Klaudia Jans-Ignacik is a retired Polish tennis player. On 16 August 2004, she reached her best singles ranking of world No. 410. On 10 September 2012, she peaked at No. 28 in the doubles rankings. Jans-Ignacik won three WTA doubles tournaments, 2009 Andalucia Tennis Experience with Alicja Rosolska, 2012 Internationaux de Strasbourg with Olga Govortsova, 2012 Rogers Cup with Kristina Mladenovic. In 2012, she advanced to her first Grand Slam final at 2012 French Open – Mixed Doubles with Santiago Gonzalez. Jans-Ignacik is one of eight Polish tennis players in history who played in a Grand Slam final, others being Jadwiga Jędrzejowska, Wojciech Fibak, Mariusz Fyrstenberg, Łukasz Kubot, Marcin Matkowski, Agnieszka Radwańska and Alicja Rosolska, she represented Poland in both the 2008 and 2012 Summer Olympics. Playing for Poland at the Fed Cup, Jans-Ignacik has a win–loss record of 20–12. Klaudia added his surname to her own. On 31 December 2012, Jans-Ignacik announced via her Facebook account that she was pregnant with her first child and would miss the entire 2013 WTA Tour season.
On 1 August 2013, she gave birth to her first daughter Aniela Ignacik. In 2014, she returned to professional competitions and reached six doubles semifinals, one of them in her home country, at the Katowice Open. In January 2015, Jans-Ignacik advanced to her first women's doubles Grand Slam quarterfinal, with Andreja Klepač, at the Australian Open, they lost in straight sets to Zheng Jie. On 1 September 2016, Jans-Ignacik announced her retirement from professional tennis. Klaudia Jans-Ignacik at the Women's Tennis Association Klaudia Jans-Ignacik at the International Tennis Federation Klaudia Jans-Ignacik at the Fed Cup
The French Open called Roland-Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris, France. The venue is named after the French aviator Roland Garros, it is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments, the other three being the Australian Open and the US Open. The French Open is the only Grand Slam event held on clay, it is the zenith of the spring clay court season; because of the seven rounds needed for a championship, the slow-playing surface and the best-of-five-set men's singles matches, the event is considered to be the most physically demanding tennis tournament in the world. Named in French Championnats Internationaux de France de tennis and Tournoi de Roland-Garros, the tournament is referred to in English as the "French Open" and alternatively as "Roland Garros", the designation used by the tournament itself in all languages. French spelling rules dictate that in the name of a place or event named after a person, the elements of the name are joined together with a hyphen.
Therefore, the names of the stadium and the tournament are hyphenated as Roland-Garros. In 1891 the Championnat de France, referred to in English as the French Championships, began, they were only open to tennis players. The first winner was a Briton—H. Briggs—who was a Paris resident; the first women's singles tournament, with four entries, was held in 1897. The mixed doubles event was added in 1902 and the women's doubles in 1907; this "French club members only" tournament was played until 1924, using four different venues during that period: Île de Puteaux, in Puteaux, played on sand laid out on a bed of rubble. The Racing Club de France, played on clay. For one year, 1909, it was played at the Société Athlétique de la Villa Primrose in Bordeaux, on clay. Tennis Club de Paris, at Auteuil, played on clay. Another tournament, the World Hard Court Championships, is sometimes considered the precursor to the French Open as it was open to international competitors, it was held on clay courts at Stade Français in Saint-Cloud from 1912 to 1914 after World War I, was contested there again in 1920, 1921 and 1923, with the 1922 tournament held at Brussels, Belgium.
Winners of this tournament included world No. 1's such as Tony Wilding from New Zealand and Bill Tilden from the US. In 1924 there was no World Hard Court Championships due to tennis being played at the Paris Olympic Games. In 1925, the French Championships became open to all amateurs internationally and was designated a major championship by the ILTF, it was held at the Stade Français on clay courts. In 1926 the Racing Club de France hosted the event in Paris, site of the previous French Championship on clay. After the Mousquetaires or Philadelphia Four won the Davis Cup on American soil in 1927, the French decided to defend the cup in 1928 at a new tennis stadium at Porte d'Auteuil; the Stade de France had offered the tennis authorities three hectares of land with the condition that the new stadium must be named after the World War I pilot, Roland Garros. The new Stade de Roland Garros, its Center Court hosted that Davis Cup challenge. In 1928, the French Internationals were moved there, the event has been held there since.
