Anthony of Padua
Saint Anthony of Padua, born Fernando Martins de Bulhões - known as Saint Anthony of Lisbon - was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order. He was born and raised by a wealthy family in Lisbon and died in Padua, Italy. Noted by his contemporaries for his powerful preaching, expert knowledge of scripture, undying love and devotion to the poor and the sick, he was one of the most canonized saints in church history, he was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church on 16 January 1946. He is the patron saint of lost things. Fernando Martins de Bulhões was born in Portugal. While 15th-century writers state that his parents were Vicente Martins and Teresa Pais Taveira, that his father was the brother of Pedro Martins de Bulhões, the ancestor of the Bulhão or Bulhões family, Niccolò Dal-Gal views this as less certain, his wealthy and noble family arranged. At the age of 15, he entered the community of Canons Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross at the Augustinian Abbey of Saint Vincent on the outskirts of Lisbon.
In 1212, distracted by frequent visits from family and friends, he asked to be transferred to the motherhouse of the congregation, the Monastery of the Holy Cross in Coimbra the capital of Portugal. There, the young Fernando studied Latin. After his ordination to the priesthood, Fernando was named guestmaster and placed in charge of hospitality for the abbey. While he was in Coimbra, some Franciscan friars arrived and settled at a small hermitage outside Coimbra dedicated to Saint Anthony of Egypt. Fernando was attracted to the simple, evangelical lifestyle of the friars, whose order had been founded only 11 years prior. News arrived that five Franciscans had been beheaded in Morocco, the first of their order to be killed. King Afonso ransomed their bodies to be buried as martyrs in the Abbey of Santa Cruz. Inspired by their example, Fernando obtained permission from church authorities to leave the Canons Regular to join the new Franciscan order. Upon his admission to the life of the friars, he joined the small hermitage in Olivais, adopting the name Anthony, by which he was to be known.
Anthony set out for Morocco, in fulfillment of his new vocation. However, he fell ill in Morocco and set sail back for Portugal in hope of regaining his health. On the return voyage, the ship was landed in Sicily. From Sicily, he made his way to Tuscany, where he was assigned to a convent of the order, but he met with difficulty on account of his sickly appearance, he was assigned to the rural hermitage of San Paolo near Forlì, Romagna, a choice made after considering his poor health. There, he had recourse to a cell one of the friars had made in a nearby cave, spending time in private prayer and study. One day in 1222, in the town of Forlì, on the occasion of an ordination, a number of visiting Dominican friars were present, some misunderstanding arose over who should preach; the Franciscans expected that one of the Dominicans would occupy the pulpit, for they were renowned for their preaching. In this quandary, the head of the hermitage, who had no one among his own humble friars suitable for the occasion, called upon Anthony, whom he suspected was most qualified, entreated him to speak whatever the Holy Spirit should put into his mouth.
Anthony objected, but was overruled, his sermon created a deep impression. Not only his rich voice and arresting manner, but the entire theme and substance of his discourse and his moving eloquence, held the attention of his hearers. Everyone was impressed with his knowledge of scripture, acquired during his years as an Augustinian friar. At that point, Anthony was sent by Brother Gratian, the local minister provincial, to the Franciscan province of Romagna, based in Bologna, he soon came to the attention of the founder of Francis of Assisi. Francis had held a strong distrust of the place of theological studies in the life of his brotherhood, fearing that it might lead to an abandonment of their commitment to a life of real poverty. In Anthony, however, he found a kindred spirit for his vision, able to provide the teaching needed by young members of the order who might seek ordination. In 1224, he entrusted the pursuit of studies for any of his friars to the care of Anthony; the reason St. Anthony's help is invoked for finding things lost or stolen is traced to an incident that occurred in Bologna.
