Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury. Named after the Roman god of war, it is referred to as the Red Planet because the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars is a planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and second-highest known mountain in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet, Mars has two moons and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Mars trojan, there are ongoing investigations assessing the past habitability potential of Mars, as well as the possibility of extant life.
Future astrobiology missions are planned, including the Mars 2020 and ExoMars rovers, liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressure, which is about 6⁄1000 that of the Earths, except at the lowest elevations for short periods. The two polar ice caps appear to be largely of water. The volume of ice in the south polar ice cap, if melted. On November 22,2016, NASA reported finding a large amount of ice in the Utopia Planitia region of Mars. The volume of water detected has been estimated to be equivalent to the volume of water in Lake Superior, Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye, as can its reddish coloring. Its apparent magnitude reaches −2.91, which is surpassed only by Jupiter, the Moon, optical ground-based telescopes are typically limited to resolving features about 300 kilometers across when Earth and Mars are closest because of Earths atmosphere. Mars is approximately half the diameter of Earth with an area only slightly less than the total area of Earths dry land.
Mars is less dense than Earth, having about 15% of Earths volume and 11% of Earths mass, the red-orange appearance of the Martian surface is caused by iron oxide, or rust. It can look like butterscotch, other common colors include golden, tan. Like Earth, Mars has differentiated into a metallic core overlaid by less dense materials. Current models of its interior imply a core with a radius of about 1,794 ±65 kilometers, consisting primarily of iron and this iron sulfide core is thought to be twice as rich in lighter elements than Earths. The core is surrounded by a mantle that formed many of the tectonic and volcanic features on the planet
Mars in fiction
Fictional representations of Mars have been popular for over a century. Almost as popular as stories about Mars are stories about Martians engaging in activity away from their home planet, exploration of the planet has continued in the 21st century on to the present day. Flammarion assumed its red surface came from red-colored vegetation, and Schiaparelli observed what he took to be linear features on the face of Mars, because the Italian for channels is canali, English translations tended to render the word as canals, implying artificial construction. Lowells books on Mars expanded on this notion of Martian canals, and it was frequently speculated that ancient Martian civilizations had constructed irrigation works that spanned the planet in an attempt at saving their dying world. This concept spawned a number of science fiction scenarios. The following works of fiction deal with the planet itself, with any assumed Martian civilization as part of its planetary landscape, several early modern writers, including Athanasius Kircher and Emanuel Swedenborg, hypothesized contact with Mars.
Early science fiction about Mars often involved the first voyages to the planet, sometimes as an invasion force, across the Zodiac by Percy Greg. The narrator flies his craft, the Astronaut, to visit diminutive beings on Mars, a young astronomer and his fiancée are killed in a ballooning accident, and are reincarnated in new bodies on Mars. Melbourne and Mars, My Mysterious Life on Two Planets by Joseph Fraser, Mr. Strangers Sealed Packet by Hugh MacColl. People from Earth travel to Mars in a machine, and find peaceful Martians that are technologically inferior to humans with a few exceptions like voice-recording devices. A Plunge into Space by Robert Cromie and some friends travel to Mars and find a society where there is no need for politicians, and Martians who travel in airships or flying through levitation. Unveiling a Parallel by Alice Ilgenfritz Jones and Ella Merchant, the authors use a journey to Mars as the frame for a utopian feminist novel. Journey to Mars by Gustavus W. Pope, an adventure story that may have influenced Edgar Rice Burroughss books.
A Prophetic Romance by John McCoy, reversing the usual pattern, the book brings a Martian visitor to Earth for a utopian novel. Auf zwei Planeten by Kurd Lasswitz, a Martian expedition to Earth takes Earthmen back to visit Mars, interplanetary war follows the initially peaceful contact. Lasswitzs Martians are human in appearance, but with larger eyes. The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells, features an attack on England by cephalopod like Martians and their advanced technology to employ fighting machines to decimate the world. Edisons Conquest of Mars by Garrett P. Serviss, in this Edisonade, Earthmen respond to an attack from Mars with a successful genocide of the Martian race
This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor, formerly known as a pile, is a device used to initiate. Nuclear reactors are used at power plants for electricity generation. Heat from nuclear fission is passed to a fluid, which runs through steam turbines. These either drive a ships propellers or turn electrical generators, Nuclear generated steam in principle can be used for industrial process heat or for district heating. Some reactors are used to produce isotopes for medical and industrial use, some are run only for research. As of April 2014, the IAEA reports there are 435 nuclear power reactors in operation, when a large fissile atomic nucleus such as uranium-235 or plutonium-239 absorbs a neutron, it may undergo nuclear fission. The heavy nucleus splits into two or more nuclei, releasing kinetic energy, gamma radiation, and free neutrons. A portion of neutrons may be absorbed by other fissile atoms and trigger further fission events, which release more neutrons. This is known as a chain reaction.