During World War II the tournament was held from 1941 through 1945 on the same grounds but these editions are not recognized by the French governing body, Fédération Française de Tennis. In 1946 and 1947, the French Championships were held after Wimbledon, making it the third Grand Slam event of the year. In 1968, the French Championships became the first Grand Slam tournament to go open, allowing both amateurs and professionals to compete. Since 1981, new prizes have been presented: the Prix Citron and the Prix Bourgeon. In another novelty, since 2006 the tournament has begun on a Sunday, featuring 12 singles matches played on the three main courts. Additionally, on the eve of the tournament's opening, the traditional Benny Berthet exhibition day takes place, where the profits go to different charity associations. In March 2007, it was announced that the event would provide equal prize money for both men and women in all rounds for the first time. In 2010, it was announced that the French Open was considering a move away from Roland Garros as part of a continuing rejuvenation of the tournament.
Plans to renovate and expand Roland Garros have put aside any such consideration, the tournament remains in its long time home. Clay courts slow down the ball and produce a high bounce when compared to grass courts or hard courts. For this reason, clay courts take away some of the advantages of big servers and serve-and-volleyers, which makes it hard for these types of players to dominate on the surface. For example, Pete Sampras, known for his huge serve and who won 14 Grand Slam titles, never won the French Open – his best result was reaching the semi-finals in 1996. Other notable players who have won multiple Grand Slam events but have never won the French Open i
Sandra Klemenschits is an Austrian tennis player. She has won one WTA doubles title and 40 doubles titles on the ITF Circuit as of March 2016. Klemenschits announced that the 2016 Generali Ladies Linz would be her last tournament, her retirement from professional tennis. Klemenschits has had the best season of her career in 2013, she made a main draw appearance in a Grand Slam doubles event for the first time in over two years. Partnering with Romina Oprandi, Klemenschits made it to the second round of Wimbledon, her farthest appearance in a Grand Slam tournament. After Wimbledon, Klemenschits had great success on the European clay with her regular partner of that year, Andreja Klepač; the team made the semifinals in Budapest and the week after won its first WTA title at Klemenschits' home tournament, Gastein Ladies, in Bad Gastein, Austria. In January 2007 Klemenschits and her twin sister Daniela with whom she was playing doubles were diagnosed with a rare form of abdominal cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, forcing them to retire.
Her sister died of the cancer on 9 April 2008. Klemenschits returned to the doubles tour in July 2008, has since won more ITF doubles titles as well as her first WTA doubles title in July 2013. Sandra Klemenschits at the Women's Tennis Association Sandra Klemenschits at the International Tennis Federation Sandra Klemenschits at the Fed Cup
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
2001 French Open
The 2001 French Open was the second Grand Slam event of 2001 and the 105th edition of the French Open. It took place at the Stade Roland Garros in Paris, from late May through early June, 2001. Gustavo Kuerten defeated Àlex Corretja, 6–7, 7–5, 6–2, 6–0 It was Kuerten's 4th title of the year, his 14th overall, it was his 3rd career Grand Slam title, his 3rd French Open title. Jennifer Capriati defeated Kim Clijsters, 1–6, 6–4, 12–10 It was Capriati's 3rd title of the year, her 12th overall, it was her 2nd career Grand Slam title, her 1st French Open title. Leander Paes / Mahesh Bhupathi defeated Petr Pála / Pavel Vízner, 7–6, 6–3 Virginia Ruano / Paola Suárez defeated Jelena Dokić / Conchita Martínez, 6–2, 6–1 Virginia Ruano / Tomás Carbonell defeated Paola Suárez / Jaime Oncins, 7–5, 6–3 Carlos Cuadrado defeated Brian Dabul, 6-1, 6-0 Kaia Kanepi defeated Svetlana Kuznetsova, 6-3, 1-6, 6-2 Alejandro Falla / Carlos Salamanca defeated Markus Bayer / Philipp Petzschner, 3-6, 7-5, 6-4 Petra Cetkovská / Renata Voráčová defeated Neyssa Etienne / Annette Kolb, 6-3, 3-6, 6-3 French Open official website