According to the story, Anthony had a book of psalms, of some importance to him, as it contained the notes and comments he had made to use in teaching his students. A novice who had decided to leave took the psalter with him. Prior to the invention of the printing press, any book was an item of value. Upon noticing it was missing, Anthony prayed it would be returned; the thief was moved to return to the order. The stolen book is said to be preserved in the Franciscan friary in Bologna, he took another post, as a teacher, for instance, at the universities of Montpellier and Toulouse in southern France, but as a preacher Anthony revealed his supreme gift. According to historian Sophronius Clasen, Anthony preached the grandeur of Christianity, his method included symbolical explanation of Scripture. In 1226, after attending the general chapter of his order held at Arles and spreading the word of the lord in the French region of Provence, Anthony returned to Italy and wa
Bexar County, Texas
Bexar County is a county of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,714,773, a 2017 estimate put the population at 1,958,578, it is the fourth-most populated in Texas. Its county seat is San Antonio, the second-most populous city in Texas and the seventh-largest city in the United States. Bexar County is included in TX metropolitan statistical area. Bexar County includes Government Canyon State Natural Area in the northwestern part of the county. Bexar County was created on December 20, 1836, encompassed the entire western portion of the Republic of Texas; this included the disputed areas of western New Mexico northward to Wyoming. After statehood, 128 counties were carved out of its area; the county was named for San Antonio de Béxar, one of the 23 Mexican municipalities of Texas at the time of its independence. San Antonio de Béxar—originally Villa de San Fernando de Béxar—was the first civil government established by the Spanish in the province of Texas; the municipality was created in 1731 when 55 Canary Islanders settled near the system of missions, established around the source of the San Antonio River.
The new settlement was named after the Presidio San Antonio de Béjar, the Spanish military outpost that protected the missions. The presidio, located at the San Pedro Springs, was founded in 1718 and named for Viceroy Balthasar Manuel de Zúñiga y Guzmán Sotomayor y Sarmiento, second son of the Duke of Béjar; the modern city of San Antonio in the U. S. state of Texas derived its name from San Antonio de Béjar. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,256 square miles, of which 1,240 sq mi is land and 16 sq mi is water. Bexar County is in south-central Texas, about 190 miles west of Houston and 140 mi from both the US-Mexican border to the southwest and the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast; the Balcones Escarpment bisects the county from west to northeast. South of the escarpment are the South Texas plains; the San Antonio River rises from springs north of Downtown San Antonio, flows southward and southeastward through the county. Bexar County has a comprehensive "wagon wheel" freeway system, with radial freeways and beltways that encircle Downtown San Antonio, allowing for simplified countywide freeway access, in a manner much like the freeways around Houston or Dallas.
San Antonio is unique, however, in that unlike Houston or Dallas, none of these highways is tolled. Kendall County Comal County Guadalupe County Wilson County Atascosa County Medina County Bandera County San Antonio Missions National Historical Park As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,714,773 people residing in the county. Of those, 72.9% were White, 7.5% Black or African American, 2.4% Asian, 0.8% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 12.7% of some other race and 3.5% of two or more races. 58.7% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, 1,392,931 people, 488,942 households, 345,681 families were residing in the county; the population density was 1,117 inhabitants per square mile. There were 521,359 housing units at an average density of 418 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.86% White, 7.18% Black or African American, 0.80% Native American, 1.61% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 17.80% from other races, 3.64% from two or more races. About 54.35 % of the population were Latino of any race.
Of 488,942 households, 36.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.50% were married couples living together, 15.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.30% were not families. About 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.33. A Williams Institute analysis of 2010 census data found there were about 6.2 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was distributed as 28.50% under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 30.60% from 25 to 44, 19.90% from 45 to 64, 10.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median income for a household was $38,328, for a family was $43,724. Males had a median income of $30,756 versus $24,920 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,363.
About 12.70% of families and 15.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.40% of those under age 18 and 12.20% of those age 65 or over. The Bexar County jail facilities are at 200 North Comal in downtown San Antonio, operated by the Bexar County Sheriff's Office. In late 2012, press reports noted an increase in the number of suicides at the facility; the issue was a topic of debate in the election for sheriff that year. The jail holds an average of about 3,800 prisoners in 2012, with a total capacity of 4,596, making it the fourth-largest in the state; the Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Dominguez Unit, a state jail for men, in an unincorporated section of Bexar County. In the fall of 2013, Bexar County opened BiblioTech - Bexar County's Digital Library, the nation's first bookless library. In 2016, for the third consecutive year, Bexar County increased the appraised value of businesses and residences. Most will hence find their prop
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
San Antonio River
The San Antonio River is a major waterway that originates in central Texas in a cluster of springs in midtown San Antonio, about 4 miles north of downtown, follows a southeastern path through the state. It feeds into the Guadalupe River about 10 miles from San Antonio Bay on the Gulf of Mexico; the river is 240 miles long and crosses five counties: Bexar, Karnes and Wilson. The first documented record of the river was from Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca on his explorations of Texas in 1535; the river was named after San Antonio de Padua by the first governor of Spanish Texas, Domingo Terán de los Ríos in 1691. On June 13, 1691, Governor Terán and his company camped at a rancheria on a stream called Yanaguana They renamed the stream "San Antonio" because it was Saint Anthony's Day. Father Damián Massanet accompanied Governor Terán on his trip. During the Texas Revolution, the river was host to several major conflicts; the Battle of Concepcion occurred when the Mexican forces in Bexar and Texian militia fired upon each other in a small skirmish on the mission's grounds.
