Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. It has been defined both as "the Science of Justice" and "the Art of Justice". Law is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process; the formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. A general distinction can be made between civil law jurisdictions, in which a legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates their laws, common law systems, where judge-made precedent is accepted as binding law.
Religious laws played a significant role in settling of secular matters, is still used in some religious communities. Islamic Sharia law is the world's most used religious law, is used as the primary legal system in some countries, such as Iran and Saudi Arabia; the adjudication of the law is divided into two main areas. Criminal law deals with conduct, considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party may be imprisoned or fined. Civil law deals with the resolution of lawsuits between individuals and/or organizations. Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, economic analysis and sociology. Law raises important and complex issues concerning equality and justice. Numerous definitions of law have been put forward over the centuries; the Third New International Dictionary from Merriam-Webster defines law as: "Law is a binding custom or practice of a community. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas published by Scribner's in 1973 defined the concept of law accordingly as: "A legal system is the most explicit, institutionalized, complex mode of regulating human conduct.
At the same time, it plays only one part in the congeries of rules which influence behavior, for social and moral rules of a less institutionalized kind are of great importance." There have been several attempts to produce "a universally acceptable definition of law". In 1972, one source indicated. McCoubrey and White said that the question "what is law?" has no simple answer. Glanville Williams said that the meaning of the word "law" depends on the context in which that word is used, he said that, for example, "early customary law" and "municipal law" were contexts where the word "law" had two different and irreconcilable meanings. Thurman Arnold said that it is obvious that it is impossible to define the word "law" and that it is equally obvious that the struggle to define that word should not be abandoned, it is possible to take the view that there is no need to define the word "law". The history of law links to the development of civilization. Ancient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code, broken into twelve books.
It was based on the concept of Ma'at, characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality. By the 22nd century BC, the ancient Sumerian ruler Ur-Nammu had formulated the first law code, which consisted of casuistic statements. Around 1760 BC, King Hammurabi further developed Babylonian law, by codifying and inscribing it in stone. Hammurabi placed several copies of his law code throughout the kingdom of Babylon as stelae, for the entire public to see; the most intact copy of these stelae was discovered in the 19th century by British Assyriologists, has since been transliterated and translated into various languages, including English, Italian and French. The Old Testament dates back to 1280 BC and takes the form of moral imperatives as recommendations for a good society; the small Greek city-state, ancient Athens, from about the 8th century BC was the first society to be based on broad inclusion of its citizenry, excluding women and the slave class. However, Athens had no legal science or single word for "law", relying instead on the three-way distinction between divine law, human decree and custom.
Yet Ancient Greek law contained major constitutional innovations in the development of democracy. Roman law was influenced by Greek philosophy, but its detailed rules were developed by professional jurists and were sophisticated. Over the centuries between the rise and decline of the Roman Empire, law was adapted to cope with the changing social situations and underwent major codification under Theodosius II and Justinian I. Although codes were replaced by custom and case law during the Dark Ages, Roman law was rediscovered around the 11th century when medieval legal scholars began to research Roman codes and adapt their concepts. Latin legal maxims were compiled for guidance. In medieval England, royal
Computer-generated imagery is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, television programs, commercials and simulators. The visual scenes may be dynamic or static and may be two-dimensional, though the term "CGI" is most used to refer to 3D computer graphics used for creating scenes or special effects in films and television. Additionally, the use of 2D CGI is mistakenly referred to as "traditional animation", most in the case when dedicated animation software such as Adobe Flash or Toon Boom is not used or the CGI is hand drawn using a tablet and mouse; the term'CGI animation' refers to dynamic CGI rendered as a movie. The term virtual world refers to interactive environments. Computer graphics software is used to make computer-generated imagery for etc.. Availability of CGI software and increased computer speeds have allowed individual artists and small companies to produce professional-grade films and fine art from their home computers.
This has brought about an Internet subculture with its own set of global celebrities, clichés, technical vocabulary. The evolution of CGI led to the emergence of virtual cinematography in the 1990s where runs of the simulated camera are not constrained by the laws of physics. Not only do animated images form part of computer-generated imagery, natural looking landscapes are generated via computer algorithms. A simple way to generate fractal surfaces is to use an extension of the triangular mesh method, relying on the construction of some special case of a de Rham curve, e.g. midpoint displacement. For instance, the algorithm may start with a large triangle recursively zoom in by dividing it into four smaller Sierpinski triangles interpolate the height of each point from its nearest neighbors; the creation of a Brownian surface may be achieved not only by adding noise as new nodes are created but by adding additional noise at multiple levels of the mesh. Thus a topographical map with varying levels of height can be created using straightforward fractal algorithms.
