St Anne's College, Oxford
St Anne's College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. A women's college, it has been coeducational since 1979. Founded in 1879 as The Society of Oxford Home-Students, St Anne's received full college status in 1952. Formed to enable women from any financial background to study at Oxford, St Anne's continues to strive towards this goal; the college has around 450 200 graduate students. The college is situated between the Woodstock and Banbury roads, adjacent to the University Parks and the Radcliffe Observatory Quarter. In April 2017, Helen King took up her appointment as Principal, in succession to Tim Gardam. King is a former Metropolitan Police Assistant Commissioner and was elected to the position of Principal upon her retirement from the police. Alumnae of the college include Ruth Deech, Danny Alexander, Helen Fielding, Simon Rattle, Victor Ubogu and Martha Kearney. What is now St Anne's College began life as part of the Association for the Education of Women, the first institution in Oxford to allow for the education of women.
It became the Society of Oxford Home-Students. Unlike other women's associations, the Society had no fixed site, instead offering lodgings in houses spread across Oxford; this allowed students from a range of financial backgrounds to study at Oxford, as the cost of accommodation in the women's halls was prohibitive. In 1942, it became the St Anne's Society, which received a university charter to be founded as a women-only college in 1952; the society allowed access to tutorials, as would any Oxford college. In 1910, the Society for Home Students, along with the other women's societies, were recognised by the University. In 1912, the society acquired its first tutors, in German and English Literature. In the 1920s, the principals of the Women's societies became the first women to receive degrees from the University. By the early 1930s, the society still had no centralised site. However, during this decade, the current site was chosen, by 1937 construction of Hartland House was under way. In 1942, the Society of Home Students was renamed the St Anne's Society, given its coat of arms by Eleanor Plumer.
In 1952, the St Anne's Society acquired a royal charter as St Anne's College and in 1959 full college status along with the other women's colleges. The Principal, Lady Ogilvie, pressed for a transition from many disparate dining rooms to a common building; this resulted in the construction of the dining hall, completed in 1959, visited by Queen Elizabeth II in 1960. During this period, the student numbers grew to nearly 300, leading to a need for more accommodation; this led to the construction of the Wolfson and Rayne buildings in 1968 respectively. In 1977, the decision was made to become coeducational, with the first male undergraduates matriculating in 1979. Since St Anne's has continued to use female words and pronouns to refer to their students, as in the word "alumnae"; the College explains that this is because "on 17 June 1979, in the nervous time when the first male Fellows had been elected, the first male students admitted though they had not yet arrived, a note from the Dean to Governing Body asks hesitantly'Would Governing Body wish "he" to be substituted for "she" throughout the College Regulations?'
The question was answered with the following worded statement which still stands in the preamble to our Regulations:'words importing the feminine gender shall include the masculine and vice versa, where the construction so permits and the Regulations do not otherwise expressly provide'." The annual magazine for alumni of the college is known as The Ship. When it was still the Society for Home-Students, the college had its first common room in Ship Street, located in central Oxford; the Ship started to be published c. 1910, by the centenary of the college, 1979, there had been 69 issues. The Ship celebrated its centenary 2010/2011 issue with some anniversary content; the college grounds are bounded by Woodstock Road to the west, Banbury Road to the east, Bevington Road to the north. The college extends as far south as 48 Woodstock Road, 27 Banbury Road; these grounds house all of the college's administrative and academic buildings, undergraduate accommodation, as well as the hall, among the largest in Oxford.
The College owned a number of houses throughout Oxford used for undergraduate accommodation, some of which used to be boarding houses of the Society of Oxford Home-Students. Many of these properties were sold off to fund the building of the Ruth Deech Building, completed in 2005. St Anne's can accommodate undergraduates on the college site for three years of study. Undergraduates at St Anne's are housed in 14 Victorian houses owned by the college and four purpose-built accommodation blocks; the college supplies accommodation for some of its graduate students. All undergraduates pay the same amount for their rooms, every student has access to a communal kitchen in their building; the college uses 1–10 Bevington Road, 58/60 Woodstock Road, 39/41 Banbury Road as undergraduate accommodation for freshers. The junior post room is located in 10 Bevington Road, the college laundry in 58/60 Woodstock Road, the college bar, including a pool room, in 39/41 Banbury Road. Five additional Victorian houses hold teaching rooms, seminar rooms, music practice rooms, college offices.
