Philip III of Spain
Philip III was King of Spain. He was as Philip II, King of Portugal, Naples and Sardinia and Duke of Milan from 1598 until his death. A member of the House of Habsburg, Philip III was born in Madrid to King Philip II of Spain and his fourth wife and niece Anna, the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II and Maria of Spain. Philip III married his cousin Margaret of Austria, sister of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. Although known in Spain as Philip the Pious, Philip's political reputation abroad has been negative – an'undistinguished and insignificant man,' a'miserable monarch,' whose'only virtue appeared to reside in a total absence of vice,' to quote historians C. V. Wedgwood, R. Stradling and J. H. Elliott. In particular, Philip's reliance on his corrupt chief minister, the Duke of Lerma, drew much criticism at the time and afterwards. For many, the decline of Spain can be dated to the economic difficulties that set in during the early years of his reign. Nonetheless, as the ruler of the Spanish Empire at its height and as the king who achieved a temporary peace with the Dutch and brought Spain into the Thirty Years' War through an successful campaign, Philip's reign remains a critical period in Spanish history.
After Philip III's older brother Don Carlos died insane, Philip II had concluded that one of the causes of Carlos' condition had been the influence of the warring factions at the Spanish court. He believed that Carlos' education and upbringing had been badly affected by this, resulting in his lunacy and disobedience, accordingly he set out to pay much greater attention to arrangements for his sons. Philip II appointed Juan de Zúñiga Prince Diego's governor, to continue this role for Philip, chose García de Loaysa as his tutor, they were joined by Cristóbal de Moura, a close supporter of Philip II. In combination, Philip believed, they would provide a consistent, stable upbringing for Prince Philip, ensure he avoided the same fate as Carlos. Philip's education was to follow the model for royal princes laid down by Father Juan de Mariana, focusing on the imposition of restraints and encouragement to form the personality of the individual at an early age, aiming to deliver a king, neither tyrannical nor excessively under the influence of his courtiers.
Prince Philip appears to have been liked by his contemporaries:'dynamic, good-natured and earnest,' suitably pious, having a'lively body and a peaceful disposition,' albeit with a weak constitution. The comparison with the memory of the disobedient and insane Carlos was a positive one, although some commented that Prince Philip appeared less intelligent and politically competent than his late brother. Indeed, although Philip was educated in Latin, French and astronomy, appears to have been a competent linguist, recent historians suspect that much of his tutors' focus on Philip's undeniably pleasant and respectful disposition was to avoid reporting that, languages aside, he was not in fact intelligent or academically gifted. Nonetheless, Philip does not appear to have been naive – his correspondence to his daughters shows a distinctive cautious streak in his advice on dealing with court intrigue. Philip first met the Marquis of Denia – the future Duke of Lerma – a gentleman of the King's chamber, in his early teens.
Lerma and Philip became close friends, but Lerma was considered unsuitable by the King and Philip's tutors. Lerma was dispatched to Valencia as a Viceroy in 1595, with the aim of removing Philip from his influence. By now in poor health himself, King Philip II was becoming concerned over the prince's future, he attempted to establish de Moura as a future, trusted advisor to his son, reinforcing de Loaysa's position by appointing him archbishop; the prince received a conservative Dominican confessor. The following year, Philip II died after a painful illness, leaving the Spanish Empire to his son, King Philip III. Philip married his cousin, Margaret of Austria, on 18 a year after becoming king. Margaret, the sister of the future Emperor Ferdinand II, would be one of three women at Philip's court who would apply considerable influence over the king. Margaret was considered by contemporaries to be pious – in some cases, excessively pious, too influenced by the Church –'astute and skillful' in her political dealings, although'melancholic' and unhappy over the influence of the Duke of Lerma over her husband at court.
Margaret continued to fight an ongoing battle with Lerma for influence up until her death in 1611. Philip had an'affectionate, close relationship' with Margaret, paid her additional attention after she bore him a son in 1605. Margaret, alongside Philip's grandmother/aunt, Empress Maria – the Austrian representative to the Spanish court – and Margaret of the Cross, Maria's daughter – formed a powerful, uncompromising Catholic and pro-Austrian voice within Philip's life, they were successful, for example, in convincing Philip to provide financial support to Ferdinand from 1600 onwards. Philip acquired other religious advisors. Father Juan de Santa Maria – confessor to Philip's daughter, doña Maria, was felt by contemporaries to have an excessive influence over Philip at the end of his life, both he and Luis de Aliaga, Philip's own confessor, were credited with influencing the overthrow of Lerma in 1618. Mariana de San Jose, a favoured nun of Queen Margaret's, was criticised for her influence over the King's actions.
