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Marsala Ship

The Marsala Ship is the earliest warship known from archeological evidence. It is a wreck discovered in 1971 in an area called Punta Scario in the harbor of Marsala in western Sicily, near the Aegadian Islands; the Marsala Ship's "nationality" was painted on the sides with letters by its Punic builders from Carthage. Its architecture and contents show. A merchant cargo ship required large containers for storing water, it needed grinders and mortars for dried food. It would carry large pots for communal cooking, it would have fish-hooks for catching available fresh fish. The Marsala Ship bowls for individual servings, its wine and other liquids were carried in amphorae of miscellaneous shapes. Food remains were perishable, such as various kinds of butchered meat. Bones of deer, oxen, sheep and pigs were all found. All this indicated; the presence of ballast stones and lack of merchant cargo indicate that it was a warship used for scouting purposes or for ramming smaller boats. The remains of marijuana stems — which may have been chewed by the oarsmen — were found in the wreck.

It is believed to have been one of the Liburnian "long ships", an oared vessel with 17 sweeps per side used by ancient Carthage in the Battle of the Aegates Islands. This was the last battle of the First Punic War between the Roman Republic. Carbon-14 tests on timbers and other materials determined a date of 235 BC; the vessel was determined to be 115 feet long and 15.7 feet wide. In 1969 a captain of a commercial dredge digging sand for making glass discovered buried wood from ancient vessels in the area of Punta Scario. In 1971 the movement of a sandbank exposed the "Punic Ship's" stern post with projecting timber; this endangered the shipwreck, threatening the loss of the potential historical value of the information it revealed about the Phoenicians. Rescue excavation continued for the next four years; the Sicilian authorities and the British School at Rome appointed Honor Frost to direct the excavation. Frost and her international team of marine archeologists excavated the site. Progress reports were published yearly in the International Journal of Nautical Archaeology.

When the field-work ended, a comprehensive report was published by the'Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei as a Supplement to Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, XXX. Some rare finds amongst the shipwreck were a plaited basket, a piece of rope fashioned into a simple eye splice, a little brush, a knife blade, a spade, a couple of toggles. Found were parts of a human skeleton of a Carthaginian sailor trapped by the ship's ballast; the above pictures of the Marsala ship excavation are from the Regional Archaeological Museum Baglio Anselmi of Marsala in Sicily. Anzovin, Steven et al. Famous First Facts International Edition, H. W. Wilson Company, ISBN 0-8242-0958-3 Averdung, Denise,and Pedersen, Ralph K. "The Marsala Punic Warships: Reconsidering their Nature and the Function of the ‘Ram’.” Skyllis 12.2: 125-131. Council for Nautical Archaeology 1983, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration, Original at University of Michigan, Honor et al. 1981, Lilybaeum The Punic Ship: Final excavation report.

Delgado edition, Encyclopedia of Maritime and Underwater Archaeology, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-07427-1 Frost, Honor, “The discovery of a Punic Ship,” International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 1972.1. Frost, How Carthage Lost the Sea: Off the Coast of Sicily, a Punic Warship Gives up its Secret, Natural History, December 1987. Warships of the World to 1900, Houghton Mifflin Books, ISBN 0-395-98414-9 Research Reports — National Geographic Society 1973, page 261, pp. 151–166. Roman ship of Marausa

Manjak people

The Manjaks or Manjacks are an ethnic group in Guinea-Bissau. The Manjak endonym manjaku means "I tell you"; the Manjak language is classified as part of the Bak languages, a branch of Niger–Congo. António Baticã Ferreira is a Manjaco poet. Bafétimbi Gomis, Benjamin Mendy, Bernard Mendy, Ferland Mendy, Nampalys Mendy, Lys Mousset are all professional Manjak footballers. Kafétien Gomis, long jumper [[:fr:S. Pri Noir|Pri Noir, Madrane And Américo Gomes are some of the most notable musics Demographics of Senegal Languages of Senegal List of African ethnic groups Théodore Gomis. Le Manjak. Amadou Diop. Tradition et adaptation dans un réseau de migration sénégalais: la communauté manjak de France. Université de Paris. P. 337. A. M. Diop. Rite de passage et système religieux chez les manjaques. F. Galibert. "Au pays des Manjaques". Annales de l'Extrême-Orient et de l'Afrique: 65–74, 143–149, 180–185. Maria Teixeira. "Croyances et pratiques religieuses des Manjak en Guinée-Bissau". Le Manjak: 7–9. Maria Teixeira.