Some typical, easy-to-program fractals used in CGI are the plasma fractal and the more dramatic fault fractal. A large number of specific techniques have been researched and developed to produce focused computer-generated effects — e.g. the use of specific models to represent the chemical weathering of stones to model erosion and produce an "aged appearance" for a given stone-based surface. Modern architects use services from computer graphic firms to create 3-dimensional models for both customers and builders; these computer generated. Architectural animation can be used to see the possible relationship a building will have in relation to the environment and its surrounding buildings; the rendering of architectural spaces without the use of paper and pencil tools is now a accepted practice with a number of computer-assisted architectural design systems. Architectural modeling tools allow an architect to visualize a space and perform "walk-throughs" in an interactive manner, thus providing "interactive environments" both at the urban and building levels.
Specific applications in architecture not only include the specification of building structures and walk-throughs but the effects of light and how sunlight will affect a specific design at different times of the day. Architectural modeling tools have now become internet-based. However, the quality of internet-based systems still lags behind that of sophisticated in-house modeling systems. In some applications, computer-generated images are used to "reverse engineer" historical buildings. For instance, a computer-generated reconstruction of the monastery at Georgenthal in Germany was derived from the ruins of the monastery, yet provides the viewer with a "look and feel" of what the building would have looked like in its day. Computer generated. However, organizations such as the Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute have developed anatomically correct computer-based models. Computer generated anatomical models can be used both for operational purposes. To date, a large body of artist produced medical images continue to be used by medical students, such as images by Frank H. Netter, e.g. Cardiac images.
However, a number of online anatomical models are becoming available. A single patient X-ray is not a computer generated image if digitized. However, in applications which involve CT scans a three-dimensional model is automatically produced from a large number of single slice x-rays, producing "computer generated image". Applications involving magnetic resonance imaging bring together a number of "snapshots" to produce a composite, internal image. In modern medical applications, patient-specific models are constructed in'computer assisted surgery'. For instance, in total knee replacement, the construction of a detailed patient-specific model can be used to plan the surgery; these three-dimensional models are extracted from multiple CT scans of the appropriate parts of the patient's own anatomy. Such models can be used for planning aortic valve implantations, one of the common procedures for treating heart disease. Given that the shape and position of the coronary openings can vary from patient to patient, the extraction of a model that resembles a patient's valve anatomy can be beneficial in planning the procedure.
Models of cloth fall
SeaChange is an Australian television program that ran for 39 episodes from 1998 to 2000 on the ABC. It was created by Andrew Knight and Deborah Cox and starred Sigrid Thornton, David Wenham, William McInnes, John Howard, Tom Long, Kerry Armstrong; the director was Michael Carson. Laura Gibson, a high-flying city lawyer, is prompted to undergo a'seachange' with her children Rupert and Miranda after her husband is arrested for fraud and is found to have had an affair with her sister. Laura becomes the magistrate for the small coastal town of Pearl Bay. With its many colourful characters, the town is isolated from the rest of the world since the local bridge was destroyed in one of the natural disasters common to Pearl Bay. Although they miss the city, the family comes to love the town and its people and spend more quality time with each other. Starring: Sigrid Thornton as Laura Gibson David Wenham as Daniel Della Bosca: Diver Dan owns the local cafe/boat-shed, he is a red-headed fisherman who soon becomes Laura's love interest.
William McInnes as Max Connors: A foreign correspondent who comes back to his hometown to enjoy the final days of his wife Elana's life there. She dies shortly after his arrival. Laura befriends him and romantic tensions develop. John Howard as Bob Jelly: The Mayor of Pearl Bay and local real estate agent, Bob has a reputation for sneaky and illegal business deals which backfire. Kerry Armstrong as Heather Jelly: Bob Jelly's loyal, affectionate wife. Armstrong proposed a change to the dynamic of the Jelly family, suggesting that they should love each other if the rest of the town despised them. In alphabetical order: Bruce Alexander as Sergeant Graham Grey Kate Atkinson as Karen Miller Alan Cassell as Harold Fitzwalter: Harold is the ex-Magistrate in Pearl Bay and is Meredith's lover. Together they had a child. In the series they discover their daughter lives in Pearl Bay, is a well-known figure in the town. Paul English as Jack Gibson Patrick Dickson as Jack Gibson Jill Forster as Meredith Monahan: Meredith runs the town's hotel and restaurant.
