his people might be Meyunna, from the local word for people, meyu. However, Kaurna has been almost universally adopted by Kaurna and non-indigenous people alike to refer to the tribe of the Adelaide plains. Kaurna territory extended from Cape Jervis at the bottom of the Fleurieu Peninsula to Port Wakefield on the shore of Gulf St Vincent.
Tindale claimed clans were found living in the vicinity of Snowtown, Hoyleton, Hamley Bridge, Gawler, the stringy bark forests over the back of the Mount Lofty Ranges have been claimed as a traditional boundary between Kaurna and Peramangk people. Tunkalilla Beach,20 kilometres east of Cape Jervis, is the boundary with the Ramindjeri. This is the most widely cited alignment of Kaurna territorial boundaries and this overlaps a significant portion of the territory claimed by both the Kaurna and the neighboring Ngarrindjeri to the east. However, linguistic evidence suggests that the aborigines encountered by Colonel Light at Rapid Bay in 1836 were Kaurna speakers. Ronald and Catherine Berndts ethnographic study, which was conducted in the 1930s, berndt posits that the clans may have expanded along trade routes as the Kaurna were dispossessed by colonists. A main Kaurna presence was in Tarndanyangga near the River Torrens and the creeks that flowed into it, often as many as 500 to 600 would be camped in various places.
Some behind the Botanic Gardens on the banks of the river, some toward the Ranges, the Kaurna people were a hunter-gatherer society. Among their customs was the practice of farming in the Adelaide Hills. These fires were part of a scrub clearing process to encourage grass growth for Emu and this tradition led to conflict with the colonists as the fires tended to cause considerable damage to farmland. Due to this regular burning by the time the first Europeans arrived, items of Kaurna material culture, such as traditional objects, spears and nets etc. are extremely rare. Many hundreds of objects were sent to the Paris exhibition and these were never returned to Australia, the Kaurna collection held by the South Australian Museum contains only 48 items. As the first colonists had arrived in summer when the Kaurna traditionally moved from the plains to the foothills, an outbreak of typhoid, due to pollution by Europeans of the River Torrens, lead to many deaths and a rapid population decline, though accurate figures were not recorded
Nanya was an Australian aboriginal man who founded a family that would be one of the last to live by traditional indigenous means in New South Wales. Nanya was born around 1835 and was of the Maraura tribe of the lower Darling area in the south-western corner New South Wales. The Maraura and neighbouring tribes were forced onto stations or camps. Nanya acquired a reputation for his strong-will and non-conformist attitude, acquiring the nickname Dthareena, indicating a fiery, facing social ostracism or worse and his lover, joined by another women, decided to leave Popiltah. With some limited supplies they travelled west into the vast unsettled, the family made little contact during this time with others, though their continued existence was evidenced by tracks and cut plants. Aboriginal stockmen reported occasional sightings and were said to be aware of their movements, the Nanya family lived by traditional methods off the land - kangaroos and lizards were hunted with spears and eggs from termites were collected.
Water was extremely scarce, however it could be obtained from the roots of plants such as the red mallee. Settlers and land-holders in the region remained indifferent or largely unaware of the family for several decades, however the steady enlargement of the family, and the continuing spread of livestock stations in the region, led to increased sightings of the wild tribe throughout the 1890s. By the 1870s, practically all land in Australia had been colonized by whites. The frontier wars had ended in New South Wales, and of the indigenous people of the state who had not died. Local whites and authorities thus increasingly became concerned at the existence of this large family, now numbering thirty. Ultimately a party led by station owners set out in 1893 to capture the Nanya family and have them returned to the settled areas. In any case, the family were tracked down that year and were coerced by the party to return to the Popiltah station. The Nanya family attracted the attention of the press, as to the great surprise of whites the family was well nourished.
Others, such as son Billy, could not psychologically adjust to the new lifestyle, Nanya himself died in 1895 and was buried out near the Great Darling Anabranch where he had spent most of his life
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
The Murray River is Australias longest river, at 2,508 kilometres in length. It turns south at Morgan for its final 315 kilometres, reaching the ocean at Lake Alexandrina, despite discharging considerable volumes of water at times, particularly before the advent of largescale river regulation, the mouth has always been comparatively small and shallow. As of 2010, the Murray River system receives 58 percent of its natural flow and it is perhaps Australias most important irrigated region, and it is widely known as the food bowl of the nation. The Murray River forms part of the 3,750 km long combined Murray–Darling river system drains most of inland Victoria, New South Wales. Overall the catchment area is one seventh of Australias total land mass, the Murray carries only a small fraction of the water of comparably-sized rivers in other parts of the world, and with a great annual variability of its flow. The Murray River makes up most of the border between the Australian states of Victoria and New South Wales, where it does, the border is the top of the bank of the southern side of the river.
This boundary definition can be ambiguous, since the river changes its course over time and this was due to a miscalculation during the 1840s, when the border was originally surveyed. Past this point, the Murray River is entirely within the state of South Australia, the Murray River supports fringing corridors and forests of the river red gum. Recent extreme droughts have put significant stress on river red gum forests, the Murray has flooded on occasion, the most significant of which was the flood of 1956, which inundated many towns on the lower Murray and which lasted for up to six months. In some segments of the Murray River, carp have become the species found. Between 2.5 and 0.5 million years ago the Murray River terminated in a vast freshwater lake called Lake Bungunnia, Lake Bungunnia was formed by earth movements that blocked the Murray River near Swan Reach during this period of time. At its maximum extent Lake Bungunnia covered 33,000 km2, extending to near the Menindee Lakes in the north, the draining of Lake Bungunnia occurred approximately 600,000 years ago.
Deep clays deposited by the lake are evident in cliffs around Chowilla in South Australia, a species of Neoceratodus lungfish existed in Lake Bungunnia, today Neoceratodus lungfish are only found in several Queensland rivers. The noted Barmah Red Gum Forests owe their existence to the Cadell Fault, about 25,000 years ago, displacement occurred along the Cadell fault, raising the eastern edge of the fault, which runs north-south,8 to 12 m above the floodplain. This created a series of events. A section of the original Murray River channel immediately behind the fault was abandoned, the Goulburn River was dammed by the southern end of the fault to create a natural lake. The Murray River flowed to the north around the Cadell Fault, creating the channel of the Edward River which exists today and these conditions are perfect for River Red Gums, which rapidly formed forests in the area. Thus the displacement of the Cadell Fault 25,000 BP led directly to the formation of the famous Barmah River Red Gum Forests, the Barmah Choke and The Narrows mean the amount of water that can travel down this part of the Murray River is restricted