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Mars (mythology)

In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars was the god of war and an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome. He was second in importance only to Jupiter and he was the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him, in October, which began the season for military campaigning and ended the season for farming. Under the influence of Greek culture, Mars was identified with the Greek god Ares, whose myths were reinterpreted in Roman literature and art under the name of Mars, but the character and dignity of Mars differed in fundamental ways from that of his Greek counterpart, treated with contempt and revulsion in Greek literature. Mars was a part of the Archaic Triad along with Jupiter and Quirinus, the latter of whom, as a guardian of the Roman people, had no Greek equivalent. Mars' altar in the Campus Martius, the area of Rome that took its name from him, was supposed to have been dedicated by Numa, the peace-loving semi-legendary second king of Rome.

Although the center of Mars' worship was located outside the sacred boundary of Rome, Augustus made the god a renewed focus of Roman religion by establishing the Temple of Mars Ultor in his new forum. Although Ares was viewed as a destructive and destabilizing force, Mars represented military power as a way to secure peace, was a father of the Roman people. In the mythic genealogy and founding myths of Rome, Mars was the father of Romulus and Remus with Rhea Silvia, his love affair with Venus symbolically reconciled the two different traditions of Rome's founding. The importance of Mars in establishing religious and cultural identity within the Roman Empire is indicated by the vast number of inscriptions identifying him with a local deity in the Western provinces; the word Mārs, which in Old Latin and poetic usage appears as Māvors, is cognate with Oscan Māmers. The oldest recorded Latin form, Mamart-, is of foreign origin, it has been explained as deriving from Maris, the name of an Etruscan child-god, though this is not universally agreed upon.

Scholars have varying views on whether the two gods are related, if so how. Latin adjectives from the name of Mars are martius and martialis, from which derive English "martial" and personal names such as "Martin". Mars may be a thematic reflex of the Proto-Indo-European god Perkwunos, having a thunderer character. Like Ares, the son of Zeus and Hera, Mars is considered to be the son of Jupiter and Juno. However, in a version of his birth given by Ovid, he was the son of Juno alone. Jupiter had usurped the mother's function. Flora tested it on a heifer who became fecund at once, she plucked a flower ritually using her thumb, touched Juno's belly, impregnated her. Juno withdrew to the shore of Marmara for the birth. Ovid tells this story in his long-form poetic work on the Roman calendar, it may explain why the Matronalia, a festival celebrated by married women in honor of Juno as a goddess of childbirth, occurred on the first day of Mars' month, marked on a calendar from late antiquity as the birthday of Mars.

In the earliest Roman calendar, March was the first month, the god would have been born with the new year. Ovid is the only source for the story, he may be presenting a literary myth of his own invention, or an otherwise unknown archaic Italic tradition. The consort of Mars was Nerio or Neriene, "Valor." She represents the vital force and majesty of Mars. Her name was regarded as Sabine in origin and is equivalent to Latin virtus, "manly virtue". In the early 3rd century BCE, the comic playwright Plautus has a reference to Mars greeting Nerio, his wife. A source from late antiquity says that Mars and Neriene were celebrated together at a festival held on March 23. In the Roman Empire, Neriene came to be identified with Minerva. Nerio originates as a divine personification of Mars' power, as such abstractions in Latin are feminine, her name appears with that of Mars in an archaic prayer invoking a series of abstract qualities, each paired with the name of a deity. The influence of Greek mythology and its anthropomorphic gods may have caused Roman writers to treat these pairs as "marriages."

The union of Venus and Mars held greater appeal for poets and philosophers, the couple were a frequent subject of art. In Greek myth, the adultery of Ares and Aphrodite had been exposed to ridicule when her husband Hephaestus caught them in the act by means of a magical snare. Although not part of the Roman tradition, in 217 BCE Venus and Mars were presented as a complementary pair in the lectisternium, a public banquet at which images of twelve major gods of the Roman state were presented on couches as if present and participating. Scenes of Venus and Mars in Roman art ignore the adulterous implications of their union, take pleasure in the good-looking couple attended by Cupid or multiple Loves; some scenes may imply marriage

Anthony Butler (diplomat)

Anthony Butler was an American soldier and diplomat who served as Chargé d'Affaires to Mexico. Butler was born in South Carolina in 1787, he married the sister of Kentucky politician John J. Crittenden. Butler became a Mason at St. Johns Lodge No. 37 at Santee, South Carolina the dates of his degrees are not known. Butler moved to Logan County, Kentucky in 1807. Butler transferred his Masonic membership to Russellville Lodge No. 17 in Russellville, Kentucky in January 1809. 8, served as the Masonic Grand Master of Kentucky in 1812, 1813. In 1813, Butler was one of four men considered by the Kentucky legislature for the United States Senate. Butler served in the War of 1812, he was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel of infantry in the U. S. Army on March 11, 1813, entering from Kentucky, he was first assigned to the 28th Infantry Regiment promoted to colonel of the 2nd Regiment of Riflemen on February 21, 1814. Russell James relates. Butler was never in combat and spent most of his time in command of his regiment attempting to recruit soldiers in the Eighth Military District, a problem, exacerbated by having to compete for recruits with two other regiments of riflemen and four of infantry.

