Beylerbey or Beylerbeyi was a high rank in the western Islamic world in the late Middle Ages and early modern period, from the Seljuks of Rum and the Ilkhanids to Safavid Persia and the Ottoman Empire. Designating a commander-in-chief, it came to be held by senior provincial governors. In Ottoman usage, where the rank survived the longest, it designated the governors-general of some of the largest and most important provinces, although in centuries it became devalued into a mere honorific title, its equivalents in Arabic were amir al-umara, in Persian, mir-i miran. The title was used by the Khans of the Indian princely state of Kalat; the title originated with the Seljuqs, was used in the Sultanate of Rum as an alternative for the Arabic title of malik al-umara, designating the army's commander-in-chief. Among the Mongol Ilkhanids, the title was used to designate the chief amir al-ulus —also known by the Turkic title ulusbegi and the Arabic amir al-umara–while in the Golden Horde it was applied to all the holders of the rank of amir al-ulus.
The Mamluks of Egypt used it as an alternative title for the atabak al-asakir, the commander-in-chief of the army. The Ottomans used the title from the late 14th until the mid-19th century, with varying meanings and degrees of importance; the early Ottoman state continued to use the term beylerbey in the meaning of commander-in-chief, held by princes of the Ottoman dynasty: under the Ottoman Empire's founder, Osman I, his son Orhan held the post, during Orhan's reign, his brother Alaeddin Pasha and Orhan's son Süleyman Pasha. The first step towards the transformation of the office into a gubernatorial title occurred when the title was given by Murad I to Lala Shahin Pasha, as a reward for his capture of Adrianople in the 1360s. In addition, Lala Shahin was given military authority over the Ottoman territories in Europe; this marked the beylerbey as the viceroy of the European territories as the Sultans still resided in Anatolia, as the straits of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, which connected the two parts of the Ottoman state, continued to escape full Ottoman control until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.
After Lala Shahin's death, sometime in 1385–87 he was succeeded in the position of commander-in-chief in Rumelia by Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha. In 1393, Sultan Bayezid I appointed Kara Timurtash as beylerbey and viceroy was in Anatolia, when Bayezid crossed over into Europe to campaign against Mircea I of Wallachia; this process marked the birth of the first two, by far the most important, beylerbeyliks, of Rumelia and Anatolia, while the third beylerbeylik, that of Rûm, followed soon after. The beylerbey was in charge of a province—termed beylerbeylik or generically vilayet, "province", while after 1591 the term eyalet was used and beylerbeylik came to mean the office of beylerbey—further subdivided into sanjaks or "liwa"s under sanjakbeys. With the continuous growth of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries, new provinces were established, the ranks of the beylerbeys swelled to a maximum of 44 by the end of the 16th century. A list of eyalets in 1609 mentions 32 in total, of which 23 regular eyalets where revenue was distributed among the military fief-holders, while the rest were under the salyane system, i.e. their revenue was sent to the imperial treasury, the officials and soldiers were paid salaries from it.
The size of these new provinces varied enormously: some containing as many as twenty sanjaks, others as few as two, including the beylerbey's own residence. Among themselves, the various beylerbeys had an order of precedence based on the date of conquest or formation of their provinces; the beylerbey of Rumelia, retained his pre-eminence, ranking first among the other provincial governors-general, being accorded a seat in the Imperial Council after 1536. In addition, the post was held by the Sultan's chief minister, the Grand Vizier himself. In his province, the beylerbey was regarded as a virtual viceroy of the Sultan: he had full authority over matters of war and administration, except in so far as they were limited by the authority of other officials appointed by the central government, chiefly the various fiscal secretaries under the mal defterdari and the kadı, who could appeal directly to the imperial government. In addition, as a further check to their power, the Janissary contingents stationed in the province's cities were outside his authority, beylerbeys were forbidden from entering the fortresses garrisoned by the Janissaries.
