The Suquamish are a Lushootseed-speaking Native American people, located in present-day Washington in the United States. They are a southern Coast Salish people. Today, most Suquamish people are enrolled in the federally recognized Suquamish Tribe, a signatory to the 1855 Treaty of Point Elliott. Chief Seattle, the famous leader of the Suquamish and Duwamish Tribes for which the City of Seattle is named, signed the Point Elliot Treaty on behalf of both Tribes; the Suquamish Tribe owns the Port Madison Indian Reservation. Suquamish people traditionally speak a dialect of Lushootseed, which belongs to the Salishan language family. Like many Northwest Coast indigenous peoples pre-European contact, the Suquamish enjoyed the rich bounty of land and sea west of the Cascade Mountains, they harvested shellfish in local waters and Puget Sound. The cedar tree provided fiber used to weave waterproof clothing and beautiful utilitarian items, provided wood for longhouses, seagoing canoes and ceremonial items.
The Suquamish traditionally lived on the western shores of Puget Sound, from Apple Tree Cove in the north to Gig Harbor in the south, including Bainbridge Island and Blake Island. They had villages throughout the region, the largest centered on Old Man House, the largest winter longhouse in the Salish Sea and, the largest longhouse known. Today, the Suquamish continue to fish and harvest in their traditional territory, a new generation of local artists — among them Ed Carriere, Betty Pasco, Andrea Wilbur-Sigo — carry on the ways of their ancestors in creating beautiful carved or woven items that help tell the story of the Suquamish people; the first contact between Suquamish and European peoples came in 1792 when George Vancouver explored Puget Sound and met members of the Suquamish Tribe including Schweabe and Kitsap. More regular contact with non-Natives came with the establishment of British trading posts in Puget Sound and the Strait of Georgia in the early 19th century. Once the Washington Territory was established in 1853, the U.
S. government began signing treaties with area indigenous leaders to extinguish aboriginal claims and make land available for non-Native settlement. In the Point Elliott Treaty signed on January 22, 1855, the Suquamish agreed to cede land to the United States in exchange for certain payments and obligations, they reserved for themselves the land that became designated as the Port Madison Indian Reservation, near their winter village on Agate Pass. They reserved the right to fish and harvest shellfish in their Usual and Accustomed Areas, reserved certain cultural and natural resource rights within their historical territory. Today, the Suquamish Tribe is a co-manager with the State of Washington of the state's salmon fishery. Two members of the Suquamish came to be recognized across the region as great leaders. One was Kitsap, who led a coalition of Puget Sound Tribes against the Cowichan Tribes of Vancouver Island around 1825. Another was Seattle, son of Schweabe, a peacekeeper during the turbulent times of the mid-19th century.
Martha George served as chairwoman of the Suquamish Tribe from the late 1920s to the early 1940s. Lawrence Webster served as chairman of the Suquamish Tribe from 1979-1985. In 1979, he traveled to Washington, D. C. to represent Native Americans at an event commemorating the 15th anniversary of the government program, VISTA. In 1983, he helped establish the Suquamish Museum. Earlier in his life, he was a noted baseball catcher, playing on a Suquamish team in 1921, sent by a national sporting-goods company on a goodwill tour of Japan. Leonard Forsman, an anthropologist and archeologist who has served as the Suquamish Tribe’s chairman since 2005, is a governor-appointed member of the state Board on Geographic Names and an Obama appointee to the U. S. Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. Cindy Webster-Martinson, a former Suquamish Tribal Council member, is vice president of the North Kitsap School Board and is believed to be the first Native American elected to non-Tribal public office in Kitsap County.
She is a granddaughter of Lawrence Webster. The Suquamish Tribe is governed by a seven-member council, elected by citizens of the Suquamish Tribe. Government departments include administration, child support enforcement, community development, early learning center, fisheries, human services, natural resources, police. Economic contributions: $52.2 million in wages and benefits paid to employees. Community contributions: $694,033 awarded to 201 organizations. Port Madison Enterprises, the Tribe’s economic development arm, is the second-largest private-sector employer in Kitsap County with 752 employees, surpassed only by Harrison Medical Center. Port Madison Enterprises is governed by a seven-member board of directors, which includes a Tribal Council liaison. Ventures: Suquamish Clearwater Casino Resort, White Horse Golf Club, Kiana Lodge, PME Retail, Property Management. Subsidiaries: Port Madison Enterprises Construction Corporation; the PME Fund sets aside non-gaming funds for distribution as grants to organizations that “ the lives of community members” and “support worthy programs in the region.”