She is locally renowned for her excellent memory of faces, dates and events decades later. Alice Garner as Carmen'Lois Lane' Blake Kevin Harrington as Kevin Findlay Tom Long as Angus Kabiri Christopher Lyons as Trevor Findlay Cassandra Magrath as Miranda Gibson Kane McNay as Rupert Gibson Georgina Naidu as Phrani Gupta Cameron Nugent as Craig Jelly Bryony Price as Jules Jelly Brett Swain as Griff In the opening episode, "Something Rich and Strange", we are introduced to Laura Gibson, a high-flying corporate lawyer. In one day, her life falls apart: she loses out on a partnership at work, discovers that her husband has been arrested for fraud and that her sister Trudi is having an affair with him. On a whim, she takes a job as a magistrate in the small seaside town of Pearl Bay, where she once had a holiday with her family during happier times. In Pearl Bay, she meets a cast of colourful characters: Meredith Monahan, the woman who can remember every single event that has happened in town during her lifetime.
While Laura's children and Miranda, struggle to get used to their new life, Laura attempts to fit in, despite their run-down house and the eccentric court cases. Both helping and hindering her is Diver Dan, the enigmatic cafe owner/ferryman/chef with no ambition but a curious and colourful past, with whom she soon strikes up a relationship; the first series ends with a series of climaxes involving Carmen's pregnancy, the discovery of Meredith and Harold's long-lost daughter. After a successful first series of 13 episodes, the ABC asked for more. David Wenham opted not to renew his contract, so, two episodes into the second series, Diver Dan leaves Pearl Bay for the Galapagos Islands. In his place comes old friend Max Connors and wife Elena. Max has much to deal with leaving his family, his wife's sudden death stuns the town. Storm damage in the aftermath of the first series means that Pearl Bay goes through serious trauma and things only get worse. Alison Whyte guest stars as a con artist who gets the better of Bob, of the whole town.
Heather bonds with her parents. Rupert's determination to get Laura back together with her ex-husband only meets with disaster. In the series, the town begins to specualte about Max and Laura's relationship, the resulting confusion brings them closer. Bucket's dog Alfonzo Dominico Jones dies mysteriously and a swimming pool is named after him, in preference to the planned name, the'Jelly Baby Bath', named after Pearl Bay's aforementioned mayor; the ABC commissioned a third series. In the third series, the events of the show reach their climax. Laura decides not to take the step in her relationship with Max, propelling a despondent Max into Carmen's arms. An in-denial Laura turns to the dull Warwick. Heather and Bob's separation is followed by his political demise. Meredith's health takes a turn for the worse. Mark Mitchell guest star
The Seven Network is a major Australian commercial free-to-air television network. It is owned by Seven West Media Limited, is one of five main free-to-air television networks in Australia. Channel Seven head. Since 2007, the Seven Network has been the highest rated television network and primary channel in Australia; the Seven Network is the broadcaster of popular franchises and programs, including the AFL, the Cricket, the Olympics, Sunrise, My Kitchen Rules, The Chase Australia, Australia's Got Talent, House Rules and Away, Better Homes & Gardens and Seven News. In 2011 the Seven Network won all 40 out of 40 weeks of the ratings season for total viewers. Seven is the first to achieve this since the introduction of the OzTAM ratings system in 2001; as of 2014, it is the second largest network in the country in terms of population reach. Seven's administration headquarters are in Eveleigh, completed in 2003. National news and current affairs programming are based between flagship station ATN-7 in Sydney and HSV-7 in Melbourne.