To control such a chain reaction, neutron poisons and neutron moderators can change the portion of neutrons that will go on to cause more fission. Nuclear reactors generally have automatic and manual systems to shut the fission reaction down if monitoring detects unsafe conditions, commonly-used moderators include regular water, solid graphite and heavy water. Some experimental types of reactor have used beryllium, and hydrocarbons have been suggested as another possibility, the reactor core generates heat in a number of ways, The kinetic energy of fission products is converted to thermal energy when these nuclei collide with nearby atoms. The reactor absorbs some of the rays produced during fission. Heat is produced by the decay of fission products and materials that have been activated by neutron absorption. This decay heat-source will remain for some even after the reactor is shut down. A kilogram of uranium-235 converted via nuclear processes releases approximately three times more energy than a kilogram of coal burned conventionally. A nuclear reactor coolant — usually water but sometimes a gas or a metal or molten salt — is circulated past the reactor core to absorb the heat that it generates
A Mars landing is a landing of a spacecraft on the surface of Mars. Of multiple attempted Mars landings by robotic, unmanned spacecraft, seven have been successful, there have been studies for a possible human mission to Mars, including a landing, but none have been attempted. As of October 2016, all methods of landing on Mars have required an aeroshell and parachute sequence, a stationary lander can drop from the parachute back shell and ride retrorockets all the way down, but a rover cannot be burdened with rockets that serve no purpose after touchdown. One method is to enclose the rover in a structure which in turn is enclosed in airbags. After the aeroshell drops off, the tetrahedron is lowered clear of the back shell on a lanyard so that the airbags can inflate. When it nears the ground, the tetrahedron is released to drop to the ground, when it has come to rest, the tetrahedron opens to expose the rover. If a rover is too heavy to use airbags, the retrorockets can be mounted on a sky crane, the sky crane drops from the parachute back shell and, as it nears the ground, the rover is lowered on a lanyard.
When the rover touches ground, it cuts the lanyard so that the sky crane will crash well away from the rover, all three methods have advantages and disadvantages, requiring careful consideration by the engineers. For landers that are heavier than the Curiosity rover, engineers are developing a combination rigid-inflatable Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator that could be 8 meters in diameter. It would have to be accompanied by a proportionately larger parachute, beginning with the Mars Exploration Rovers, landers on the surface of Mars have used orbiting spacecraft as communications satellites for relaying their data to Earth. The landers use UHF transmitters to send their data to the orbiters, the first probe intended to be a Mars impact lander was the Soviet Mars 1962B unsuccessfully launched in 1962. In 1971 the Soviet Union successfully sent probes Mars 2 and Mars 3, the Mars 2 and 3 probes each carried a lander, both of which failed upon landing. They were the first human artifacts to touch down on Mars and these spaceprobes contained the first mini-Mars rovers, although they were broken on landing.
The Mars 2 and 3 orbiters sent back a large volume of data covering the period from December 1971 to March 1972, by 22 August 1972, after sending back data and a total of 60 pictures, Mars 2 and 3 concluded their missions. The images and data enabled creation of surface relief maps, and gave information on the Martian gravity, in 1973, the Soviet Union sent four more probes to Mars, the Mars 4 and Mars 5 orbiters and the Mars 6 and Mars 7 fly-by/lander combinations. All missions except Mars 7 sent back data, with Mars 5 being most successful, Mars 5 transmitted 60 images before a loss of pressurization in the transmitter housing, ended the mission. Mars 6 lander transmitted data during descent, but failed upon impact, Mars 4 flew by the planet at a range of 2200 km returning one swath of pictures and radio occultation data, which constituted the first detection of the nightside ionosphere on Mars. Mars 7 probe separated prematurely from the vehicle due to a problem in the operation of one of the onboard systems
The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities, commonly known as Roscosmos, is the governmental body responsible for the space science program of Russia and general aerospace research. The Corporation was established on the basis of the now-defunct Federal Space Agency on December 28,2015, Roscosmos was previously known as the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. The headquarters of Roscosmos are located in Moscow, while the main Mission Control space center is located in the city of Korolev. The Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center is in Star City, the Launch facilities used are Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, and Vostochny Cosmodrome being built in the Russian Far East in Amur Oblast. The current Director since January 2015 is Igor Komarov, in 2015 the Russian government merged Roscosmos with the United Rocket and Space Corporation, the re-nationalized Russian space industry, to create the Roscosmos State Corporation. The Soviet space program did not have central executive agencies, its organizational architecture was multi-centered, it was the design bureaus and the council of designers that had the most say, not the political leadership.
