Combat stores ship
Combat stores ships, or Storeships were a designation given to ships in the Age of Sail and afterward that navies used to stow supplies and other goods for naval purposes. Today, the Royal Navy operate modern combat store ships; the Sirius and Mars classes and the Fort Rosalie and Fort Victoria classes provide supplies, including frozen and dry provisions, propulsion and aviation fuel to combatant ships that are at sea for extended periods of time. Storeships should not be confused with tenders. Both the United States and the United Kingdom used stores ships in the War of 1812. In both the Mexican–American War and in the American Civil War, captured enemy prizes that were not considered "warlike" enough to be sold for prize money became stores ships for a naval force operating where no friendly ports are nearby. USS Fredonia took part in the Baja California Campaign in the Mexican–American War. In both the Spanish–American War and the Filipino War the US Navy acquired the stores ship USS Celtic and other similar vessels to serve in its Asiatic Squadron.
Six combat stores ships operated by Military Sealift Command provide supplies, including frozen and dry provisions, propulsion and aviation fuel to United States Navy combatant ships that are at sea for extended periods of time. Combat stores ships do not carry ammunition for resupply. Combat stores ships provide underway replenishment of all types of supplies, ranging from repair parts to fresh food and mail via tensioned cargo rigs and CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters or their commercial equivalents. Combat stores ships are being replaced by more capable class such as the Lewis and Clark-class dry cargo ships in the US Navy. Three ships were transferred from the British Royal Fleet Auxiliary to MSC in 1981–83: USNS Sirius on January 18, 1981. Five Navy Mars-class combat stores ships were transferred to Military Sealift Command in 1992–94: USNS Concord on October 15, 1992. San Diego was deactivated on December 10, 1997 and Mars was deactivated on February 12, 1998. Sirius was sold in 2005, Spica was used as a target ship and sunk in 2009 and Saturn was used as a target ship and sunk in 2010.
USS Sylvania (AFS-2)
USS Sylvania, a Mars-class combat stores ship, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named Sylvania. Sylvania was laid down on 18 August 1962 at the National Steel and Shipbuilding Company in San Diego, California. At the time of commissioning, Sylvania was the second of a new class of combat store ship designed to combine the functions of the AF, AKS, AVS, she completed fitting out and, after sea trials, departed California for duty with the Atlantic Fleet. The Panama Canal was transited on 11 August, the ship arrived at Norfolk on 16 October 1964 for post-shakedown availability. Upon completion of this, the ship operated in the Norfolk area until the spring of 1965. Sylvania stood out of Norfolk on 14 April 1965, en route to the Mediterranean and her first tour of duty with the 6th Fleet, she called at Rota and arrived at her new home port, Italy, on 29 April. Two days she began her first underway replenishment operation with the 6th Fleet. On 31 July, Sylvania completed the first vertical replenishment of an aircraft carrier using UH-46A helicopters.
In early October the store ship logged her 1,000th accident-free helicopter landing. She served as flagship for the Service Force, 6th Fleet, from 5 December 1966 to 17 April 1967. During the night of 8 January 1968, the cargo ship suffered her only material loss of the year, she took water over the flight deck. The roll and water parted the tie-downs on cargo staged on the flight deck for the next day's replenishment. 52 pallets of provisions were lost. On 1 July 1968, Sylvania was awarded the Battle Efficiency "E" for her class and the Supply "E" for Supply Efficiency, she won the Marjorie Sterrett Battleship Fund Award for the Atlantic Fleet. Sylvania was honored on 19 October by a visit from the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Charles A. Bowser, a party of eight who came aboard for a briefing and tour and to observe an underway replenishment exercise; the ship was in drydock at Malta from 29 November until 10 December 1968 when she returned to normal 6th Fleet operations. On 16 June 1969 the ship lost a UH-46D helicopter when it crashed during vertical replenishment operations in the harbor of Palma de Mallorca, but the crew was rescued.