The beylerbey had his own court and government council and could grant fiefs without prior approval by the Sultan, although this right was curtailed after 1530, when his authority was restricted to smaller timars only. Having its origin in the military, the primary responsibility of the beylerbeys and their sanjakbeys was the maintenance the sipahi cavalry, formed by the holders of the military fiefs, whom they led in person on campaign. From the reign of Mehmed II onwards, the title of beylerbey became an honorary court rank, coming after the viziers. From the 16th century on, viziers could be appointed as provincial beylerbeys, enjoying precedence and authority over the ordinary beylerbeys of the nei
House of Orléans
The 4th House of Orléans, sometimes called the House of Bourbon-Orléans to distinguish it, is the fourth holder of a surname used by several branches of the Royal House of France, all descended in the legitimate male line from the dynasty's founder, Hugh Capet. The house was founded by Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, younger son of king Louis XIII and younger brother of king Louis XIV, the "Sun King". From 1709 until the French Revolution, the Orléans dukes were next in the order of succession to the French throne after members of the senior branch of the House of Bourbon, descended from king Louis XIV. Although Louis XIV's direct descendants retained the throne, his brother Philippe's descendants flourished until the end of the French monarchy; the Orleanists held the French throne from 1830 to 1848 and are still pretenders to the French throne today. It became a tradition during France's ancien régime for the duchy of Orléans to be granted as an appanage to a younger son of the king. While each of the Orléans branches thus descended from a junior prince, they were always among the king's nearest relations in the male line, sometimes aspiring to the throne itself, sometimes succeeding.
Since they had contemporaneous living descendants, there were two Bourbon-Orléans branches at court during the reign of Louis XIV. The elder of these branches consisted of Prince Gaston, Duke of Anjou, younger son of king Henry IV, the four daughters of his two marriages. Prince Gaston became the Duke of Orléans in 1626, held that title until his death in 1660. Upon the death of Gaston, the appanage of the Duchy of Orléans reverted to the Crown, his nephew, Louis XIV gave Gaston's appanages to his younger brother Prince Philippe, who became Duke of Orléans. At court, Gaston was known as Le Grand Monsieur, Philippe was called Le Petit Monsieur while both princes were alive. Philippe and his second wife, the famous court writer Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, founded the modern House of Bourbon-Orléans. Before Philippe had been styled as the Duke of Anjou, like Prince Gaston. Besides receiving the appanage of Orléans, he received the duchies of Valois and Chartres: Duke of Chartres became the courtesy title by which the heirs apparent of the Dukes of Orléans were known during their fathers' lifetimes.
Until the birth of the king's son, the Dauphin Louis, the Duke of Orléans was the heir presumptive to the crown. He was to maintain a high position at court till his death in 1701, their surviving son, Philippe II served as the regent of France for the young Louis XV. As a fils de France, Philippe's surname was de France. Upon his death, his son as a petit-fils de France, his surname d'Orléans was taken from his father's main title. The first two dukes, as son and patrilineal grandson of a French king, were entitled to be addressed as Royal Highness, but Philippe I was known as Monsieur, the style reserved at the French court for the king's eldest brother. Philippe II was succeeded as duke by his only legitimate son, Louis d'Orléans, entitled to the style of Serene Highness as a prince du sang. After 1709, the heads of the Orléans branch of the House of Bourbon ranked as the premier princes du sang – this meant that the dukes could be addressed as Monsieur le Prince. More should there be no heir to the Crown of France in the king's immediate family the Orléans family would ascend by right the throne.
In 1709, the 5th prince de Condé died. He was the premier prince du sang and head of the House of Bourbon-Condé; as a result of this death, the title of premier prince passed to the House of Orléans, as they were closer in blood to the throne of France. But since the two senior males of that line held higher rank as fils de France and petit-fils de France, they did not make use of the title and had no need of its attached prerogative; the Orléans household was large, as it held the staff of Philippe II d'Orléans and of his wife, as well as the staff of his widowed mother, the dowager Duchess. This combined household, though not functional until 1723, contained 250 members including officers, footmen and barbers. On the death of Louis XIV in September 1715, the new king, Louis XV, was but five years old; the country was governed by the new king's older relative Philippe II d'Orléans as the regent of France. This period in French history is known as the Regency, gave the House of Orléans the pre-eminent position and political role in France during the king's minority.