The Rayne and Wolfson Buildings were built in 1964 and are Grade II Listed Buildi
Notting Hill is an affluent district in West London, located north of Kensington within the Royal Borough of Kensington & Chelsea. Notting Hill is known for being a cosmopolitan and multicultural neighbourhood, hosting the annual Notting Hill Carnival and Portobello Road Market. From around 1870, Notting Hill had an association with artists. For much of the 20th century, the large houses were subdivided into multi-occupancy rentals. Caribbean immigrants were drawn to the area in the 1950s because of the cheap rents, but were exploited by slum landlords like Peter Rachman and became the target of white Teddy Boys in the 1958 Notting Hill race riots. In the early 21st century, after decades of gentrification, Notting Hill has a reputation as an affluent and fashionable area known for attractive terraces of large Victorian townhouses and high-end shopping and restaurants. A Daily Telegraph article in 2004 used the phrase "the Notting Hill Set" to refer to a group of emerging Conservative politicians, such as David Cameron and George Osborne, who would become Prime Minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer and were once based in Notting Hill.
Notting Hill is in the historic county of Middlesex. It was a hamlet on rural land until the expansion of urban London during the 19th century; as late as 1870 after the hamlet had become a London suburb, Notting Hill was still referred to as being in Middlesex rather than in London. The origin of the name "Notting Hill" is uncertain though an early version appears in the Patent Rolls of 1356 as Knottynghull, while an 1878 text and New London, reports that the name derives from a manor in Kensington called "Knotting-Bernes,", "Knutting-Barnes," or "Nutting-barns", goes on to quote from a court record during Henry VIII's reign that "the manor called Notingbarons, alias Kensington, in the parish of Paddington, was held of the Abbot of Westminster." For years, it was thought to be a link with Canute, but it is now thought that the "Nott" section of the name is derived from the Saxon personal name Cnotta, with the "ing" part accepted as coming from the Saxon for a group or settlement of people.
The area in the west around Pottery Lane was used in the early 19th century for making bricks and tiles out of the heavy clay dug in the area. The clay was fired in a series of brick and tile kilns; the only remaining 19th-century tile kiln in London is on Walmer Road. In the same area, pig farmers moved in after being forced out of the Marble Arch area. Avondale Park was created in 1892 out of a former area of pig slurry called "the Ocean"; this was part of a general clean-up of the area which had become known as the Potteries and Piggeries. The area remained rural until London's westward expansion reached Bayswater in the early 19th century; the Ladbroke family was Notting Hill's main landowner, from the 1820s James Weller Ladbroke began to develop the Ladbroke Estate. Working with the architect and surveyor Thomas Allason, Ladbroke began to lay out streets and houses, with a view to turning the area into a fashionable suburb of the capital. Many of these streets bear the Ladbroke name, including Ladbroke Grove, the area's main north-south axis, Ladbroke Square, London's largest private garden square.
The original idea was to call the district Kensington Park, other roads are reminders of this. The local telephone prefix 7727 is based on the old telephone exchange name of PARk. Ladbroke left the actual business of developing his land to the firm of City solicitors, Bayley, who worked with Allason to develop the property. In 1823 Allason completed a plan for the layout of the main portion of the estate; this marks the genesis of his most enduring idea – the creation of large private communal gardens known as "pleasure grounds", or "paddocks", enclosed by terraces and/or crescents of houses. Instead of houses being set around a garden square, separated from it by a road, Allason's houses would have direct access to a secluded communal garden in the rear, to which people on the street did not have access and could not see. To this day these communal garden squares continue to provide the area with much of its attraction for the wealthiest householders. In 1837 the Hippodrome racecourse was laid out.