On 30 September, the ship left the 6th Fleet and returned to Norfolk on 24 October after an absence of four and one-half years. Sylvania deployed to the 6th Fleet again from 28 December 1969 to 15 February 1970, she began preparations for her first overhaul since commissioning. The ship was in drydock from 11 April to 13 May when she moored at the shipyard, was ready for sea on 13 July. On 20 July the ship was awarded the Meritorious Unit Commendation for service to the 6th Fleet during the period 25 April 1965 to 30 September 1969; the next day, Admiral Elmo R. Zumwalt, Jr. Chief of Naval Operations, visited Sylvania; the period from 13 August to 11 September was spent in refresher training at Guantanamo Bay. Sylvania stood out of Norfolk on 18 November 1970 to begin a six-month deployment in logistic support of the 6th Fleet and returned to Norfolk on 17 May 1971. In June, the ship entered the Norfolk Naval Shipyard for a four-month restricted availability period. Sylvania left the yard on 4 October 1971 and, from 23–27 October, conducted a four-day port call at Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
After two weeks of refresher training at Guantanamo Bay, she returned to Norfolk for another two-month availability period. The ship commenced pre-deployment loadout and underway training in the Virginia Capes area until mid-February. Sylvania deployed to the Mediterranean in support of the 6th Fleet from 24 February to 26 August 1972. After five weeks of re-loading supplies at Norfolk, the cargo ship returned to the Mediterranean, from 2 October to 10 November 1972, to replenish the AFS, on station there; the remainder of the year 1972 and until 5 March 1973 was spent at Norfolk in upkeep and underway training. Sylvania, sailed to Guantanamo Bay and held refresher training from 6–16 March 1973 and paid a three-day visit to Cape Kennedy before returning to her home port on 23 March, she stood out of Norfolk on 25 May 1973 for another tour with the 6th Fleet and relieved Concord as the on-station AFS on 16 June. She, in turn, was relieved by San Diego on 12 November and returned to Norfolk on 3 December 1973.
Sylvania operated out of Norfolk until early September 1974 when she again deployed to the Mediterranean for duty with the 6th Fleet. In September 1976, returning from a routine deployment, Sylvania had the honor of transporting the world-famous King Tutankhamun Exhibition to America for the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. During the 1980s Syvlania was assigned to Service Group Two. Service Squadron Four consisted of nine logistic support ships assigned the vital mission of providing food, supplies, repair parts and ammunition to Naval units of the Second and Sixth Fleets. In this capacity Sylvania assumed the duties of deployed, on-station combat stores ship in early 1980, again from May through November 1981, in 1983 where the ship received the Navy Expeditionary Medal for her participation in Sixth Fleet peacekeeping efforts in Lebanon, again over the Winter of 1983 and early 1984, in late 1984. In 1985 Sylvania went through a major overhaul in Norfolk, Virginia in which all of its systems were upgraded and much needed repairs made.
This put her out of the deployment rotation for over a full year. During this period USNS Sirius was upgraded to be able to condu
Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knight
The Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knight is a medium-lift tandem-rotor transport helicopter powered by twin turboshaft engines. It was designed by Vertol and manufactured by Boeing Vertol following Vertol's acquisition by Boeing. Development of the Sea Knight, designated by the firm as the Vertol Model 107, commenced during 1956, it was envisioned as a successor to the first generation of rotorcraft, such as the H-21 "Flying Banana", powered by piston engines. On 22 April 1958, the V-107 prototype performed its maiden flight. During June 1958, the US Army awarded a contract for the construction of ten production-standard aircraft, designated as the YHC-1A, based on the V-107. During 1961, the US Marine Corps, studying its requirements for a medium-lift, twin-turbine cargo/troop assault helicopter, selected Boeing Vertol's Model 107M as the basis from which to manufacture a suitable rotorcraft to meet their needs. Known colloquially as the "Phrog" and formally as the "Sea Knight", it was operated across all US Marine Corps' operational environments between its introduction during the Vietnam War and its frontline retirement during 2014.