In 2009, Seven moved its Sydney-based production operations from Epping to a purpose-built high-definition television production facility at the Australian Technology Park in Eveleigh. The present Seven Network began as a group of independent stations in Sydney, Brisbane and Perth. HSV-7 Melbourne, licensed to The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, was launched on 4 November 1956, the first station in the country to use the VHF7 frequency. ATN-7 Sydney, licensed to Amalgamated Television Services, a subsidiary of Fairfax, was launched on 2 December 1956; the two stations did not share resources, instead formed content-sharing partnerships with their VHF9 counterparts by 1957: ATN-7 partnered with Melbourne's GTV-9, while HSV-7 paired up with Sydney's TCN-9. TVW-7 Perth, licensed to TVW Limited, a subsidiary of West Australian Newspapers, publisher of The West Australian, began broadcasting two years on 16 October 1959, as the city's first commercial station. BTQ-7 Brisbane followed on 1 November, signing on as Brisbane's second commercial television station.
ADS-7 Adelaide was launched on 24 October 1959 as the final capital city VHF7 station. The station swapped frequencies with SAS-10, with the latter becoming SAS-7HSV-7 began its relationship with the Victorian Football League in April 1957, when the station broadcast the first live Australian rules football match. Throughout this time, the stations operated independently of each other, with schedules made up of various simple, inexpensive, such as Pick a Box and spinoffs of popular radio shows. In the early 1960s, coaxial cable links, formed between Sydney and Melbourne, allowed the sharing of programmes and simultaneous broadcasts of live shows. In 1960, Frank Packer, the owner of Sydney's TCN-9, bought a controlling share of Melbourne's GTV-9, in the process creating the country's first television network and dissolving the ATN-7/GTV-9 and HSV-7/TCN-9 partnerships. Left without their original partners, ATN-7 and HSV-7 joined to form the Australian Television Network in 1963; the new grouping was soon joined by other capital-city channel 7 stations, ADS-7 Adelaide and BTQ-7 Brisbane.
The new network began to produce and screen higher-budget programs to attract viewers, most notably Homicide, a series which would continue for another 12 years to become the nation's longest running drama series. However, it was not until 1970 that a national network logo was adopted, albeit still with independently owned and operated stations with local advertising campaigns. Colour television was introduced across the network in 1975. Rupert Murdoch made an unsuccessful bid for the Herald and Weekly Times, owners of HSV-7, in 1979 going on to gain control of rival ATV-10. Fairfax, however bought a 14.9% share of the company in the same year. The 1980s saw the introduction of stereo sound, as well as a number of successful shows, most notably A Country Practice in 1981, Sons and Daughters, which began in 1982. Wheel of Fortune began its 25-year run in July 1981, produced from ADS-7's studios in Adelaide; the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow were shown live on the network the year before. Neighbours began on Seven in 1985, but low ratings in Sydney led to the cancellation of the new series at the end of the year, which moved to Network Ten and went on to achieve international success.
Perth based businessman Robert Holmes à Court, through his business the Bell Group, bought TVW-7 from its original owners, West Australian Newspapers in 1982. The Herald and Weekly Times, owner of HSV-7 and ADS-7, was sold to Rupert Murdoch in December 1986 for an estimated A$1.8 billion. Murdoch's company, News Limited, sold off HSV-7 to Fairfax soon afterwards, for $320 million. Fairfax went on to axe a number of locally produced shows in favour of networked content from its Sydney counterpart, ATN-7. Cross-media ownership laws introduced in 1987 forced Fairfax to choose between its print and television operations – it chose the former, sold off its stations to Qintex Ltd. owned by businessman Christopher Skase. Qintex had bought, subsequently sold off, stations in Brisbane and regional Queensland before taking control of the network; the next year, another new logo was introduced along with evening soap Home and Away and a relaunched Seven Nightly News, now known as Seven News. The network became national in 1988 when Skase bought TVW-7 for $130 million.
In 1989, the network cha
Rove (TV series)
Rove titled Rove Live, was an Australian television variety show, that featured live music performances and interviews with local and international celebrity guests. The program premiered on the Nine Network on 22 September 1999, before moving to Network Ten which aired the program from 2000 until November 2009; the show was hosted by comedian Rove McManus through his production company Roving Enterprises, featured an ensemble cast who presented various segments throughout the course of the show. The show won the Logie Award for "Most Popular Light Entertainment Program" five times. Rove McManus began his television career hosting the RMITV-produced The Loft Live on Melbourne's Channel 31, a community-access television station, it was a straightforward tonight show, with a comic monologue from the host, pre-recorded skits and guest interviews. The show had unusually high production values for a community access show; the Nine Network developed the show into a commercial production. In 1999, the show, named Rove, ran in a late-night timeslot for 10 episodes.