The Grass Fight occurred when Texian militia mistook mules carrying grass to feed horses as mules carrying supply and gold money. The siege of Bexar was the climax of all these previous events when the Texian militia surrounded Bexar and began continuous attacks into the Mexican stronghold of Bexar until the Mexican General Martín Perfecto de Cos surrendered; the Goliad Campaign occurred when 50 Texian militia captured the mission at Goliad, being used as a garrison by the Mexican forces. The Battle of the Alamo occurred when 180 Texian regulars and volunteers occupied a 3-acre garrison built around an old Spanish mission, they withheld a Mexican force of around 3,000 troops for 12 days until the garrison was overrun by a Mexican assault on dawn of the 13th day. During Fiesta every April, the River Parade runs on the San Antonio River in downtown San Antonio, it is one of Fiesta's most popular events. Five major 18th-century Spanish missions are lined up along the historical course of the river in San Antonio, including Mission Espada, Mission Concepcion, Mission San José, Mission San Juan Capistrano.
The most famous mission is San Antonio de Valero, better known as the Álamo, its complementing fortress is Presidio San Antonio de Bexar. These five missions in San Antonio are now designated as a UNESCO World Heritage site; the Presidio La Bahía and its mission, Mission Nuestra Señora del Espíritu Santo de Zúñiga in Goliad, are located along the southern portion of the river. The waterway is host to the San Antonio River Walk, one of San Antonio's primary tourist destinations and the centerpiece of the city, with several river improvement projects occurring so far; the Riverwalk was extended to the north in 2009, that section of the river is now called the Museum Reach and features attractions such as the Pearl Brewery and the San Antonio Museum of Art. In 2013, the Mission Reach stretch of the Riverwalk was opened in the south, which features hiking and paddling trails. Work was authorized to begin in 2015 by the Bexar County Commissioners Court on the restoration of the former Hot Wells hotel and bathhouse, located along the San Antonio River in the south side of the city.
San Antonio River Authority San Antonio Missions National Historical Park List of rivers of Texas U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: San Antonio River Edwards Aquifer history of the San Antonio River Official site of the San Antonio River Walk "San Antonio River"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879
San Antonio the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populous city in the United States, the second-most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States, with more than 1.5 million residents. Founded as a Spanish mission and colonial outpost in 1718, the city became the first chartered civil settlement in present-day Texas in 1731; the area was still part of the Spanish Empire, of the Mexican Republic. Today it is the state's oldest municipality; the city's deep history is contrasted with its rapid recent growth during the past few decades. It was the fastest-growing of the top ten largest cities in the United States from 2000 to 2010, the second from 1990 to 2000. Straddling the regional divide between South and Central Texas, San Antonio anchors the southwestern corner of an urban megaregion colloquially known as the "Texas Triangle". San Antonio serves as the seat of Bexar County. Since San Antonio was founded during the Spanish Colonial Era, it has a church in its center, on the main civic plaza in front, a characteristic of many Spanish-founded cities and villages in Spain and Latin America.
As with many other urban centers in the Southwestern United States, areas outside the city limits are sparsely populated. San Antonio is the center of the San Antonio–New Braunfels metropolitan statistical area. Called Greater San Antonio, the metro area has a population of 2,473,974 based on the 2017 U. S. census estimate, making it the 24th-largest metropolitan area in the United States and third-largest in Texas. Growth along the Interstate 35 and Interstate 10 corridors to the north and east make it that the metropolitan area will continue to expand. San Antonio was named by a 1691 Spanish expedition for Saint Anthony of Padua, whose feast day is June 13; the city contains five 18th-century Spanish frontier missions, including The Alamo and San Antonio Missions National Historical Park, which together were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites in 2015. Other notable attractions include the River Walk, the Tower of the Americas, SeaWorld, the Alamo Bowl, Marriage Island. Commercial entertainment includes Morgan's Wonderland amusement parks.