The Sea Knight was operated by the USMC to provide all-weather, day-or-night assault transport of combat troops and equipment until it was replaced by the MV-22 Osprey during the 2010s. The USMC used the helicopter for combat support and rescue, casualty evacuation and Tactical Recovery of Aircraft and Personnel; the Sea Knight functioned as the US Navy's standard medium-lift utility helicopter prior to the type being phased out of service in favor of the MH-60S Knighthawk during the early 2000s. Several overseas operators acquired the rotorcraft as well. Canada operated the Sea Knight, designated as CH-113. Other export customers for the type included Japan and Saudi Arabia; the commercial version of the rotorcraft is the BV 107-II referred to as the "Vertol". During the 1940s and 1950s, American rotorcraft manufacturer Piasecki Helicopter emerged as a pioneering developer of tandem-rotor helicopters. During 1955, Piasecki was renamed as Vertol. During 1956, the new design received the internal company designation of Vertol Model 107, or V-107.
During that year, construction of a prototype, powered by a pair of Lycoming T53 turboshaft engines, each one being capable of producing 877 shp, commenced. On 22 April 1958, the V-107 prototype performed its maiden flight. In order to garner publicity for the newly developed rotorcraft, it was decided to use the prototype to conduct a series of publicised flight demonstrations during a tour across the United States and several overseas nations. During June 1958, it was announced that the U. S. Army had awarded a contract to Vertol for the construction of ten production-standard aircraft based on the V-107, which were designated YHC-1A. However, this order was decreased to three helicopters. S. Army would be able to divert funds for the development of the rival V-114 helicopter, a turbine-powered tandem rotor design but larger than the V-107. All of the U. S. Army's three YHC-1As were powered by pairs of GE-T-58 engines. During August 1959, the first YHC-1A-model rotorcraft conducted its first flight.
During 1960, the U. S. Marine Corps evolved a requirement for a medium-lift, twin-turbine troop/cargo assault helicopter to replace the various piston-engined types that were in widespread use with the service; that same year, American aviation company Boeing acquired Vertol, after which the group was renamed Boeing Vertol. Following a competition between several competing designs, during early 1961, it was announced that Boeing Vertol had been selected to manufacture its model 107M for the U. S. Marine Corps, where it was designated HRB-1. During 1962, the U. S. Air Force placed its own order for 12 XCH-46B Sea Knight helicopters, which used the XH-49A designation. S. Air Force opted to procure the rival Sikorsky S-61R in its place. Following the Sea Knight's first flight in August 1962, the military designation was changed to CH-46A. During November 1964, the introduction of the Marines' CH-46A and the Navy's UH-46As commenced; the UH-46A variant was a modified version of the rotorcraft to perform the vertical replenishment mission.
The CH-46A was equipped with a pair of T58-GE8-8B turboshaft engines, each being rated at 1,250 shp. During 1966, production of the improved CH-46D commenced with deliveries following shortly thereafter; this model featured various improvements, including modified rotor blades and the adoption of more powerful T58-GE-10 turboshaft engines, rated at 1,400 shp each. The increased power of these new engines allowed the CH-46D
A hangar is a closed building structure to hold aircraft, or spacecraft. Hangars are built of metal and concrete; the word hangar comes from Middle French hanghart, of Germanic origin, from Frankish *haimgard, from *haim and gard. Hangars are used for protection from the weather, direct sunlight, repair, manufacture and storage of aircraft, aircraft carriers and ships; the Wright brothers stored and repaired their aircraft in a wooden hangar constructed in 1902 at Kill Devil Hills in North Carolina for their glider. After completing design and construction of the Wright Flyer in Ohio, the brothers returned to Kill Devil Hill only to find their hangar damaged, they repaired the structure and constructed a new workshop while they waited for the Flyer to be shipped. Carl Richard Nyberg used a hangar to store his 1908 Flugan in the early 20th century and in 1909, Louis Bleriot crash-landed on a northern French farm in Les Baraques and rolled his monoplane into the farmer's cattle pen. Bleriot was in a race to be the first man to cross the English Channel in a heavier-than-air aircraft and set up his headquarters in the unused shed.