The regent ruled France from his family residence in the Palais-Royal. He installed the young Louis XV in the Palais du Louvre, opposite the Palais-Royal. In January 1723 Louis XV began to govern the country on his own; the young king moved the court back to Versailles and in December, Philippe II died and his son, Louis d'Orléans succeeded him as 3rd duke and, more as France's heir presumptive. Nonetheless, since his rank by birth was prince du sang, that of premier prince du sang constituted a higher style, of which he and his descendants henceforth made use. Louis d'Orléans was in several ways his father's opposite, being retiring by nature and devout. Although still in his twenties when widowed, he did not remarry after his wife's death, is not known to have taken a mistress, he died in the Monastery of St. Geneviève in Paris, his son, Louis Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, was the fourth
Voivode, Vojvoda or Wojewoda is a Slavic term for a military commander in Central and Southern Europe during the Early Middle Ages, or a governor of a territorial voivodeship. The different permutations of the term all share two roots, voi related to warring and secondly, vod meaning leading in Old Slavic, together denoting a "war-leader" or "warlord". In early Slavic vojevoda meant the bellidux the military leader in battle. During the Byzantine Empire it referred to military commanders of Slavic populations in the Balkans, the Bulgarian Empire being the first permanently established Slavic state in the region; the title voevodas occurs in the work of the 10th-century Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in his De Administrando Imperio in reference to Hungarian military leaders. The title was used in medieval Bohemia, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Poland, Rügen, Russian Empire, Serbia and Wallachia In the Late Middle Ages the voivode, Latin translation is comes palatinus for the principal commander of a military force, deputising for the monarch became the title of territorial Voivodeship governors of senatorial rank in Poland and the Czech lands and in the Balkans.
In the Kingdom of Serbia the highest military rank was Army General. After the Second World War, the newly formed Yugoslav People's Army stopped using the royal ranking system, making the name obsolete; the transition of the voivode from military leader to a high ranking civic role in territorial administration occurred in most Slavic countries and in the Balkans in the Late Middle Ages. They included Bulgaria, the Czech lands, Moldavia and Russia. Moreover in the Czech lands it was an aristocratic title corresponding to Duke or Knyaz. In the 16th-century Commonwealth of Two Nations the Wojewoda was a civic role of senatorial rank and neither heritable nor a title of nobility, his powers and duties depended on his location. The least onerous role was in Ruthenia; the role began in the crown lands as that of an administrative overseer, but his powers were ceremonial. Over time he became a representative in the Sejm, his military functions were reduced to supervising a Mass mobilization and in practice he ended up as little more than overseer of weights and measures.
Appointments to the role were made until 1775 by the King. The exceptions were the voivodes of Polock and Vitebsk who were elected by a local poll of male electors for confirmation by the monarch. In 1791 it was decided to adopt the procedure throughout the country but the Partitions of Poland put a stop to it.. Polish voivodes were subject to the Law of Incompatibility which prevented them from holding ministerial or other civic offices in their area; the role was revived during the Second Polish Republic after Poland regained her independence in 1918. Voivodes continue to have a role in local government in Poland today, as overseers of self-governing local councils, answerable not to the local electorate but as representatives/emissaries of the central government's Council of Ministers, they are appointed by the Chairman of the Council of Ministers and among their main tasks are budgetary control and supervision of the administrative code. Bjelajac, Mile. Generali i admirali Kraljevine Jugoslavije 1918—1941.
Belgrade: Institut za novu istoriju Srbije. ISBN 86-7005-039-0. Franz Ritter von Miklosich. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der slavischen Sprachen. W. Braumüller. P. 393. Konstantin Jireček. Staat und gesellschaft im mittelalterlichen Serbien: studien zur kulturgeschichte des 13.-15. Jahrhunderts. In Kommission bei Alfred Hölder
The July Monarchy was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848. It marks the end of the Bourbon Restoration, it began with the overthrow of the conservative government of Charles X, the last king of the House of Bourbon. Louis Philippe, a member of the more liberal Orléans branch of the House of Bourbon, proclaimed himself as Roi des Français rather than "King of France", emphasizing the popular origins of his reign; the king promised to follow the "juste milieu", or the middle-of-the-road, avoiding the extremes of either the conservative supporters of Charles X and radicals on the left. The July Monarchy was dominated by numerous former Napoleonic officials, it followed conservative policies under the influence of François Guizot. The king promoted friendship with Great Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, notably the conquest of Algeria. By 1848, a year in which many European states had a revolution, the king's popularity had collapsed, he was overthrown.