According to the San Antonio Convention and Visitors Bureau, the city is visited by about 32 million tourists a year. It is home to the five-time NBA champion San Antonio Spurs, hosts the annual San Antonio Stock Show & Rodeo, one of the largest such events in the U. S; the U. S. Armed Forces have numerous facilities around San Antonio. Lackland Air Force Base, Randolph Air Force Base, Lackland AFB/Kelly Field Annex, Camp Bullis, Camp Stanley are outside the city limits. Kelly Air Force Base operated out of San Antonio until 2001, when the airfield was transferred to Lackland AFB; the remaining parts of the base were developed as Port San Antonio, an industrial/business park and aerospace complex. San Antonio is home to six Fortune 500 companies and the South Texas Medical Center, the only medical research and care provider in the South Texas region. At the time of European encounter, Payaya Indians lived near the San Antonio River Valley in the San Pedro Springs area, they called the vicinity Yanaguana, meaning "refreshing waters".
In 1691, a group of Spanish explorers and missionaries came upon the river and Payaya settlement on June 13, the feast day of St. Anthony of Padua, they named the river "San Antonio" in his honor. It was years. Father Antonio de Olivares visited the site in 1709, he was determined to found a mission and civilian settlement there; the viceroy gave formal approval for a combined mission and presidio in late 1716, as he wanted to forestall any French expansion into the area from their colony of La Louisiane to the east, as well as prevent illegal trading with the Payaya. He directed the governor of Coahuila y Tejas, to establish the mission complex. Differences between Alarcón and Olivares resulted in delays, construction did not start until 1718. Olivares built, with the help of the Payaya Indians, the Misión de San Antonio de Valero, the Presidio San Antonio de Bexar, the bridge that connected both, the Acequia Madre de Valero; the families who clustered around the presidio and mission were the start of Villa de Béjar, destined to become the most important town in Spanish Texas.
On May 1, the governor transferred ownership of the Mission San Antonio de Valero to Fray Antonio de Olivares. On May 5, 1718 he commissioned the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar on the west side of the San Antonio River, one-fourth league from the mission. On February 14, 1719, the Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo proposed to the king of Spain that 400 families be transported from the Canary Islands, Galicia, or Havana to populate the province of Texas, his plan was approved, notice was given the Canary Islanders to furnish 200 families. By June 1730, 25 families had reached Cuba, 10 families had been sent to Veracruz before orders from Spain came to stop the re-settlement. Under the leadership of Juan Leal Goraz, the group marched overland from Veracruz to the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, where they arrived on March 9, 1731. Due to marriages along the way, the party now included a total of 56 persons, they joined the military community established in 1718. The immigrants f
An islet is a small island. As suggested by its origin as islette, an Old French diminutive of "isle", use of the term implies small size, but little attention is given to drawing an upper limit on its applicability. Cay or Key – an islet formed by the accumulation of fine sand deposits atop a reef. Motu – A reef islet formed by broken coral and sand, surrounding an atoll. River island – A small islet within the current of a river. Rock – A "rock", in the sense of a type of islet, is an uninhabited landform composed of rock, lying offshore, having at most minimal vegetation. Sandbar – An exposed sandbar is another type of islet. Sea stack – A thin, vertical landform jutting out of a body of water. Skerry – A small rocky island defined to be too small for habitation. Subsidiary islets – A more technical application is to small land features, isolated by water, lying off the shore of a larger island. Any emergent land in an atoll is called an islet. Tidal island – Often small islands which lie off the mainland of an area, being connected to it in low tide and isolated in high tide.
In the Caribbean and West Atlantic, islets are called cays or keys. Rum Cay in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys off Florida are examples of islets. In Normandy and the Channel Islands, they are identified by the French suffix -hou from the Scandinavian -holm. In Scotland and Ireland, they are called inches, from the Gaelic innis, which meant island, but has been supplanted to refer to smaller islands. In Ireland they are termed skerries. In and around Polynesia, islets are known by the term motu, from the term for the coral-rubble islets common to the region. In and around the River Thames in England, small islands are known as eyots. Whether an islet is considered a rock or not can have significant economic consequences under Article 121 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which stipulates that "Rocks which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own shall have no exclusive economic zone or continental shelf." One long-term dispute over the status of such an islet was that of Snake Island.