The racecourse ran around the hill, bystanders were expected to watch from the summit of the hill. However, the venture was not a success, in part due to a public right of way which traversed the course, in part due to the heavy clay of the neighbourhood which caused it to become waterlogged; the Hippodrome closed in 1841, after which development resumed and houses were built on the site. The crescent-shaped roads that circumvent the hill, such as Blenheim Crescent, Elgin Crescent, Stanley Crescent, Cornwall Crescent and Landsdowne Crescent, were built over the circular racecourse tracks. At the summit of hill stands the elegant St John's church, built in 1845 in the early English style, which formed the centrepiece of the Ladbroke Estate development; the Notting Hill houses were large, but they did not succeed in enticing the richest Londoners, who tended to live closer to the centre of London in Mayfair or Belgravia. The houses appealed to the upper middle class, who could live there in Belgravia style at lower prices.
In the opening chapter of John Galsworthy's Forsyte Saga novels, he housed the Nicholas Forsytes "in Ladbroke Grove, a spacious abode and a great bargain". In 1862 Thomas Hardy left Dorchester for London to work with architect Arthur Blomfield.
Baillie Gifford Prize
The Baillie Gifford Prize for Non-Fiction is an annual British book prize for the best non-fiction writing in the English language. It was founded in 1999 following the demise of the NCR Book Award. With its motto "All the best stories are true", the prize covers current affairs, politics, sport, biography and the arts; the competition is open to authors of any. The longlist and winner is chosen by a panel of independent judges, which changes every year; the award is named for an investment management firm and the primary sponsor. Since 2016, the annual dinner and awards ceremony has been sponsored by the Blavatnik Family Foundation; the prize is governed by the Board of Directors of The Samuel Johnson Prize for Non-fiction Limited, a not-for-profit company. Prior to the establishment of the Samuel Johnson Prize, Britain's premier literary award for non-fiction was the NCR Book Award, established in 1987. In 1997, the NCR Award experienced a scandal when it was revealed the judges, many of them chosen for their popularity rather than literary qualities, had used "ghost readers" and were not expected to read the books they voted on.
Because of this and other problems the award ceased operations. In response, one of the previous winners of NCR Award, Peter Hennessy, approached Penguin with the idea for a new award. An anonymous benefactor was found; the prize was named after lexicographer Samuel Johnson. From its inception through 2001, the prize was independently financed by the founding benefactor. In 2002, it was taken over by the BBC and named in full the BBC Four Samuel Johnson Prize and managed by BBC Four. In 2009, it was managed by BBC Two; the new name reflected the BBC's commitment to broadcasting coverage of the Prize on the BBC2 programme, The Culture Show. In 2016, the name was changed to the Baillie Gifford Prize for Non-Fiction, after its new primary sponsor, the Edinburgh-based investment management company Baillie Gifford. Prior to the 2009 name change, the winner received £30,000, each finalist received £2,500. After 2009, the award was £20,000 for the winner, each finalist received £1,000. In February 2012, the steering committee for the prize announced that a new sponsor had been found for the prize, an anonymous philanthropist, enabling the prize to be raised to £25,000.
In 2015, funding for the prize was arranged by the Blavatnik Family Foundation, while the organisers sought new primary sponsors from 2016 onwards. In 2016, under new sponsors Baillie Gifford, the prize money was restored to £30,000 for the winner, it is considered to be the UK's most prestigious award for non-fiction authors. A blue ribbon denotes the winner. Hannah Fry, Hello World: How to be Human in The Age of The Machine Ben Macintyre, The Spy and the Traitor: The Greatest Espionage Story of the Cold War Thomas Page McBee, Amateur: A True Story About What Makes a Man Stephen Platt, Imperial Twilight: The Opium War and the End of China’s Last Golden Age Serhii Plokhii, Chernobyl: History of A Tragedy Carl Zimmer, She Has Her Mother's Laugh: The Powers and Potential of HeredityThe longlist was not publicly announced; the shortlist was announced on 2 October 2018. The 2018 judging panel was chaired by The Economist’s culture correspondent, Fiammetta Rocco, with Stephen Bush and political commentator.