The creation of a central agency after the separation of Russia from the Soviet Union was therefore a new development, Russian Space Agency was formed on February 25,1992, by a decree of President Yeltsin. Yuri Koptev, who had worked with designing Mars landers at NPO Lavochkin. In the early years, the agency suffered from lack of authority as the design bureaus fought to protect their own spheres of operation. For example, the decision to keep Mir in operation beyond 1999 was not taken by the agency, another example is that the decision to develop the new Angara rocket was rather a function of Khrunichevs ability to attract resources than a conscious long-term decision by the agency. The 1990s saw serious financial problems because of decreased cash flow and this resulted in Roscosmos leading role in commercial satellite launches and space tourism. In March 2004, director Yuri Koptev was replaced by Anatoly Perminov, the Russian economy boomed throughout 2005 from high prices for exports, such as oil and gas, the outlook for future funding in 2006 appeared more favorable.
The budget for 2006 was as high as 25 billion rubles, under the current 10-year budget approved, the budget of the Space Agency shall increase 5–10% per year, providing the space agency with a constant influx of money. In addition to the budget, Roscosmos plans to have over 130 billion rubles flowing into its budget by other means, such as industry investments and it is around the time US-based The Planetary Society entered a partnership with Roscosmos. In 2011, the government spent 115 billion rubles in the space programs. The proposed project core budget for 2013 to be around 128.3 billion rubles, the budget for the whole space program is,169.8 billion rubles. By 2015, the amount of the budget can be increased to 199.2 billion rubles, priorities of the Russian space program include the new Angara rocket family and development of new communications and remote Earth sensing spacecraft. The GLONASS global navigation system has for many years been one of the top priorities and has been given its own budget line in the federal space budget
Aquarius is an underwater habitat located 3.5 miles off Key Largo, Florida in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. It is deployed on the floor next to deep coral reefs 62 feet below the surface. NASA has used it since 2001 for a series of space exploration missions, usually lasting 7 to 14 days. The mission had cost about 500 million U. S. dollars, the crew members are called aquanauts, and they perform EVAs in the underwater environment. A technique known as saturation diving allows the aquanauts to live, after twenty four hours underwater at any depth, the human body becomes saturated with dissolved gas. With saturation diving, divers can accurately predict exactly how much time they need to decompress before returning to the surface and this information limits the risk of decompression sickness. By living in the Aquarius habitat and working at the depth on the ocean floor. For NASA, the Aquarius habitat and its surroundings provide an analog for space exploration. Much like space, the world is a hostile, alien place for humans to live. NEEMO crew members experience some of the same challenges there that they would on a distant asteroid, during NEEMO missions, the aquanauts are able to simulate living on a spacecraft and test spacewalk techniques for future space missions.
Working in space and underwater environments requires extensive planning and sophisticated equipment, the underwater condition has the additional benefit of allowing NASA to weight the aquanauts to simulate different gravity environments. Since 2013, Aquarius is owned by the Florida International University, at the heart of the program is the Aquarius Reef Base. Arnold Satoshi Furukawa Christopher E. Gerty NURC Support Crew, James F. Buckley Dewey Smith Marc Reagan, Mission Director NASA Aquanaut Crew, Chris Hadfield, Commander Thomas H. Love Richard R. Additional EVAs will simulate working on the surface of an asteroid, the NEEMO21 mission was scheduled to begin July 18,2016 and conclude August 3,2016, the mission start was shifted to July 21,2016 as a result of unfavorable weather conditions
Human mission to Mars
A human mission to Mars has been the subject of science fiction and scientific proposals since the 19th century. The plans comprise proposals to land on Mars, eventually settling on and terraforming the planet, while utilizing its moons, the exploration of Mars has been a goal of national space programs for decades. The list of manned Mars mission plans in the 20th century shows the various proposals that have been put forth by multiple organizations. In the 2010s, numerous Chinese and American agencies are developing proposals for human missions to Mars, none have moved past the planning stages. In fiction, the concept of traveling to and terraforming Mars has been explored in books, graphic novels. The appeal of space-travel to the planet is an aspect to Mars in fiction. The energy needed for transfer between planetary orbits, or ∆V, is lowest at intervals fixed by the synodic period, for Earth / Mars trips, this is every 26 months, so missions are typically planned to coincide with one of these launch windows.