The International Court of Justice jurisprudence however sometimes ignores islets, regardless of inhabitation status, in deciding territorial disputes. There are thousands of islets on Earth: 24,000 islands and islets in the Stockholm archipelago alone; the following is a list of example islets from around the world. Clive Schofield. "Islands or Rocks, Is that the Real Question? The Treatment of Islands in the Delimitation of Maritime Boundaries". In Myron H. Nordquist, John Norton Moore, Alfred H. A. Soons, Hak-So Kim; the Law of the Sea Convention: US Accession and Globalization. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Pp. 322–340. ISBN 978-90-04-20136-1. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter
San Antonio River Walk
The San Antonio River Walk is a city park and network of walkways along the banks of the San Antonio River, one story beneath the streets of San Antonio, United States. Lined by bars, restaurants, public artwork, the five historic missions, the River Walk is an important part of the city's urban fabric and a tourist attraction in its own right; the River Walk is a successful special-case pedestrian street, one level down from the automobile street. The River Walk winds and loops under bridges as two parallel sidewalks lined with restaurants and shops, connecting the major tourist draws from the Shops at Rivercenter, to the Arneson River Theatre, to Marriage Island, to La Villita, to HemisFair Park, to the Tower Life Building, to the San Antonio Museum of Art, to the Pearl and the city's five Spanish colonial missions, which have been named a World Heritage Site, including the Alamo. During the annual springtime Fiesta San Antonio, the River Parade features flowery floats that float down the river.
In September 1921, a disastrous flood along the San Antonio River took 50 lives. Plans were developed for flood control of the river. Among the plans was to build an upstream dam and bypass a prominent bend of the river in the Downtown area to pave over the bend, create a storm sewer. Work began on the Olmos Dam and bypass channel in 1926. No major plans came into play until 1929, when San Antonio native and architect Robert Hugman submitted his plans for what would become the River Walk. Although many have been involved in development of the site, the leadership of former mayor Jack White was instrumental in passage of a bond issue that raised funds to empower the 1938 "San Antonio River Beautification Project", which began the evolution of the site into the present 2.5-mile-long River Walk. Hugman endorsed the bypass channel idea but, instead of paving over the bend, Hugman suggested 1) a flood gate at the northern end of the bend; the bend would be surrounded by commercial development, which he titled "The Shops of Aragon and Romula".
Hugman went as far as to maintain his architect's office along the bend. Hugman's plan was not well-received – the area was noted for being dangerous. At one point, it was declared off-limits to military personnel. People were warned of the threat of being "drowned like a rat". However, over the next decade support for commercial development of the river bend grew, crucial funding came in 1939 under the Works Progress Administration which resulted in the initial construction of a network of some 17,000 feet of walkways, about twenty bridges, extensive plantings including some of the bald cypress whose branches stretch up to ten stories and are visible from street level. Hugman's persistence paid off, his plan would be put to the test in 1946, when another major flood threatened Downtown San Antonio, but the Olmos Dam and bypass channel minimized the area damage. Casa Rio, a landmark River Walk restaurant, became the first restaurant in the area in 1946, opening next door to Hugman's office. Through the following decades the network has been extended.
The first major extension of the Riverwalk was constructed by the joint venture of two general contractors Darragh & Lyda Inc. and H. A. Lott Inc. to Tower of the Americas as part of HemisFair'68. The expansion extended the Riverwalk beyond its natural banks at the horseshoe bend to the new convention center and theater by excavating much of the block bordered by Commerce, Bowie and Alamo Streets; that was the year the Hilton Palacio del Rio was built, the first of many downtown hotels that leverage their slice of urban "riverfront." A subsequent major expansion opened in 1988 that extended a branch from the 1968 extension to create a lagoon at the new Rivercenter Mall and the Marriott Rivercenter Hotel. In 1981 the Hyatt Regency San Antonio opened with a new pedestrian connector that linked Alamo Plaza to the River Walk with concrete waterfalls and indigenous landscaping. Known as the Paseo del Alamo, this river "extension" flows from Alamo Plaza into the San Antonio River through the atrium of the hotel.
This connector not only allows the hotel to market itself as being on Alamo Plaza and on the River Walk, but it provides the city with an urban park that connects the city's two largest tourist attractions. Many downtown buildings like the Casino Club Building have street entrances and separate river entrances one level below; this separates the automotive service grid and pedestrian traffic below, creating an intricate network of bridges and old staircases. The San Antonio Spurs had their five NBA Championship victory parades/cruises along the river. Expansion plans are planned for areas of the river south of Downtown; as chain restaurants and establishments have begun to flourish, now taking up about a third of commercial space, talk has begun at City Hall about limiting their existence on the River Walk and keeping a distinctively local flair. On May 30, 2009 the city opened the $72 million Museum Reach; the Museum Reach features local attractions such as the San Antonio Museum of Art and The Pearl Brewery, which has become one of the most popular areas for locals.
Two years in May 2011, the River Walk was extended by several m