The show featured McManus and three co-hosts he referred to as'the kids on the couch': Peter Helliar, Corinne Grant and Dave Callan. However, Nine decided not to renew the program and the cast moved to Network Ten the following year; the new show similar to the Nine production, was named Rove Live. The show was sometimes known as Rove or Rove, owing to the use of brackets around the word'Live' in some of the show's graphics. Dave Callan left the show after one year, to pursue standup radio opportunities. Corinne Grant left the show at the end of 2005, to concentrate on The Glass House and other interests. Carrie Bickmore joined the cast in 2006. Meshel Laurie joined the cast for only one year. In November 2006, Rove Live was suspended until further notice due to the death of McManus's wife Belinda Emmett. Rove wrote a personal message on the Rove Live website, saying that it "is a difficult period for all of us and some time away is the best thing for me right now"; the show reverted to the title of Rove in 2007.
Production moved from the Global Television facility in Nunawading to the old Seven Network studios in South Melbourne. It now occupied the premium timeslot of 8:30pm on Sunday nights. Peter Helliar returned to McManus's side. Bickmore's role in the show increased. Following the cancellation of the show The Glass House, Dave Hughes joined Rove; the comedy duo Hamish & Andy, who had collaborated with Roving Enterprises with their television show Real Stories, began appearing every second week. Their associate Ryan Shelton began presenting a segment each week; each year, the show's set changes in some way from the previous. In a previous year, the set was changed to be less like a traditional late-night talk show and more like a variety show. In 2007, the show's set was reconfigured back into a more traditional late-night talk show again going so far as having a view of the Melbourne cityscape in the background. In July 2007, a special show was filmed at Times Square in New York City. Rove and Adam Hills attended, a live Australian audience was present.
In late July a second special was filmed in Los Angeles at the Bob Barker Studio. Hayden Guppy now co-host of Video Hits became a cast member, who shows TV viewers what the cast does during ad breaks. In 2008, Myf Warhurst, who co-hosted a breakfast radio show with Peter Helliar on Triple M, joined the cast as an infrequent addition whenever a regular cast member was unavailable. Again in 2008, Elmo returned as a guest. In 2009 the program moved premises to ABC Studios in Victoria which houses a new set. Dave Hughes, Hamish Blake and Andy Lee began only appearing on a fortnightly appearance. Between May and July 2009, actor Brian Wenzel had a weekly skit at the end of the show. After 12 July, the show went off-air to let the team take a mid-year break due to the show starting in February, it was announced that this episode would be Bickmore's and Hughesy's final episode as regular cast members, due to them both leaving to focus on their new show, The 7pm Project, which premiered on 20 July 2009, is produced by Roving Enterprises.
Various news reports appeared in the lead up to the scheduled season finale for the 2009 season of Rove. The Herald Sun reported that McManus had confirmed that his show would not return until in 2010. Despite not appearing on a list of shows at Ten's 2010 launch event, it was rumoured that Rove would return in 2010 with a new format, similar to Hey Hey It's Saturday, which rated over two million viewers for its two reunion shows. McManus made a comment to the Herald Sun and stated "This show is my love and my passion and it's always what I've wanted to do." McManus continued to say "If everything else fell down, as long as I still get to do this thing I love I’m happy. We have that connection with the audience at the moment and that's where my enthusiasm is coming from." However, rumours appeared the day before the 2009 finale of Rove in that "staff on his TV show were told this week to look for alternative work next year." Ten's publicity department denied these claims by stating: "We have checked with Roving and no such discussion was had.
As for what changes may or may not be made with Rove for 2010, this will be announced on the show this Sunday, stay tuned." McManus was spotted earlier dining with Merrick Watts and Peter Helliar in Sydney, prompting talk that he might return to radio in 2010. The rumour of the show ending revealed to be true as during the finale on 15 November 2009, McManus confirmed that the show would be ending with the 2009 finale, he said: "It's purely m
A legal drama, or a courtroom drama, is a genre of film and television that focuses on narratives regarding legal practice and the justice system. The American Film Institute defines "courtroom drama" as a genre of film in which a system of justice plays a critical role in the film's narrative. Legal dramas have followed the lives of the fictional attorneys, plaintiffs, or other persons related to the practice of law present in television show or film. Legal drama is distinct from police crime drama or detective fiction, which focus on police officers or detectives investigating and solving crimes; the focal point of legal dramas, more are events occurring within a courtroom, but may include any phases of legal procedure, such as jury deliberations or work done at law firms. Some legal dramas fictionalize real cases that have been litigated, such as the play-turned-movie, Inherit the Wind, which fictionalized the Scopes Monkey Trial; as a genre, the term "legal drama" is applied to television shows and films, whereas legal thrillers refer to novels and plays.