The energy needed in the windows varies on roughly a 15-year cycle with the easiest windows needing only half the energy of the peaks. In the 20th century, there was a minimum in the 1969 and 1971 launch windows and another low in 1986 and 1988, several types of mission plans have been proposed, such as the opposition class and conjunction class, or the Crocco flyby. Shorter Mars mission plans have round-trip flight times of 400 to 450 days, a fast Mars mission of 245 days round trip could be possible with on-orbit staging. In 2014 Ballistic capture was proposed, which may reduce fuel cost, in the Crocco grand tour, a crewed spacecraft would get a flyby of Mars and Venus for under a year in space. Some flyby mission architectures can be extended to include a style of Mars landing with a flyby excursion lander spacecraft, proposed by R. Titus in 1966, it involved extending a flyby mission with a short stay lander. Basically, a short stay lander-ascent vehicle would separate from a parent Earth-Mars transfer prior to its flyby of Mars, the estimated cost of sending humans to the red planet is roughly 500 billion U. S. dollars, though the actual costs are likely to be more.
The largest limiting factor for sending humans to Mars is funding, in the late 1950s, rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States stimulated a national priority to send humans to the moon. Under the current global climate, government funding of these programs has decreased. Recent participation of companies in space travel and participation by new nations such as India may present new opportunities. Critics argue the benefits of establishing a human presence on Mars are more esoteric than practical. Furthermore, experts maintain that an investment will be necessary for humanity’s survival
Earth, otherwise known as the World, or the Globe, is the third planet from the Sun and the only object in the Universe known to harbor life. It is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest of the four terrestrial planets, according to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed about 4.54 billion years ago. Earths gravity interacts with objects in space, especially the Sun. During one orbit around the Sun, Earth rotates about its axis over 365 times, Earths axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planets surface. The gravitational interaction between the Earth and Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes the Earths orientation on its axis, Earths lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earths surface is covered with water, mostly by its oceans, the remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere.
The majority of Earths polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet, Earths interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earths magnetic field, and a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics. Within the first billion years of Earths history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earths atmosphere and surface, some geological evidence indicates that life may have arisen as much as 4.1 billion years ago. Since then, the combination of Earths distance from the Sun, physical properties, in the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion, occasionally punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species that lived on Earth are extinct. Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely, over 7.4 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and minerals for their survival. Humans have developed diverse societies and cultures, the world has about 200 sovereign states, the modern English word Earth developed from a wide variety of Middle English forms, which derived from an Old English noun most often spelled eorðe.
It has cognates in every Germanic language, and their proto-Germanic root has been reconstructed as *erþō, earth was written in lowercase, and from early Middle English, its definite sense as the globe was expressed as the earth. By early Modern English, many nouns were capitalized, and the became the Earth. More recently, the name is simply given as Earth. House styles now vary, Oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common, another convention capitalizes Earth when appearing as a name but writes it in lowercase when preceded by the. It almost always appears in lowercase in colloquial expressions such as what on earth are you doing, the oldest material found in the Solar System is dated to 4. 5672±0.0006 billion years ago. By 4. 54±0.04 Gya the primordial Earth had formed, the formation and evolution of Solar System bodies occurred along with the Sun
Mars to Stay
Mars to stay missions propose astronauts sent to Mars for the first time should intend to stay. Unused emergency return vehicles would be recycled into settlement construction as soon as the habitability of Mars becomes evident to the initial pioneers, Mars to Stay missions are advocated both to reduce cost and to ensure permanent settlement of Mars. Among many notable Mars to Stay advocates, former Apollo astronaut Buzz Aldrin has been outspoken, suggesting in numerous forums Forget the Moon. And, in June 2013, Aldrin promoted a mission to homestead Mars. The Mars Underground, Mars Homestead Foundation, Mars One, and Mars Artists Community advocacy groups and business organizations have adopted Mars to Stay policy initiatives. The earliest formal outline of a Mars to Stay mission architecture was given at the Case for Mars VI Workshop in 1996, during a presentation by George Herbert titled One Way to Mars. Since returning the astronauts from the surface of Mars is one of the most difficult parts of a Mars mission, Paul Davies, writing in the New York Times in 2004, made similar arguments.