The Tribe has reacquired land lost during the allotment era, “the Tribe and Tribal members now own more than half of the land on the reservation for the first time in recent history,” Suquamish Tribe communications director April Leigh said. Major acquisitions include White Horse Golf Club in 2010, placed into trust in Mar
Chief Seattle was a Suquamish and Duwamish chief. A leading figure among his people, he pursued a path of accommodation to white settlers, forming a personal relationship with "Doc" Maynard; the city of Seattle, in the U. S. state of Washington, was named after him. A publicized speech arguing in favor of ecological responsibility and respect of Native Americans' land rights had been attributed to him; the name Seattle is an Anglicization of the modern Duwamish conventional spelling Si'ahl, equivalent to the modern Lushootseed spelling siʔaɫ IPA:. He is known as Sealth, Seathl, or See-ahth. Seattle's mother Sholeetsa was Dkhw ` Duw ` Absh and. Seattle was born some time between 1780 and 1786 near Blake Island, Washington. One source cites his mother's name as Wood-sho-lit-sa; the Duwamish tradition is that Seattle was born at his mother's village of Stukw on the Black River, in what is now the city of Kent and that Seattle grew up speaking both the Duwamish and Suquamish dialects of Lushootseed.
Because Native descent among the Salish peoples was not patrilineal, Seattle inherited his position as chief of the Duwamish Tribe from his maternal uncle. Seattle earned his reputation at a young age as a leader and a warrior and defeating groups of tribal enemy raiders coming up the Green River from the Cascade foothills. In 1847 he helped lead a Suquamish attack upon the Chimakum people near Port Townsend, which wiped out the Chimakum. Like many of his contemporaries, he owned slaves captured during his raids, he was broad, standing nearly six feet tall. He was known as an orator. Chief Seattle took wives from the village of Tola'ltu just southeast of Duwamish Head on Elliott Bay, his first wife La-Dalia died after bearing a daughter. He had four daughters with his second wife, Olahl; the most famous of his children was his first, Princess Angeline. Seattle was converted to Christianity by French missionaries, was baptized in the Roman Catholic Church, with the baptismal name Noah in 1848 near Olympia, Washington.
For all his skill, Seattle was losing ground to the more powerful Patkanim of the Snohomish when white settlers started showing up in force around 1850. When his people were driven from their traditional clamming grounds, Seattle met Doc Maynard in Olympia. Persuading the settlers at the white settlement of Duwamps to rename their town Seattle, Maynard established their support for Chief Seattle's people and negotiated peaceful relations with the tribes. Seattle kept his people out of the Battle of Seattle in 1856. Afterwards, he was unwilling to lead his tribe to the reservation established, since mixing Duwamish and Snohomish was to lead to bloodshed. Maynard persuaded the government of the necessity of allowing Seattle to remove to his father's longhouse on Agate Passage,'Old Man House' or Tsu-suc-cub. Seattle frequented the town named after him, had his photograph taken by E. M. Sammis in 1865, he died June 1866, on the Suquamish reservation at Port Madison, Washington. The speech or "letter" attributed to Chief Seattle has been cited as a "powerful, bittersweet plea for respect of Native American rights and environmental values".
But this document, which has achieved widespread fame thanks to its promotion in the environmental movement, is of doubtful authenticity. The evolution of the text of Chief Seattle's speech, from a flowery Victorian paean to peace and territorial integrity, into a much briefer environmentalist credo, has been chronicled by several historians; the first attempt to reconstruct this history was a 1985 essay in the U. S. National Archives' Prologue magazine. A more scholarly essay by a German anthropologist followed in 1987. In 1989, a radio documentary by Daniel and Patricia Miller resulted in the uncovering of no fewer than 86 versions of Chief Seattle's speech; this prompted a new discussion, first in the Seattle Weekly and in Newsweek. The historian Albert Furtwangler undertook to analyze the evolution of Chief Seattle's speech in a full-length book, Answering Chief Seattle. More Eli Gifford has written another full-length book, The Many Speeches of Chief Seattle, which assembles further elements of the story, gives accurate transcriptions of 11 versions of the speech, explores possible motivations for manipulating the words in each case.