Louis Phillipe was pushed to the throne by an alliance between the people of Paris. However, at the end of his reign, the so-called "Citizen King" was overthrown by similar citizen uprisings and use of barricades during the February Revolution of 1848; this resulted in the proclamation of the Second Republic. After Louis-Philippe's ousting and subsequent exile to Britain, the liberal Orleanist faction continued to support a return of the House of Orléans to the throne, but the July Monarchy proved to be the last Bourbon-Orleans monarchy of France. The Legitimists withdrew from politics to their castles, leaving the way open for the struggle between the Orleanists and the Republicans; the July Monarchy is seen as a period during which the haute bourgeoisie was dominant, marked the shift from the counter-revolutionary Legitimists to the Orleanists. They were willing to make some compromises with the changes brought by the 1789 Revolution. For instance, Louis-Philippe was crowned "King of the French", instead of "King of France": this marked his acceptance of popular sovereignty.
Louis-Philippe, who had flirted with liberalism in his youth, rejected much of the pomp and circumstance of the Bourbons and surrounded himself with merchants and bankers. The July Monarchy, ruled during a time of turmoil. A large group of Legitimists on the right demanded the restoration of the Bourbons to the throne. On the left and Socialism, remained a powerful force. Late in his reign Louis-Philippe became rigid and dogmatic and his President of the Council, François Guizot, had become unpopular, but the king refused to remove him; the situation escalated until the Revolutions of 1848 resulted in the fall of the monarchy and the establishment of the Second Republic. However, during the first few years of his reign, Louis-Philippe was taking action to develop legitimate, broad-based reform; the government found its source of legitimacy within the Charter of 1830, written by reform-minded members of Chamber of Deputies and committed to a platform of religious equality among Catholics and Protestants.
Louis-Phillipe and his ministers adhered to policies that seemed to promote the central tenets of the constitution. However, the majority of these policies were veiled attempts to shore up the power and influence of the government and the bourgeoisie, rather than legitimate attempts to promote equality and empowerment for a broad constituency of the French population. Thus, though the July Monarchy seemed to move toward reform, this movement was illusory. During the years of the July Monarchy, enfranchisement doubled, from 94,000 under Charles X to more than 200,000 men by 1848. But, this number still represented only one percent of population and a small number of those men of eligible age; as the qualifications for voting was related to payment of a certain level of taxes, only the wealthiest men gained this privilege. The extended franchise tended to favor the wealthy merchant bourgeoisie more than any other group. Beyond resulting in the election of more bourgeoisie to the Chamber of Deputies, this electoral expansion meant that the bourgeoisie could politically challenge the nobility on legislative matters.
Thus, while appearing to honor his pledge to increase suffrage, Louis-Philippe acted to empower his supporters and increase his hold over the French Parliament. The election of only the wealthiest men tended to undermine any possibility for growth of a radical faction in Parliament, served conservative ends; the reformed Charter of 1830 limited the power of the king—stripping him of his ability to propose and decree legislation, as well as limiting his executive authority. However, Louis believed in a kind of monarchy in which the king was more than a figurehead for an elected Parliament, as such, he was involved in legislative affairs. One of his first acts in creating his government was to appoint the conservative Casimir Perier as the premier of his cabinet. Perier, a banker, was instrumental in shutting down many of the Republican secret societies and labor unions that had formed during the early years of the regime. In addition, he oversaw the dism
Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I was King of the French from 1830 to 1848. His father Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans had taken the name "Philippe Égalité" because he supported the French Revolution. However, following the deposition and execution of his cousin King Louis XVI, Louis Philippe fled the country, his father denounced his actions and voted for his death, but was imprisoned and executed that same year. Louis Philippe spent the next 21 years in exile before returning during the Bourbon Restoration, he was proclaimed king in 1830 after his cousin Charles X was forced to abdicate by the July Revolution. The reign of Louis Philippe is known as the July Monarchy and was dominated by wealthy industrialists and bankers, he followed conservative policies under the influence of French statesman François Guizot during the period 1840–48. He promoted friendship with Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, notably the French conquest of Algeria, his popularity faded as economic conditions in France deteriorated in 1847, he was forced to abdicate after the outbreak of the French Revolution of 1848.