Legal dramas typical portray moral dilemmas that occur with the practice of the law or participating in the justice system, many of which mirrors dilemmas in real life. The American Bar Association Journal has interpreted the public's enjoyment of legal dramas occur because "stories about the legal system are laced with human vulnerability." Indeed though "there are no car chases... uns are never drawn", legal dramas retain strong followings because of their presentation of moral intrigue in a setting that reflects what occurs in the world. Legal dramas may present stories of the miscarriages of justice, such as persons wrongly convicted of a crime they did not commit. At times, stories may involve the moral implications of police misconduct, such as placing or tampering with evidence, such as in the 1993 film, In the Name of the Father. More legal dramas focus on the attorneys' point of view when faced with these difficulties. For instance, in The Practice, a television legal drama series revolving around a firm of criminal defense attorneys, a common theme presented is the difficulty of defending clients known or believed to be guilty.
Many legal dramas present themes that reflect politicized issues. In the 1960 film, Inherit the Wind, the politicized issue portrayed was the legality of a Tennessee statute that made it unlawful to teach the theory of evolution in a public school; as laws and public policy opinions change, so do the themes presented in legal dramas. The 1992 film, A Few Good Men, explored the psychology of superior orders, e.g. excusing criminal actions because they were only committed from'following orders'. The film Philadelphia addressed homophobia, the discrimination and public fear of HIV/AIDs carriers. In 1996, The People vs. Larry Flynt portrays the early years of Hustler Magazine and issues of obscenity and freedom of speech. You Don't Know Jack is a fictional biographic film about Dr. Jack Kevorkian and the legal actions he faced as a result of providing euthanasia services to terminal patients. Racial injustice remains a common theme from as far back as To Kill a Mockingbird in 1962 to the 2017 film Marshall.
Legal dramas in American film has an extensive history stemming from as early as the 1908 film, Falsely Accused! The 1950s and 1960s presented a number of legal drama films including, 12 Angry Men, Witness for the Prosecution, I Want to Live!, Anatomy of a Murder, The Young Philadelphians, Inherit the Wind, Judgment at Nuremberg,and To Kill a Mockingbird. Arguably, 12 Angry Men and To Kill a Mockingbird stand as the cornerstones of early legal dramas, garnering extensive acclaim and awards. Despite underwhelming box office performance, 12 Angry Men was nominated in three different categories at the 30th Academy Awards and appears on half of the AFI 100 Years... series lists of films, which celebrate the greatest films in American cinema. To Kill a Mockingbird received more acclaim, garnering three academy awards out of eight total nominations at the 35th Academy Awards, appears on seven of the AFI's ten lists celebrating the greatest films, including ranking as the best courtroom drama, selected for preservation United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant".
Other countries premiered legal dramas or courtrooms dramas in the early 1900s, such as the French silent film, The Passion of Joan of Arc. Other legal drama films have not focused on the practice of law, such as Paper Chase, a film presenting the difficulty and anxiety of entering law school. Early American television programs considered legal dramas include Perry Mason, The Defenders, JUDD for the Defense, Owen Marshall, Counselor at Law and Matlock. More recent examples of serious legal dramas are The Practice and Law & Order; the two most notable examples of legal drama are Ally McBeal and Boston Legal, both of which David E. Kelley created and produced, with Suits as the most popular legal drama currently. Legal dramas are becoming more in demand from the public, more popular for many people to watch, beginning to feature stronger female leads, it is believed by most practicing lawyers that legal dramas result in the general public having misconceptions about the legal process. Many of these misconceptions result from the desire to create an interesting story.