Supplemented by food shipments, medical supplies, and replacement gadgets from Earth, under Mars to Stay mission architectures, the first humans to travel to Mars would typically be in six-member teams. After this initial landing, subsequent missions would raise the number of persons on Mars to 30, through the use of digital fabricators and in vitro fertilisation it is assumed a permanent human settlement on Mars can grow organically from an original thirty to forty pioneers. The first generation can retire there, or maybe we can bring them back, an article by Dirk Schulze-Makuch and Paul Davies from the book The Human Mission to Mars, Colonizing the Red Planet highlights their mission plans as, No base on the Moon is needed. Given the broad variety of resources available on Mars, the survival of Martian settlers is much more feasible than Lunar settlers. Since Mars affords neither a shield nor magnetospheric protection, robots would prepare a basic modular base inside near-surface lava tubes.
The first human contingent would consist of a crew of four, over time humans on Mars will increase with follow-up missions. Several subsurface biospheres would be created there were 150+ individuals in a viable gene pool. Genetic engineering would further contribute to the health and longevity of settlers, the astronauts would be sent supplies from Earth regularly. This proposal was picked up for discussion in a number of public sources, Mars One is a Dutch not-for-profit foundation, a Stichting. The proposal is to send a satellite and path finder lander to the planet by 2018 and, after several stages. A new set of four astronauts would arrive every two years
A Mars habitat is a place that humans can live in on Mars. Mars habitats must contend with surface conditions that include almost no oxygen in the air, extreme cold, low pressure, the habitat may be placed underground which helps solve some problems but creates new difficulties. One of the challenges for Mars habitats is maintaining the climate, things like electronics and lights generate heat that rises in the air, even as there are extreme temperature fluctuation outside. 3D Printing Mars atmospheric entry Caves of Mars Project While it is possible for humans to breathe pure oxygen, as such, Mars habitats may have a need for additional gases. One possibility is to take nitrogen and argon from the atmosphere of Mars, however, as a result, a Mars habitat may use 40% argon, 40% nitrogen, and 20% oxygen. Another concept for breathing air is to use re-usable amine bead carbon monoxide scrubbers, while one carbon monoxide scrubber filters the astronauts air, the other is vented to the Mars atmosphere.
One early idea for a Mars habitat was to use put short stay accommodation in a Mars ascent-descent vehicle and this combination was called a Mars Excursion Module, and typically featured other components such as basic rover and science equipment. Later missions tended to shift to a dedicated descent/ascent with a separate habitat, in 2013 ZA architects proposed having digging robots build a Mars habitat underground. They chose an interior inspired by Fingals Cave and noted the protection from high-energy radiation below ground. On the other hand, the issue of the difficulty of sending digging robots that must construct the habitat versus landing capsules on the surface was noted. An alternative may be to build above ground, but use thick ice to shield from radiation, in 2015 the SHEE project noted the idea of autonomous construction and preparation for Mars habitat versus human construction. In early 2015 NASA outlined a plan for three stage Mars habitat design and construction award program.
In September 2015, NASA announced the winners of its 3-D Printed Habitat Challenge, the winning submission titled Mars Ice House by Clouds Architecture Office / SEArch proposed a 3D-printed double ice shell surrounding a lander module core. Two European teams were awarded runner up prizes, there were 30 finalists selected from an initial pool of 165 entries in the habitat challenge. The second-place winner proposed the printing robots build an out of in-situ materials around inflatable modules. Another NASA project that has developed extraterrestrial surface habitats is the X-Hab challenge, the Sfero House by Fabulous a contender in the 3D Mars Habitat program, featured levels above and below ground level. The proposed location was Gale crater with a focus on using both in-situ iron and water which would hopefully be available there and it has a double walled spherical design filled with water to both keep the higher-pressure of Mars habitat in, but help protect against radiation. Mock Mars missions or Mars analog missions typically construct terrestrial habitats on Earth and conduct mock missions, one example concept that is or is in support of habitat is a Mars biodome, a structure that could hold life generating needed oxygen and food for humans
A Mars rover is an automated motor vehicle that propels itself across the surface of the planet Mars upon arrival. There have been four successful robotically operated Mars rovers, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory managed the Mars Pathfinder mission and its now inactive Sojourner rover. It currently manages the Mars Exploration Rover missions active Opportunity rover and inactive Spirit, and, as part of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, the search for evidence of habitability and organic carbon on the planet Mars is now a primary NASA objective. Several rovers have been sent to Mars, Mars 2, Prop-M rover,1971, the Mars 2 and 3 spacecraft from the USSR had identical 4.5 kg Prop-M rovers. They were to move on skis while connected to the landers with cables, Mars 3, Prop-M rover,1971, lost when Mars 3 lander stopped communicating about 20 seconds after landing. Sojourner rover, Mars Pathfinder, landed successfully on July 4,1997, communications were lost on September 27,1997. Beagle 2, Planetary Undersurface Tool, lost with Beagle 2 on deployment from Mars Express in 2003. A compressed spring mechanism was designed to allow movement across the surface at a rate of 1 cm per 5 seconds and to burrow into the ground and collect a subsurface sample in a cavity in its tip.