He lived out his life in exile in the United Kingdom. His supporters were known as Orléanists, as opposed to Legitimists who supported the main line of the House of Bourbon. Louis Philippe was born in the Palais Royal, the residence of the Orléans family in Paris, to Louis Philippe, Duke of Chartres, Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon; as a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a Prince of the Blood, which entitled him the use of the style "Serene Highness". His mother was an wealthy heiress, descended from Louis XIV of France through a legitimized line. Louis Philippe was the eldest of three sons and a daughter, a family, to have erratic fortunes from the beginning of the French Revolution to the Bourbon Restoration; the elder branch of the House of Bourbon, to which the kings of France belonged distrusted the intentions of the cadet branch, which would succeed to the throne of France should the senior branch die out. Louis Philippe's father was exiled from the royal court, the Orléans confined themselves to studies of the literature and sciences emerging from the Enlightenment.
Louis Philippe was tutored by the Countess of Genlis, beginning in 1782. She instilled in him a fondness for liberal thought; when Louis Philippe's grandfather died in 1785, his father succeeded him as Duke of Orléans and Louis Philippe succeeded his father as Duke of Chartres. In 1788, with the Revolution looming, the young Louis Philippe showed his liberal sympathies when he helped break down the door of a prison cell in Mont Saint-Michel, during a visit there with the Countess of Genlis. From October 1788 to October 1789, the Palais Royal was a meeting-place for the revolutionaries. Louis Philippe grew up in a period that changed Europe as a whole and, following his father's strong support for the Revolution, he involved himself in those changes. In his diary, he reports that he himself took the initiative to join the Jacobin Club, a move that his father supported. In June 1791, Louis Philippe got his first opportunity to become involved in the affairs of France. In 1785, he had been given the hereditary appointment of Colonel of the Chartres Dragoons.
With war imminent in 1791, all proprietary colonels were ordered to join their regiments. Louis Philippe showed himself to be a model officer, he demonstrated his personal bravery in two famous instances. First, three days after Louis XVI's flight to Varennes, a quarrel between two local priests and one of the new constitutional vicars became heated, a crowd surrounded the inn where the priests were staying, demanding blood; the young colonel broke through the crowd and extricated the two priests, who fled. At a river crossing on the same day, another crowd threatened to harm the priests. Louis Philippe put himself between a peasant armed with a carbine and the priests, saving their lives; the next day, Louis Philippe dove into a river to save a drowning local engineer. For this action, he received a civic crown from the local municipality, his regiment was moved north to Flanders at the end of 1791 after the August 27, 1791 Declaration of Pillnitz. Louis Philippe served under his father's crony, Armand Louis de Gontaut the Duke of Biron, along with several officers who gained distinction in Napoleon's empire and afterwards.
These included Lieutenant Colonel Alexandre de Beauharnais. After war was declared by the Kingdom of France on the Habsburg Monarchy on April 20, 1792, Louis Philippe saw his first exchanges of fire of the French Revolutionary Wars within the invaded by France Austrian Netherlands at Boussu, Walloon, on about April 28, 1792, at Quaregnon, Walloon, on about April 29, 1792, at Quiévrain, near Jemappes, Walloon, on about April 30, 1792, where he was instrumental in rallying a unit of retreating soldiers after the victorious Battle of Quiévrain only two days earlier on April 28th of 1792. Biron wrote to War Minister de Grave, praising the young colonel, promoted to brigadier, commanding a brigade of cavalry in Lückner's Army of the North. In the Army of the North, Louis Philippe served with four future Marshals of France: Macdonald, Mortier and Oudinot. Dumouriez was appointed to command the Army of the North in August 1792. Louis Philippe commanded a division under him in the Valmy campaign. At the September 20, 1792 Battle of Va
Highest military ranks
In many nations the highest military ranks are classed as being equivalent to, or are described as, five-star ranks. However, a number of nations have used or proposed ranks such as generalissimo which are senior to their five-star equivalent ranks; this article summarises those ranks. Adopted from Italian and Latin, the rank titles mean "the utmost general". A number of countries, including the Republic of China, Russia, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico and the USSR, have used these ranks. In most of these countries, the rank has only been held by two men; the rank of grand marshal has been used by the armed forces of the Empire of Japan, the Republic of China and the military of North Korea. All three nations have used the Chinese rank of 大元帥 with their own languages. In Japanese, the rank is dai-gensui and in Korean it is taewonsu. During the early years of the Republic of China, three individuals assumed the rank of "grand marshal of the army and navy": Yuan Shikai in 1913, Sun Yat-sen in 1917 and Zhang Zuolin in 1927.