In Britain, the earliest aircraft hangars were known as aeroplane sheds and the oldest survivors of these are at Larkhill, Wiltshire. These are now Grade II * Listed buildings. British aviation pioneer Alliott Verdon Roe built one of the first aeroplane sheds in 1907 at Brooklands and full-size replicas of this and the 1908 Roe biplane are on display at Brooklands Museum; as aviation became established in Britain before World War I, standard designs of hangar appeared with military types too such as the Bessonneau hangar and the side-opening aeroplane shed of 1913, both of which were soon adopted by the Royal Flying Corps. Examples of the latter survive at Farnborough and Montrose airfields. During World War I, other standard designs included the RFC General Service Flight Shed and the Admiralty F-Type of 1916, the General Service Shed and the Handley Page aeroplane shed. Airship hangars or airship sheds are larger than conventional aircraft hangars in height. Most early airships used hydrogen gas to provide them with sufficient buoyancy for flight, so their hangars had to provide protection from stray sparks to keep the gas from exploding.
Hangars that held several airships were at risk from chain-reaction explosions. For this reason, most hangars for hydrogen-based airships were built to house only one or two such craft. During the "Golden Age" of airship travel from 1900, mooring masts and sheds were constructed to build and house airships; the British government built a shed in Karachi for the R101, the Brazilian government built one in Rio de Janeiro, the pt:Hangar do Zeppelin for the German Zeppelins and the US government constructed Moffett Field, Akron and Lakehurst Naval Air Station, New Jersey. Sheds built for rigid airships survive at California. Steel rigid airship hangars are some of the largest in the world. Hangar 1, Lakehurst, is located at New Jersey; the structure was completed in 1921 and is typical of airship hangar designs of World War I. The site is best known for the Hindenburg disaster, when on May 6, 1937, the German airship Hindenburg crashed and burned while landing. Hangar No. 1 at Lakehurst was used to store the American USS Shenandoah.
The hangar provided service and storage for the airships USS Los Angeles, Macon, as well as the Graf Zeppelin and the Hindenburg. The largest hangars built include the Goodyear Airdock measuring 1,175x325x211 feet and Hangar One measuring 1,133 ft × 308 ft × 198 ft; the Goodyear Airdock, is in Akron and the structure was completed on November 25, 1929. The Airdock was used for her sister ship, the USS Macon. Hangar One at Moffett Federal Field, is located in California; the structure was completed in 1931. It housed the USS Macon; the US Navy established more airship operations during WWII. As part of this, ten "lighter-than-air" bases across the United States were built as part of the coastal defense plan. Hangars at these bases are some of the world's largest freestanding timber structures. Bases with wooden hangars included: the Naval Air Stations at Massachusetts. Of the seventeen, only seven remain, Moffett Federal Field, California. A hangar for Cargolifter was built at Brand-Briesen Airfield 1,180 ft long, 705 ft wide and 348 ft high and is a free standing steel-dome "barrel-bowl" construction large enough to fit the Eiffel Tower on its side.
The company went into insolvency and in June 2003, the facil
The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th
M240 machine gun
The M240 the Machine Gun, Caliber 7.62 mm, M240, is the US military designation for the FN MAG a family of belt-fed, gas-operated medium machine guns that chamber the 7.62×51mm NATO cartridge. The M240 has been used by the United States Armed Forces since the late 1970s, it is used extensively by infantry, most in rifle companies, as well as on ground vehicles and aircraft. Despite being heavier than some comparable weapons it is regarded for reliability and its standardization among NATO members is a major advantage. All variants are fed from disintegrating belts and are capable of firing most types of 7.62 mm NATO ammunition. M240 variants can be converted to use non-disintegrating belts. There are significant differences in weight and some features among some versions which restrict interchangeability of parts; the M240s used by the US military are manufactured by FN America, the American subsidiary of FN Herstal. The M240B and M240G are fired from an integrated bipod, a tripod, or a vehicular mount.