David France, How to Survive a Plague: The Inside Story of How Citizens and Science Tamed AIDS Christopher de Bellaigue, The Islamic Enlightenment: The Modern Struggle Between Faith and Reason Kapka Kassabova, Border: A Journey to The Edge of Europe Daniel Mendelsohn, An Odyssey: A Father, A Son and An Epic Mark O'Connell, To Be A Machine: Adventures Among Cyborgs, Utopians and the Futurists Solving the Modest Problem of Death Simon Schama, Belonging: The Story of the Jews, 1492-1900The longlist was announced on 8 September and the shortlist was announced on 6 October. The 2017 judging panel was chaired by chaired by author and Chairman of ITV Sir Peter Bazalgette, together with Anjana Ahuja, science writer. Philippe Sands, East West Street: On the Origins of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity Svetlana Alexievich, Secondhand Time: The Last of the Soviets Margo Jefferson, Negroland: A Memoir Hisham Matar, The Return: Fathers and the Land In BetweenThe longlist was announced on 21 September and the shortlist was announced on 17 October.
The 2016 judging panel was chaired by former BBC Economics Editor Stephanie Flanders, together with Philip Ball, science writer and author. Steve Silberman, Neurotribes: The Legacy of Autism and How to Think Smarter About People Who Think Differently Jonathan Bate, Ted Hughes: The Unauthorised Life Robert Macfarlane, Landmarks Laurence Scott, The Four-Dimensional Human: Ways of Being in the Digital World Emma Sky, The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq Samanth Subramanian, This Divided Island: Stories from the Sri Lankan Civil WarThe longlist for the 2015 prize was announced on 22 September and the shortlist was announced on 11 October; the 2015 judging panel was chaired by Pulitzer prize-winning historian and journalist Anne App
Claudia Anne Winkleman is an English television presenter, film critic, radio personality, journalist. Between 2004 and 2010, she presented Strictly Come Dancing: It Takes Two on weeknights on BBC Two. Since 2010, she has co-presented Strictly Come Dancing's main results show on Sunday nights with Tess Daly on BBC One and since 2014 has been a main co-host alongside Daly on the Saturday night live shows, following the departure of Sir Bruce Forsyth, she has twice been nominated for the British Academy Television Award for Best Entertainment Performance for her work on Strictly Come Dancing. Winkleman was the presenter of Film... replacing Jonathan Ross after his move to ITV in 2010. She was Dance for its first two series with Steve Jones. From 2013 and 2016 she presented the BBC Two series The Great British Sewing Bee, she is the highest paid woman at the BBC, earning between £450,000-499,999 per year, according to reports. Winkleman was born in London to a Jewish family, the daughter of Eve Pollard, former editor of the Sunday Express, Barry Winkleman, former publisher of the Times Atlas of the World.
Her parents divorced when she was three, both remarried in 1979. Her mother married Sir Nicholas Lloyd, former editor of the Daily Express, her father married children's author Cindy Black. Winkleman's half-sister from her father's second marriage is actress Sophie Winkleman, she has a younger half-brother, Oliver Lloyd, from her mother's second marriage. Raised in Hampstead, Winkleman was educated at the City of London School for Girls and New Hall, obtaining a Master of Arts in Art History. In 1992, she began appearing in the long-running BBC series Holiday, this continued throughout the mid-1990s; this culminated in a special documentary in which she travelled around the world for 34 days reporting from Japan, Costa Rica and Dubai. Throughout this period, she appeared as a reporter on other shows This Morning interviewing various celebrities. During the late 1990s, Winkleman presented a number of programmes on smaller digital channels, she had a stint on the cable channel L! VE TV, but soon left to pursue other projects.
In 1996, Winkleman hosted Granada programmes Pyjama Party. Winkleman presented a number of gameshows including the dating show Three's a Crowd, LWT show Talking Telephone Numbers, the second series of Granada TV show God's Gift and Fanorama. In 1997 she was the co-host of children's Saturday morning TV, she was an occasional team captain on a gameshow called HeadJam, hosted by Vernon Kay. Winkleman's first major television job was in 2001, on the regional discussion programme Central Weekend. Between 2002 and 2004, Winkleman began her first daily TV role when she hosted the BBC Three Entertainment update show Liquid News, taking over from Christopher Price on the now defunct BBC Choice, she shared the presenting duties with Colin Paterson, Paddy O'Connell. The show featured celebrity interviews. In 2003, Fame Academy appointed Winkleman to present a daily update show on BBC Three, in conjunction with its second series, she repeated the show in 2005 for the much shorter celebrity version. In 2005, Winkleman co-hosted The House of Tiny Tearaways, a BBC Three reality TV show.