Spirit, Mars Exploration Rover, launched on June 10,2003 at 13,58,47 EDT, nearly 6 years after the original mission limit, Spirit had covered a total distance of 7.73 km but its wheels became trapped in sand. Around January 26,2010, NASA conceded defeat in its efforts to free the rover, the last communication received from the rover was on March 22,2010, and NASA ceased attempts to re-establish communication on May 25,2011. Opportunity, Mars Exploration Rover, launched on July 7,2003 at 23,18,15 EDT, Opportunity is still operational and mobile as of April 7,2017. Curiosity, Mars Science Laboratory, by NASA, was launched November 26,2011 at 10,02 EST, Curiosity Rover is still operational as of April 7,2017. Mars rovers in development include, ExoMars, by the ESA, the rover will use stained glass to prevent UV from changing image colors, allowing for true color images of the surface of Mars. Chinese Mars Rover, has planned for a pre-2020 launch. MESR, REX, and MRPTA have a destination of Mars.
Mars 2020, a NASA rover based on the current rover Curiosity,2020 Chinese Mars Mission, would include an orbiter and small rover. One experimental design, not proposed for any mission, is, Mars Tumbleweed Rover. Many Mars Design Reference Mission include rovers as do some Mars sample return Astrobiology Field Laboratory, Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher, cancelled 2011 Mars Surveyor 2001 rover, NASA distinguishes between mission objectives and science objectives
Colonization of Mars
Mars is the focus of much scientific study about possible human colonization. Its surface conditions and the presence of water on Mars make it arguably the most hospitable of the planets in the Solar System, Mars requires less energy per unit mass to reach from Earth than any planet except Venus. Permanent human habitation on a body other than the Earth is one of science fictions most prevalent themes. As technology has advanced, and concerns about the future of humanity on Earth have increased, other reasons for colonizing space include economic interests, long-term scientific research best carried out by humans as opposed to robotic probes, and sheer curiosity. Earth is similar to Venus in bulk composition and surface gravity and these include, The Martian day is very close in duration to Earths. A solar day on Mars is 24 hours,39 minutes and 35.244 seconds, Mars has a surface area that is 28. 4% of Earths, only slightly less than the amount of dry land on Earth. Mars has half the radius of Earth and only one-tenth the mass and this means that it has a smaller volume and lower average density than Earth.
Mars has a tilt of 25. 19°, similar to Earths 23. 44°. As a result, Mars has seasons much like Earth, though they last nearly twice as long because the Martian year is about 1.88 Earth years, the Martian north pole currently points at Cygnus, not Ursa Minor like Earths. Recent observations by NASAs Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, ESAs Mars Express, the surface gravity of Mars is 38% that of Earth. Although microgravity is known to cause problems such as muscle loss and bone demineralization. The Mars Gravity Biosatellite was a project designed to learn more about what effect Marss lower surface gravity would have on humans. Mars is much colder than Earth, with surface temperatures between 186 and 268 K. The lowest temperature recorded on Earth was 180 K in Antarctica. Surface water on Mars may occur transiently, but only under certain conditions, because Mars is about 52% farther from the Sun, the amount of solar energy entering its upper atmosphere per unit area is only around 43. 3% of what reaches the Earths upper atmosphere.
However, due to the thinner atmosphere, a higher fraction of the solar energy reaches the surface. The maximum solar irradiance on Mars is about 590 W/m2 compared to about 1000 W/m2 at the Earths surface, year-round dust storms on Mars may block sunlight for weeks at a time. Marss orbit is more eccentric than Earths, increasing temperature and solar constant variations, due to the lack of a magnetosphere, solar particle events and cosmic rays can easily reach the Martian surface