The oldest extant record of this document is a transcript published in the Seattle Sunday Star in 1887, in a column by Henry A. Smith, a poet and early white settler of the Seattle area. Smith provides a transcript of a speech made by Chief Seattle 30 years earlier, which Smith had attended and taken notes from; the occasion of the speech was a visit by Isaac Stevens. The governor's visit to a council of local tribal chiefs that year is corroborated by the historical record. Chief Seattle was the most influential chief in the area, so it is he would have been in attendance; however the date, the location, the actual words of Chief Seattle's speech are disputed. For instance, Smith's article in the Seattle Sunday Star claims that the purpose of Governor
Klallam refers to four related indigenous Native American/First Nations communities from the Pacific Northwest of North America. The Klallam culture is classified linguistically in the Coast Salish subgroup. Two Klallam bands live on the Olympic Peninsula and one on the Kitsap Peninsula in Washington state, one is based at Becher Bay on southern Vancouver Island in British Columbia; the indigenous Kullalam language name for the tribe is nəxʷsƛ̕ay̕əm. The word "Klallam" comes from the North Straits Salish language name for the Klallam people; this has had a wide variety of English spellings including "Chalam", "Clalam", "Clallem", "Clallum", "Khalam", "Klalam", "Noodsdalum", "Nooselalum", "Noostlalum", "Tlalum", "Tlalam", "Wooselalim", "S'Klallam", "Ns'Klallam", "Klallam" and "Clallam". "Clallam" was used by the Washington Territory legislature in 1854. The following year "S'klallam" was used in the Point No Point Treaty. In the following decades the simpler "Klallam" or "Clallam" predominated in the media and research literature.
In 1981 "S'Klallam" was used when the United States Department of the Interior recognized the Lower Elwha and Port Gamble tribes. In local media today "Clallam" is used to refer to the people of Clallam County, Washington—both native and non-native, it is used in the names of a number of non-native commercial enterprises. The spellings with'K' are used to refer to the native peoples; the Lower Elwha tribe has adopted "Klallam" as its official spelling. The Port Gamble and Jamestown tribes have adopted "S'Klallam" as their official spelling. Before the arrival of Europeans to the Pacific Northwest the territory inhabited by the Klallam stretched across the north coast of the Olympic Peninsula from the Pacific Ocean to Puget Sound and included the southern tip of Vancouver Island across the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Klallam villages were located along the coast, while some villages were inland along rivers, inlets or large lakes. Based on early interviews of tribal elders by early ethnologists and anthropologists, the estimated number of Klallam villages has ranged from ten to over thirty, with some ambiguity in distinguishing permanent from seasonal settlements, some villages with mixed or disputed tribal identity.
While language and tradition united the Klallam people, there were extensive trade, inter-marriage, other forms of cooperation between the Klallam and surrounding tribes. The rugged terrain and dense vegetation of the Olympic Peninsula made the canoe the preferred mode of transportation; the canoes were carved from western red cedar through an intricate and arduous process requiring great skill, beginning with the selection of the proper tree. Stone adzes and heated water were used to hollow and shape the canoe; this knowledge was passed to a select few of each generation, some of the canoes were purchased from other tribes the larger ones. There were two main types of canoes used by the Klallam: The smaller Coast Salish type used on protected waters, the larger Chinook style for use in rougher waters; the smaller type of canoe had a rounded bottom and was 12–30 feet long, 20–48 inches wide, 9–20 inches deep. This type was used on calm waters for fishing; the larger canoes had flat bottoms and could be over 30 feet long, 6 feet wide, 3 feet deep.
These were used on the rougher waters of Puget Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, in particular off the Pacific coast, for whaling, transporting larger loads, carrying up to thirty passengers. Early white settlers in the area noted the great skill the Klallam used in canoe handling and navigation, that the Klallam canoes tended to be larger than those used by other Puget Sound tribes; the lands, marine waters, beaches in Klallam territory provided an abundant, year-round supply of food. Strategic intertribal marriages and agreements allowed them permission to hunt or forage outside their homeland. Though their diet included large and small land game, sea fowl, shellfish, the most important source of food was fish. Salmon still plays a significant spiritual role in the Klallam culture; the Klallam fished year round using a variety of tools and techniques particular to the species and season. They were known to use traps, gillnets, rakes, dip nets, holes dug in the beach. Specific locations were known to produce certain fishes at the right time of year, special implements and skills were employed for a successful catch.
They apply a poultice of the smashed flowers of Viola adunca to the side for pain. Lower Elwha Tribal Community of the Lower Elwha Reservation, Washington Jamestown S'Klallam Tribe of Washington Port Gamble Indian Community of the Port Gamble Reservation, Washington Scia'new First Nation, Vancouver Island, British Columbia The Klallam tribes do not operate their own schools. Lower Elwha Klallam children are offered a Klallam cultural and language immersion program at the Lower Elwha Klallam Head Start. Older children are provided with Klallam language and tribal history courses at Dry Creek Elementary School, Stevens Middle School and Port Angeles High School, where most Lower Elwha Klallam children attend school. A majority of Jamestown S'Klallam children attend Sequim School District schools. A majority of Port Gamble Klallam children attend schools in the North Kitsap School District in the Kingston area. Tse-whit-zen, an ancient Klallam village unearthed in 2004 in Port Angeles, Washingt