She began hosting Strictly Come Dancing: It Takes Two, a supplementary programme to Strictly Come Dancing, taking over from Justin Lee-Collins. Winkleman presented several more reality shows including End of Story, Art School. More Winkleman has presented a number of prime time programmes. In 2007, she took over from Cat Deeley as the main host for the third series of Comic Relief Does Fame Academy, co-hosting with Patrick Kielty, she co-hosted the inaugural Eurovision Dance Contest 2007 alongside Graham Norton for BBC One in September of that year and again in 2008. She co-presented the UK selection process for the Eurovision Song Contest 2008 called Eurovision: Your Decision, this time accompanied by Eurovision stalwart Terry Wogan. In March 2008, Winkleman rekindled her partnership with Kielty when the pair hosted the final leg of Sport Relief 2008. In 2007, Winkleman was the face of Sky Movie Premiere's coverage of the 79th Academy Awards, repeating it for the 80th Academy Awards in 2008.
The show was broadcast live in conjunction with the ceremony itself, running right through the night into the early hours of the morning. Winkleman has made many guest appearances on panel and talk shows, including: Never Mind the Buzzcocks, Would I Lie to You?, Have I Got News for You, Friday Night with Jonathan Ross and Lily Allen and Friends. In February 2008, she appeared on the British version of the comedy improvisational show Thank God You're Here, hosted by Paul Merton. Winkleman narrated the BBC Three show Glamour Girls, a documentary series focusing on Britain's glamour industry. In March 2009, Winkleman was announced as the host of the new series of Hell's Kitchen on ITV1, she fronted the nightly show live from the restaurant in East London in its fourth series in the spring. On 14 November 2009, she appeared on the main show of Strictly Come Dancing to present backstage, due to main presenter Bruce Forsyth being on sick leave, she co-hosted the show with guest presenter Ronnie Corbett.
On 29 March 2010, she was named as one of the new co-presenters of the Film programme, replacing Jonathan Ross. The Guardian stated, through her recent hosting of Sky Television's coverage of The Oscars, Winkleman had "proved both a passionate and engaging advocate of cinema", while her husband Kris Thykier is a film producer with credits on several mainstream relea
BBC One is the first and principal television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands. It was launched on 2 November 1936 as the BBC Television Service, was the world's first regular television service with a high level of image resolution, it was renamed BBC TV in 1960, using this name until the launch of the second BBC channel BBC2 in 1964, whereupon the BBC TV channel became known as BBC1, with the current spelling adopted in 1997. The channel's annual budget for 2012–13 was £1.14 billion. The channel is funded by the television licence fee together with the BBC's other domestic television stations, shows uninterrupted programming without commercial advertising, it is the most watched television channel in the United Kingdom, ahead of its traditional rival for ratings leadership, ITV. As of June 2013 the channel controller for BBC One was Charlotte Moore, who succeeded Danny Cohen as an Acting Controller from May 2013; the BBC began its own regular television programming from the basement of Broadcasting House, London, on 22 August 1932.
The BBC Television Service began regular broadcasts on 2 November 1936 from a converted wing of the Alexandra Palace in London. On 1 September 1939, two days before Britain declared war on Germany, the station was taken off air with little warning, with one of the last programmes to be shown before the suspension of the service being a Mickey Mouse cartoon. BBC Television returned on 7 June 1946 at 15:00. Jasmine Bligh, one of the original announcers, made the first announcement, saying, "Good afternoon everybody. How are you? Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh?". The Mickey Mouse cartoon of 1939 was repeated twenty minutes later; the BBC held a statutory monopoly on television broadcasting in the United Kingdom until the first Independent Television station began to broadcast on 22 September 1955, when ITV started broadcasting. The competition forced the channel to change its identity and priorities following a large reduction in its audience; the 1962 Pilkington Report on the future of broadcasting noticed this, that ITV lacked any serious programming.