The rank of "general special class" or "generalissimo" was awarded to Chiang Kai-shek in 1935. No one in the People's Republic of China has been awarded the rank, though the supreme rank of "grand marshal of the People's Republic of China" was proposed after the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949, but was never conferred; the title Marshal General of France or more "Marshal General of the King's camps and armies" was given to signify that the recipient had authority over all the French armies in the days when a marshal governed only one army. This dignity was bestowed only on Marshals of France when the dignity of Constable of France was unavailable or, after 1626, suppressed. Marshal of France is a military distinction in contemporary France, not a military rank but is granted to generals for exceptional achievements, it was one of the great officers of the Crown of France during the Ancien Régime and Bourbon Restoration and one of the great dignitaries of the Empire during the First French Empire.
"Marshal of the Empire" was a civil dignity during the First French Empire. It was created by Sénatus-consulte on 18 May 1804 and to a large extent resurrected the abolished title of marshal of France. According to the Sénatus-consulte, a marshal was a grand officer of the Empire, entitled to a high-standing position at the court and to the presidency of an electoral college; the Italian rank of "first marshal of the Empire" was granted in 1938 to Benito Mussolini and King Victor Emmanuel III, who remain the only holders, as the rank was abolished after World War II. The Japanese rank of dai-gensui was held by the Emperor of Japan in his capacity as commander-in-chief of the Imperial Japanese Army, was abolished in 1947, it was held by three people: Emperor Meiji, Emperor Taishō, Emperor Shōwa. In 1940 Nazi Germany, Hermann Göring was promoted by Adolf Hitler to Reichsmarschall, the highest rank in the armed forces of Nazi Germany during World War II. Göring was the only person to hold this rank in modern times.
The rank of Reichsmarschall was created before the 12th century, during the time of the Holy Roman Empire. Holding the rank of Reichsmarschall was neither unique nor as prestigious as it was during World War II. During the time of the German Empire and World War I, no one in the German armed forces held this rank; the highest rank in North Korea is taewonsu and is intended to be an honorific title for the nation’s leaders. Its insignia is based with an added crest; the rank was created in 1992 when it was awarded to Kim Il-sung, the only holder until 2012, when his successor Kim Jong-il was awarded the title posthumously. It is a seven-star equivalent rank; the rank of wonsu is the highest military rank except taewonsu. Its insignia is a large single star, based on the insignia of marshal of the Soviet Union, itself based on the marshal's star. North Koreans awarded the rank of wonsu have included: Kim Jong-il, O Jin U, Choe Kwang and Ri Ul-sol. Rank of marshal with the title "marshal of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea" is superior to "marshal of the Korean People's Army".
North Korea maintains a rank of chasu, senior to the four-star rank of daejang, but junior to wonsu. The Spanish rank mariscal presidente de los ejércitos was a rank given by the Paraguayan Congress to Francisco Solano López at the beginning of the Paraguayan War, it is equivalent to the rank of grand marshal. López remains the only Paraguayan, ranked as a marshal during his lifetime and the only one with the title mariscal presidente de los ejércitos. José Félix Estigarribia posthumously received the rank of field marshal. Marshal of the Russian Federation is the highest military rank of Russia, created in 1993 following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In South Korea wonsu is considered a five-star rank, uses an insignia based on the five-star insignia of the U. S. General of the Army; the rank of "generalissimus of the Soviet Union" was created on 27 June 1945, granted to Joseph Stalin