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Padel is a racquet sport. It is different from the sport known in the Canada as paddle tennis. Padel is played in doubles on an enclosed court a third the size of a tennis court. Scoring is the same as normal tennis and the balls used are similar but with a little less pressure; the main differences are that the court has walls and the balls can be played off them in a similar way as in the game of squash and that solid, stringless racquets are used. The height of the ball being served must be below the waist level. Padel is not to be confused with platform tennis, a winter and summer sport played at country clubs in the US and Canada, with courts heated from below to eliminate snow and water; the court and styles of play are different. The sport was invented in Acapulco, Mexico, by Enrique Corcuera in 1969, it is most popular in Hispanic American countries such as Argentina and Mexico as well as in Spain and Andorra, although it is now beginning to spread across Europe and other continents. Padel Pro Tour was the professional padel circuit, created in 2005 as a result of the agreement between a group of organizers of matches of padel and Association of Professional Players of Pádel and the Spanish Feminine Association of Pádel.
Nowadays, the most important padel circuit is World Padel Tour, which started in Spain though it has reached international expansion. In 2014 WPT has traveled to Portugal and Dubai; the sport's popularity along the Costa del Sol in southern Spain and the Algarve in southern Portugal has exposed it to a large number of British visitors, leading to an increased popularity of the sport in the UK and a launch of the UK Padel Federation in 2011. The US Padel Association was founded in Chattanooga, Tennessee in 1993 and opened two courts in the Chattanooga area; the American Paddle Association was formed in 1995 and built its first courts at a private club in Houston, Texas for exhibition games. The first public courts opened in Miami, Florida in 2009, several clubs have opened nearby, as well as in Los Angeles, since then. In 2014, the Swiss Club in Singapore opened the first padel court in Singapore. Padel was introduced in India by General Secretary of Indian Padel Federation. IPF is a not for profit body.
IPF is affiliated to the Federacion International Padel. IPF facilitates domestic and foreign investment into Padel by providing sports entrepreneurs and Padel enthusiasts the technical knowledge and network to start a Padel business. In 2017, IPF facilitated a Portuguese based company to begin their Padel operations in India in Play Arena, Bangalore. There are two IPF certified courts in India, one in Bangalore at Sadashivanagar BBMP Park and the other in L&T Eden Park, Chennai; the first national team will represent India in the 3rd Asian Padel Cup at Chiba, Japan on March 30th, 2019. Padel rules states that the playing field should be a rectangle 10 metres wide and 20 metres long, enclosed by walls. At the middle of the playing field there will be a net dividing the court in two, the net has a maximum height of 88 cm in the center raising to 92 centimetres at sides; the back walls should be 3 metres high covering the entire back of the field and the side walls should be 3 metres high and 2 metres long ending on another wall 2 metres high and 2 metres long.
The diagonal-type side wall is accepted, instead of a step, it runs as straight line between the two heights of the side wall. The rest of the court is closed using a metallic mesh 3 metres high, the wall closed sides can have a metallic mesh up to 1 metre tall; the service lines are placed 3 metres before the back wall and there will be another line in middle that divides the central rectangle in half. All lines have a 5-centimetre width and should be visible; the minimum height between the playing field and an obstacle is 6 metres. Players: Singles use 6 by 20 metres instead of 10 by 20 metres. Serves: Both first and second serves must be underhand. Score: Scoring method is the same as in tennis. Ball: Very similar to tennis balls. Tennis balls are sometimes used. Padel Bat: Solid with no strings. May be perforated. Walls: Walls are used as part of the game. Padel World Championship Paddle tennis