The Spanish crown at the time ruled through a system of royal coun
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Sir Thomas Cavendish was an English explorer and a privateer known as "The Navigator" because he was the first who deliberately tried to emulate Sir Francis Drake and raid the Spanish towns and ships in the Pacific and return by circumnavigating the globe. While members of Magellan's, Loaisa's, Drake's, Loyola's expeditions had preceded Cavendish in circumnavigating the globe, it had not been their intent at the outset, his first trip and successful circumnavigation made him rich from captured Spanish gold and treasure from the Pacific and the Philippines. His richest prize was the captured 600 ton sailing ship the Manila Galleon Santa Ana, he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I of England after his return. He set out for a second raiding and circumnavigation trip but was not as fortunate and died at sea at the age of 31. Cavendish was born in 1560 at Trimley St Martin near Ipswich, England, his father was William Cavendish, a descendant of Roger Cavendish, brother to Sir John Cavendish from whom the Dukes of Devonshire and the Dukes of Newcastle derive their family name of Cavendish.
When Thomas Cavendish was 12 he inherited a fortune from his father's estate. At the age of 15 he entered Corpus Christi College, remaining for two years, but did not take a degree. After leaving school at age 17, he so in luxurious living, he was a Member of Parliament for Shaftesbury, Dorset, in 1584. In 1585 he sailed with Sir Richard Grenville to aid in the colonization of Roanoke, gaining much valuable experience but losing money on his investments, he was a member of Parliament for Wilton, 1586. By July 1586 Spain and England were in a war which would culminate with the Spanish Armada and its threatened invasion of England in 1588. Cavendish determined to follow Sir Francis Drake by raiding the Spanish ports and ships in the Pacific and circumnavigating the globe. After getting permission for his proposed raids, Cavendish built a 120-ton sailing ship, with 18 cannons, named the Desire, he was joined by the 60 ton, 10 cannon, ship Content, the 40 ton ship Hugh Gallant. With his three ships and 123 men he set out from Plymouth, England on 21 July 1586 and reached the Strait of Magellan on 6 January 1587.
He anchored first at the island of Santa Magdalena near present-day Punta Chile. There, in two hours, they salted two barrelfuls of penguins for food. After extensive exploration of the many inlets and intricate channels of the islands and broken lands of Tierra del Fuego and its environs they emerged from the strait into the Pacific on 24 February and sailed up the coast of South America. There on the Pacific coast he sank or captured 9 Spanish ships and looted several towns of quantities of fresh food and treasure while intentionally sinking the ship Hugh Gallant to use her crew to replace crew members lost on his other ships. According to Hakluyt's'Voyages' he raided an island on the coast of Ecuador but was repulsed with loss by local forces. A pilot from one of the captured Spanish ships revealed that a Manila galleon was expected in October or November 1587 and stopped at Cape San Lucas on the Baja California peninsula before going on to Acapulco; the Manila galleons were restricted by the Spanish Monarch to one or two ships/year and carried all the goods accumulated in the Philippines in a year's worth of trading silver, from the Mints in Peru and Mexico, with the Chinese and others, for spices, silk and other expensive goods.
In 1587 there were two Manila galleons: the Santa Ana. Both encountered a typhoon on leaving the Philippines and were wrecked on the coast of Japan. Only the Santa Ana after repairs resumed her voyage. Upon reaching the Gulf of California in October 1587 Cavendish and his two ships put in at an island above Mazatlan where they careened their ships to clean their bottoms and made general repairs, they had to dig wells for water. They sailed for Cape San Lucas on the Baja Peninsula and set up patrols to see if they could spot the Manila galleon. Early on 4 November 1587 one of Cavendish's lookouts spotted the 600 ton galleon manned with over 200 men. After a several hour chase the English ships overhauled the Santa Ana—which conveniently had no cannons on board, in order to carry the added cargo. After several hours of battle during which Cavendish used his cannon to fire ball and grape shot into the galleon while the Spanish tried to fight back with small arms, the Santa Ana, now starting to sink struck her colours and surrendered.