For example, because conflict between parties make for an interesting story, legal dramas emphasize the trial and ignore the fact that the vast majority of civil and criminal cases in the United States are settled out of court. Tr
Ally McBeal is an American legal comedy-drama television series aired on Fox from September 8, 1997, to May 20, 2002. Created by David E. Kelley, the series stars Calista Flockhart in the title role as a lawyer working in the fictional Boston law firm Cage and Fish, with other lawyers whose lives and loves were eccentric and dramatic; the series received critical acclaim in its early seasons, winning the Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series – Musical or Comedy in 1997 and 1998, winning the Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series in 1999. The series, set in the fictional Boston law firm Cage and Fish, begins with main character Allison Marie "Ally" McBeal joining the firm (co-owned by her law school classmate Richard Fish after leaving her previous job due to sexual harassment. On her first day, Ally is horrified to find that she will be working alongside her ex-boyfriend Billy Thomas —who she has never gotten over. To make things worse, Billy is now married to fellow lawyer Georgia, who joins Cage and Fish.
The triangle among the three forms the basis for the main plot for the show's first three seasons. Although ostensibly a legal drama, the main focus of the series was the romantic and personal lives of the main characters using legal proceedings as plot devices to contrast or reinforce a character's drama. For example, bitter divorce litigation of a client might provide a backdrop for Ally's decision to break up with a boyfriend. Legal arguments were frequently used to explore multiple sides of various social issues. Cage & Fish, the fictional law firm where most of the characters work, is depicted as a sexualized environment symbolized by its unisex restroom. Lawyers and secretaries in the firm date, flirt with, or have a romantic history with each other and run into former or potential romantic interests in the courtroom or on the street outside; the series had many offbeat and surreal running gags and themes, such as Ally's tendency to fall over whenever she met somebody she found attractive, Richard Fish's wattle fetish and humorous mottos, John's gymnastic dismounts out of the office's unisex bathroom stalls, or the dancing twins at the bar, that ran through the series.
The show used vivid, dramatic fantasy sequences for Ally's and other characters' wishful thinking. The series featured regular visits to a local bar where singer Vonda Shepard performed. Star contemporary singers performed in the bar at the end of the shows, including acts such as Barry White and Anastacia; the series took place in the same continuity as David E. Kelley's legal drama The Practice, as the two shows crossed over with one another on occasion, a rare occurrence for two shows that aired on different networks. In the last installment of the fifth and final season, "Bygones", Ally decided to resign from Cage & Fish, leave Boston, return to New York City. Fox canceled Ally McBeal after five seasons. In addition to being the lowest-rated season of Ally McBeal and the grounds for the show's cancellation, it was the only season of the show that failed to win any Emmy or Golden Globe awards. In Australia, Ally McBeal was aired by the Seven Network from 1997 to 2002. In 2010, it was aired by Network Ten.
Seymore Walsh, a stern judge exasperated by the eccentricities of the Cage & Fish lawyers and played by actor Albert Hall, was a recurring character on The Practice. In addition, Judge Jennifer Cone appears on The Practice episode "Line of Duty", while Judge Roberta Kittelson, a recurring character on The Practice, has a featured guest role in the Ally McBeal episode "Do you Wanna Dance?" Most of the primary Practice cast members guest starred in the Ally McBeal episode "The Inmates", in a storyline that concluded with the Practice episode "Axe Murderer", featuring Calista Flockhart and Gil Bellows reprising their Ally characters. What's unusual about this continuing storyline is that Ally McBeal and The Practice aired on different networks. Bobby Donnell, the main character of The Practice played by Dylan McDermott, was featured in both this crossover and another Ally McBeal episode, "These are the Days". Regular Practice cast members Lara Flynn Boyle and Michael Badalucco each had a cameo in Ally McBeal but it is unclear whether they were playing the same characters they play on The Practice.
Upon premiering in 1997, the show was an instant hit, averaging around 11 million viewers per episode. The show's second season saw an increase in ratings and soon became a top 20 show, averaging around 13 million viewers per episode; the show's ratings began to decline in the third season, but stabilized in the fourth season after Robert Downey Jr. joined the regular cast as Ally's boyfriend Larry Paul, a fresher aesthetic was created by new art director Matthew DeCoste. However, Downey's character was written out after the end of the season due to the actor's troubles with drug addiction; the first two seasons, as well as the fourth, remain the most critically acclaimed and saw the most awards success at the Emmys, SAG Awards and the Golden Globes. In 2007, Ally McBeal placed #48 on Entertainment Weekly's 2007 "New TV Classics" list. Ally McBeal received some criticism fr