S. Army uses the M192 Lightweight Ground Mount, while the U. S. Marine Corps uses the M122A1 tripod, a updated M2 tripod. Manufactured by Fabrique Nationale d'Herstal, the FN MAG was chosen by the U. S. competitions. The MAG is a belt-fed, gas-operated, air-cooled, crew-served, fixed headspace general-purpose machine gun, its versatility is demonstrated by its ability to be fired from its integral bipod, mounted on a tripod, on ground vehicles and aircraft. It was first adopted by the U. S. Army in 1977, as a coaxial tank gun, adopted for more applications in the 1980s and 1990s; the M240 and M240E1 were adopted for use on vehicles. This led to further adoption in more uses for the Army and Marine Corps infantry. While possessing many of the same basic characteristics as its predecessor, the durability of the MAG system results in superior reliability when compared to the M60; the MAG has a more complex gas system than the M60, but gives better reliability combined with lower maintenance requirements, though this comes at greater manufacturing cost and weight.
Compared to other machine guns, its rating of 26,000 mean rounds between failure is quite high for its weight—in the 1970s when it was first adopted it achieved about 7,000 MRBF. It is not as reliable as some heavy older designs, but it is quite reliable for its mass; the US adoption of the MAG has its origins in the late 1960s/early 1970s as a project to procure a new coaxially mounted 7.62 mm machine gun for tanks to replace the M73 and M219 machine guns being used. The 1950s-era M73 had been rather troubled, the derivative M73E1/M219 was not much of an improvement. A number of designs of the period from various countries were considered, they underwent comprehensive testing alongside the older M219 for comparison. Two main criteria analyzed were "mean rounds between stoppages" and "mean rounds between failures"; the results for the evaluated machine guns were the following: The MAG itself underwent some improvements and the M60E2 was a specialized coaxial variant that differed from some of the other types.
The qualities of the M60 variants vary such as between the M60E4 and the M60C. The clear winner was the MAG, designated as the M240 in 1977 after the Army competition; the M240 was adopted as the U. S. Army's standard vehicle machine gun in 1977; the Marine Corps adopted the M240 and M240E1 for use on vehicles like the LAV-25. It went on to replace many older types of vehicle machine guns in the 1980s. U. S. Navy SEALs continued to use the "CAR-60" version of the M60 machine gun due to its lighter weight and slower rate of fire, which allows a more effective duration of fire with allowable levels of ammunition carried; the M240 proved popular enough that it was adapted by the infantry on, as the M240G and M240B. The USMC adopted the M240G for this role in 1991, where it not only replaced the original M60s used by the Marine Corps infantry, but the upgraded M60E3 that the Marines had started using in the 1980s. In the late 1990s, the Army adopted the M240B for the infantry role – they had considered the M60E4, which did not offer commonality with the vehicle-borne M240, other FN MAG users within NATO, or the USMC.
The various versions of the M240 have replaced all the M60 versions, though they have for most main applications and roles. The M60 is still, in some cases, used by the Navy. Loading the M240 can be done either with the bolt forward or to the rear. If the bolt is to remain forward, the operator will load the rounds into the feeding block; the charging handle will be pulled to the rear, which locks the bolt to the rear. The weapon is placed on safe and the charging handle is placed back to the forward position; the weapon is now ready for operation. The weapon fires from the open bolt position, meaning that the bolt is held to the rear and only moves forward as it is firing a round; the firing pin is static and the bolt moves around the firing pin, circumventing any need for a hammer. A sear is used to time the internal mechanisms of the weapon to provide a consistent rate of fire, ensuring proper function and accuracy. Ho
USS Niagara Falls (AFS-3)
USS Niagara Falls, a Mars-class combat stores ship, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named after the City of Niagara Falls, New York. Commissioned into the US Navy on 29 April 1967, she served until September 1994, when she was transferred to the US Military Sealift Command to serve as USNS Niagara Falls. Assigned to the Naval Fleet Auxiliary Force, Far East, she served until 30 September 2008, when she was deactivated. Niagara Falls was designed to deliver refrigerated stores, dry provisions, technical spares, general stores type matériel to the Fleet at sea, her configuration provided for rapid issue rates using a minimum of men and the latest in transfer-at-sea methods, cargo handling, storage techniques, automation. She was capable of simultaneous replenishment of one ship on each side as well as transfer of matériel by cargo helicopters, which she carried. Niagara Falls was laid down on 22 May 1965 at the National Steel and Shipbuilding Company in San Diego. After initial shakedown, the new combat store ship loaded 2,500 tons of stores at Naval Supply Depot and through September completed final acceptance trials and post-shakedown availability at San Diego.