Because of the great disparity in size the Content and Desire had to pick and choose what rich cargo they wanted to transfer to their ships from the much larger Santa Ana. One hundred and ninety Spaniards, Filipino crewmen, were set ashore with food and some weapons in a location where they had water and food available. Cavendish kept with him two Japanese sailors, three boys from Manila, a Portuguese traveler familiar with China, a Spanish pilot, they loaded all the gold and picked through the silks, musks, spices and ship's supplies for what they could carry. Some in Mexico claimed. After setting fire to the Santa Ana, the Desire and Content sailed away on 17 November 1587 to begin their voyage across the Pacific Ocean. While burning, the Santa Ana drifted onto the coast where the Spanish survivors extinguished the flames, re-floated the ship and limped into Acapulco; the Content was never heard from again. The D
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Plasencia is a walled market city in the province of Cáceres, Western Spain. As of 2013, it has a population of 41,047. Situated on the bank of the Jerte River, Plasencia has a historic quarter, a consequence of the city's strategic location along the Silver Route, or Ruta de la Plata. Since the 15th century, the noblemen of the region began to move to Plasencia, defining its current appearance. Although Plasencia was not founded until 1186, pieces of pottery found in Boquique’s Cave provide evidence that this territory was inhabited long before. Pascual Madoz's dictionary details that this ancient territory, either called Ambroz or Ambracia, was given the name Ambrosia before becoming Plasencia. In the same year that the city was founded, Alfonso VIII of Castile gave the city its independence and the Diocese of Plasencia was created; the original motto of the city, Ut placeat Deo et Hominibus, means to please man. Ten years after its birth, Plasencia was taken over by the Almohad Caliphate, a Moroccan Berber-Muslim dynasty that dominated the Iberian peninsula throughout much of the 12th century.
King Alfonso VIII and his forces recaptured the city within the same day. At the end of the 13th century, the Charter of Plasencia was created, allowing the Christian and Jewish people to live peacefully together within the city; this charter prompted the formation of a Jewish community in Plasencia, which became the largest Jewish community in Extremadura at that time and held a considerable amount of economic power. The 15th century was a vital period in Plasencia’s history, because it was at this time that a jurisdiction of lordship was established. In 1442, King John II of Castile gifted the city to the House of Zúñiga and its right to vote in the Cortes of Castile was lost. In 1446, the first university in Extremadura was installed in Plasencia, according to the wish of the Bishop; as a result, everyone from the surrounding areas who could afford to study in the university moved to Plasencia. In the second half of the 15th century, Plasencia got caught up in some warlike affairs. Henry IV of Castile was deposed from the throne in favour of the infant Alfonso after the count of Plasencia stole the sword of this king’s wooden statue, signifying that without the sword, he had no power.
A decade the queen of Castile, Joanna la Beltraneja, Afonso V of Portugal were married and were proclaimed the rulers of Castile and Portugal. In 1488, the duke died and his grandson, Ávaro de Zuñiga y Perez de Guzmán, succeeded him; the nobility took advantage of this situation and rebelled against the House of Zúñiga, trying to recover the power that they had over Plasencia before it was gifted away. The Catholic Monarchs and Isabella, stood by them and made the revolt a success. Ferdinand swore to protect the freedom and charters of Plasencia until his death. Plasencia had a certain importance in the American conquest too. Doctors recommended this place to King Ferdinand as the healthiest place in his kingdom and the place where he should establish his residence; the monarch moved here in 1515, died in Madrigalejo during his travel to Guadalupe. In 1573, the Bishop of Plasencia, Pedro Ponce de León, donated a significant part of his own library to the monastery of El Escorial, a decade another bishop had a library formed, containing more than 3,880 works in more than 10,000 volumes.
When the original 18 provinces of Castile arose in 1502, they were established according to their votes in the Cortes. There were no cities in Extremadura with the right of vote, because most of them were property of Salamanca. Due to this, the inhabitants of Plasencia decided to buy the right which they held, asked other important cities such as Alcántara, Badajoz, Cáceres, Mérida and Trujillo to help them; this was the moment. During the Peninsular War, Plasencia became a strategic location for French troops. In June 1808, uprisings occurred which were ended through murder and lynching of French; some time the inhabitants of Plasencia established a local military junta to defend their own interests. French soldiers took control of Plasencia 12 times by forcible means and apart from the high number of buildings that were destroyed, the inhabitants too were tortured and killed. Once the Old Regime was abolished, Extremadura was divided into two different provinces: Cáceres and Badajoz. Plasencia argued with Cáceres about which of them should be the capital of the province, arguing that it had a higher number of population, it was more affluent and it had the bishop's palace.
Despite these advantages, other traits were considered more important and Cáceres was chosen as the capital of the province. The Restoration was a revolutionary era for Plasencia because the city witnessed many reforms that affected its economy and society. For the first time the city had a drinking water network, public lighting, an improved sewer system. Furthermore, the agrarian economy evolved into an industrial one thanks to the railway station, founded in the city. A curiosity of this period, the painter Joaquín Sorolla immortalized the city in his painting El mercado in 1917, in which you can see the landscape of the city from the river Jerte. During the Spanish Civil War, the military uprising of 1936 led by Francisco Franco swept Plasencia; the Lieutenant Colonel José Puente took control of the city and as a result, the Republican prisoners were forced to build one of the city’s most famous parks, The Pines Park. The final chapter of the 20th century was an extraordinary period for its development.