Changement social et contre sorcellerie féminine chez les manjak de Canchungo émigrés à Ziguinchor: les réponses du Bëpene et du Kasara. Maria Teixeira. "Dynamique des pouvoirs magico-religieux des femmes manjak de Canchungo émigrées à Ziguinchor". Soronda Revista de Estudos Guineenses. Sénégal. 1: 121–157. Maria Teixeira. "Bouleversements sociaux et contre-sorcellerie manjak. Guinée-Bissau/Sénégal". Cahiers de Sociologie Economique et Culturelle: 63–87. Maria Teixeira. Rituels divinatoires et du Sénégal. Paris: L'Harmattan. Maria Teixeira. "Origines et transformations d'un culte de possession chez les Manjak de Guinée-Bissau et du Sénégal". Familiarité avec les dieux. Transe et possession en Afrique Noire, La Réunion, Madagascar. Presses Universitaires Blaise Pascal, Collection Anthropologie: 223–248. Maria Teixeira. "Un rituel d'humanisation des nourrissons: le kabuatã manjak". Journal des Africanistes. Guinée-Bissau/Sénégal: 7–31. Maria Teixeira. "Développements contemporains d'un culte de soins: le kasara manjak".

Cahiers de Sociologie Economique et Culturelle. Guinée-Bissau, Sénégal: 75–90. Maria Teixeira. "Circulation des fluides et transformation des êtres. Les Manjak de Guinée-Bissau". Corps et affects. Paris: Éditions Odile Jacob: 187–203. Maria Teixeira. "Questionner la mort pour préserver la vie: Les Manjak du royaume de Babok, Guinée-Bissau". Prévoir et prédire la maladie. Paris: Aux lieux d'être: 49–66. Maria Teixeira. "Maïmouna et Mery: Devineresses-guérisseuses dans un réseau migratoire". Figures de guérisseurs contemporains. Le néo-traditionalisme en biographies. Paris: Karthala. Maria Teixeira. "Parachever l'humanité. Toilette, massage et soin des enfants manjak". Du soin au rite dans l'enfance. Paris: Editions Eres. Maria Teixeira. "Sorcellerie et contre-sorcellerie: un réajustement permanent au monde. Les Manjak de Guinée-Bissau et du Sénégal". Cahiers d'études africaines. 1-2. XLVIII: 59–79. Maria Teixeira. Stratégie de communication et attitudes linguistiques d'un groupe minoré: le cas des manjak sénégalais.

António Carreira. Vida social dos Manjacos. Lisbonne: Centro de Estudos da Guiné Portuguesa, Bissau. P. 185. Artur Martins de Meireles. Mutilações étnicas dos Manjacos. Centro de Estudos da Guiné Portuguesa, Bissau. P. 172

Czech Canadians

Czech Canadians are Canadian citizens of Czech ancestry or Czech Republic-born people who reside in Canada. It includes people descended from, the territory of the historic Czech lands, constituting the Kingdom of Bohemia, or successor states, now known as the Czech Republic the Czechs' nation state. In the 19th century, they were called Bohemians. According to the 2006 Canadian census, there were 98,090 Canadians of partial Czech descent. Data from this section from Statistics Canada, 2016. Vasek Pospisil - tennis player Jenna Talackova - model, TV personality Otto Jelinek - businessman, former figure skater, politician Thomas J. Bata - businessman, "Shoemaker to the World" Karla Homolka - Serial killer Josef Škvorecký - writer, publisher Demographics of the Czech Republic Canada–Czech Republic relations Czech people European Canadians Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. "Czechs:Origins.". Multicultural Canada