By 4 February 1968, Niagara Falls completed her shakedown availability and continued preparations for her first deployment. She steamed for WestPac on 28 March, arrived at Subic Bay on 14 April, there conducted the first of many replenishments. Upon arrival on 22 April at An Thoi, South Vietnam, she transferred over 100 tons of matériel, two days she supplied amphibious units in Vung Tau. In Cam Ranh Bay 25 April, Niagara Falls supplied the Naval Support Activity there, she supplied ships of the Naval Gunfire Support Group off the Vietnam coast, made several replenishment swings through the Yankee Station and Market Time areas. Niagara Falls completed the last replenishment of her 1971 deployment on 15 September, called at Hong Kong from 17 through 21 September, at Pearl Harbor from 9–10 October, arrived back at San Diego on 17 October. Completing preparations for another deployment and transfer of homeport to Sasebo to commence 3 January 1969 with the arrival of the New Year, Niagara Falls steamed for WestPac a second time.
During the Vietnam War Niagara Falls participated in the following campaigns: Vietnamese Counter Offensive Phases IV, V, VI. On 14 September 1970, Niagara Falls found and rescued the 45-foot sailboat Galilee, the object of an intense search for more than a month; when sighted, the boat was about 400 nautical miles west/northwest of Honolulu. The three crew members had been without food since 27 July. Rescued were Laurene Louise Kokx and Winfried Bernard Heiringhoff. According to the ship's doctor, the rescuees were days away from death. During the period 15–30 July 1971 Niagara Falls and USS Sacramento are noted by USS Enterprise operating at Yankee Station as conducting a complex four-helicopter VERTREP. Niagara Flass returned to Vietnam in 1972, continued its replenishment cycle of one weekend in port and two weeks "on line," throughout 1972 and into early 1973. Normal routine included resupplying the destroyers on the gun line and continuing up to Yankee Station to replenish the aircraft carriers, including USS Ranger and USS Kitty Hawk.
Following the cease fire, Niagara Falls supported Operation End Sweep to clear Haiphong harbor of the mines that were dropped by naval aircraft. During the early 1970s the noted spy John Anthony Walker, Jr. served in Niagara Falls' radio room. It was during his three years aboard Niagara Falls serving as Classified Materials Systems Custodian that Walker had access to the various cryptographic machines providing the keys for nearly all of them to the KGB. Being a supply ship, Niagara Falls received classified messages about ships movements off Vietnam and in the South China Sea. In order to deliver this classified information to soviet contacts, it is believed by investigators, that CWO3 Walker made dead drops in ports of call including the Philippines, Hong Kong. Suspecting intelligence breach from the Niagara Falls, an intelligence operative was inserted as a junior Radioman in the mid-1970s to confirm but findings were inconclusive. Captain E. B. McDaniel se4rved as Commanding Officer from June 1975 to September 1976.
Niagara Falls was included on a list of ships. The Department of Veterans Affairs identified certain vessel types that operated or on the inland Vietnam waterways; because she went up river, Niagara Falls was recognized as exposed to contaminated waterways during missions on the Saigon River and in Cam Rahn Bay, 22–25 April 1968. Throughout the war, Niagara Falls was further exposed to runoff of Agent Orange and other herbicides when she anchored in Da Nang Harbor, returned to Cam Rahn Bay, steamed along littoral waters of South Vietnam. Studies of Australian naval ships show that salt water evaporative distilling systems increased the concentration of Agent Orange in drinking and cooking water, the distilling system became coated in herbicide toxins; the Department of Veterans Affairs is yet to recognize these Australian studies and grant health co