Butler displayed a lack of knowledge about the proper employment of riflemen. He was honorably discharged on June 15, 1815. Butler owner a large plantation near Russellville. In 1818 and 1819, Butler ran for but did not win the seat in the Kentucky House of Representatives from Logan County. In 1820, Butler campaigned for Governor of Kentucky. Butler was elected, he resigned from the House on or before May 15, 1822. Butler moved to Mississippi in 1829. While a resident of Mississippi, Butler lobbied Jackson to make him Chargé d'Affaires in Mexico, he was appointed to this position on October 12, 1829. Jackson appointed Butler to the post. Butler had distinctly un-diplomatic manners. In April 1831, Butler negotiated an extension to the period of ratification of the Treaty of Limits. Butler disregarded instructions from Secretary of State Martin Van Buren not to meddle in the internal affairs of Mexico. Butler bribed Mexican officials and recommended to Jackson that he dispatch troops annex Texas by force.

Jackson distanced himself from his ambassador after the latter had tried to bribe Santa Anna. Having failed to acquire Texas for the U. S. Butler suggested in 1833 a claim on part of the territory based on supposed confusion of the Sabine and Neches rivers. S. in Mexico, Butler had agreements to represent two land companies, the Arkansas and Texas Land Company and the Trinity Land Company, that were trying to acquire property in Mexican Texas. Butler was recalled to Washington in January 1836 but remained in Mexico, reporting to Jackson before leaving in May, his tenure as chargé d'affaires resulted in Mexican suspicion of United States' foreign policy through the beginning of the Mexican–American War. Some time after Texas independence, Butler moved to Washington County, Texas and, in 1838, was elected to the House of Representatives of the Third Republic of Texas Legislature. Butler was the fourth Grand Master of Texas Masons in 1841, he attempted to consult with General Zachary Taylor. In 1847 or 1848, he moved from Texas.

Butler died on the burning steamboat Anthony Wayne on the Mississippi River 1849 or 1850 while attempting to save his fellow passengers. O. P. Q. Letters

2015 Russian wildfires

From 12 to 16 April 2015, a series of wildfires spread across southern Siberia, Russia. In the Republic of Khakassia, 29 people were killed and 6,000 left homeless. Further east in Zabaykalsky Krai, four people died in wildfires near Chita. Damage was reported in Inner Mongolia; the series of wildfires began on Sunday morning, 12 April in Khakassia as intentional fires set to clear grass for agriculture were caught by strong winds and got out of control. Warm, dry weather help spread the fires, which spread into the region's forests. Russian television said. At 1 p.m. local time, a state of emergency was declared. Fire control planes and helicopters were dispatched by the Ministry of Emergency Situations, but the fires were not extinguished until around 6:00 a.m. on 13 April. Separately, 86 wildfires were reported in Zabaykalsky Krai from 13–14 April. Fires approached the city of Chita. Visibility was reduced to 200–300 m. Eyewitnesses described the scene as "an apocalypse" as Chita was filled with smoke for days.

An estimated 1,850 military personnel and volunteers worked to extinguish the fires. According to The Kremlin, Vladimir Putin took charge of coordinating disaster response; the fires were reported out on 15 April. Chinese media reports said the fires spread into Inner Mongolia; the wildfires killed at least 29 people in Khakassia, with three people unaccounted for as of 16 April. 900 others were injured. Seventy-seven people were hospitalized, with eight in critical condition as of 14 April. 1,300 homes across 34 villages were damaged, leaving 6,000 people homeless. The town of Shira was hardest hit, with 420 homes burned to the ground; as of 16 April 800 people across Khakassia remained in hospitals or emergency shelters. Livestock losses were estimated at 5,000 cattle and sheep, with the possibility of more deaths from starvation due to lack of grass to eat. More than 10,000 km2 of land was burnt in the fires; the Khakassia government designated 14 April as an official day of mourning. In the aftermath of the fires, looters were seen stealing bicycles and other metal objects to sell as scrap metal.

In Zabaykalsky Krai, four deaths were reported. About 20 people were injured, with one person hospitalized. Over 150 homes across 19 villages were damaged. An estimated 107,000 hectares of land was burnt. In Inner Mongolia, 85 buildings were damaged as well as farming other vehicles; the damage there was estimated at US$3.2 million. The Federal Forestry Agency blamed local officials for failing to follow agency guidelines for preventing wildfires. Alexei Yaroshenko, a Greenpeace forest expert, demanded that Emergency Situations Minister Vladimir Puchkov and regional Governor Viktor Zimin be punished for the incident. Deputy Emergency Minister Alexander Chupriyan blamed carelessness by citizens saying, "This fire would not have happened if no one played with matches." At least five criminal cases related to the fires have been filed. Authorities did not rule out. 2010 Russian wildfires 2018 Russian wildfires