It therefore decided that Britain's third television station should be awarded to the BBC. The station, renamed BBC TV in 1960, became BBC1 when BBC2 was launched on 20 April 1964 transmitting an incompatible 625-line image on UHF; the only way to receive all channels was to use a complex "dual-standard" 405- and 625-line, VHF and UHF, with both a VHF and a UHF aerial. Old 405-line-only sets became obsolete in 1985, when transmission in the standard ended, although standards converters have become available for enthusiasts who collect and restore such TVs. BBC1 was based at the purpose-built BBC Television Centre at White City, London between 1960 and 2013. Television News continued to use Alexandra Palace as its base—by early 1968 it had converted one of its studios to colour—before moving to new purpose-built facilities at Television Centre on 20 September 1969. In the weeks leading up to 15 November 1969, BBC1 unofficially transmitted the occasional programme in its new colour system, to test it.
At midnight on 15 November with ITV and two years after BBC2, BBC1 began 625-line PAL colour programming on UHF with a broadcast of a concert by Petula Clark. Colour transmissions could be received on monochrome 625-line sets until the end of analogue broadcasting. In terms of audience share, the most successful period for BBC1 was under Bryan Cowgill between 1973 and 1977, when the channel achieved an average audience share of 45%; this period is still regarded by many as a golden age of the BBC's output, with the BBC achieving a high standard across its entire range of series, plays, light entertainment and documentaries. On 30 December 1980, the BBC announced their intention to introduce a new breakfast television service to compete with TV-am; the BBC stated it would start broadcasting before TV-am, but made clear their hands were tied until November 1981 when the new licence fee income became available, to help finance extending broadcast hours, with the hope of starting in 1982. On 17 January 1983, the first edition of Breakfast Time was shown on BBC1, becoming the first UK wide breakfast television service and continued to lead in the ratings until 1984.
In 1984, Bill Cotton become managing director of Television at the BBC, set about overhauling BBC1, slated for poor home grown shows, its heavy reliance on US imports, with Dallas and The Thorn Birds being BBC1's highest rated programmes and ratings being over 20% behind ITV. Cotton recruited Michael Grade to become Controller of BBC1, the first time the Corporation had recruited someone outside of the BBC, replacing Alan Hart, criticised for his lack of knowledge in general entertainment, as he was head of BBC Sport prior to 1981; the first major overhaul was to axe the unpopular Sixty Minutes current affairs programme: this was a replacement for the news and magazine show Nationwide. Its replacement was the BBC Six O'Clock News, a straight new programme in a bid to shore up its failing early evening slot, it was believed the BBC were planning to cut short the evening news and move more light entertainment programming in from the 18:20 slot, but this was dismissed. The Miss Great Britain contest was dropped, being described as verging on the too offensive after the January 1985 contest, with Worlds Strongest Man and International Superstar being axed.
BBC1 was relaunched on 18 February 1985 with a new look, new programming including Wogan, EastEnders and a revised schedule to help streamline and maintain viewers thr
Andrew William Stevenson Marr is a British political commentator and television presenter. Beginning his career as a political commentator, he subsequently edited The Independent newspaper, was political editor of BBC News, he began hosting a political programme—Sunday AM, now called The Andrew Marr Show—on Sunday mornings on BBC One from September 2005. In 2002, Marr took over as host of BBC Radio 4's long-running Start the Week Monday morning discussion programme. In 2007, he presented a political history of post-war Britain on BBC Two, Andrew Marr's History of Modern Britain, followed by a prequel in 2009, Andrew Marr's The Making of Modern Britain, focusing on the period between 1901 and 1945. In 2010, he presented a series, Andrew Marr's Megacities, examining the life and challenges of some of the largest cities in the world. In early 2012 he presented The Diamond Queen, a three-part series about the reign of Queen Elizabeth II. In late September 2012, Marr began presenting Andrew Marr's History of the World, a new series examining the history of human civilisation.
Following a stroke in January 2013, Marr was in hospital for two months. He returned to presenting The Andrew Marr Show on 1 September 2013. Marr was born in Glasgow, Scotland, to Donald Marr, an investment trust manager, his wife Valerie. Regarding his upbringing, he has said: "My family are religious and go to church... nd I went to church as a boy". Marr was educated in Scotland at Craigflower Preparatory School, the independent High School of Dundee, he went to read English at Trinity Hall, graduating with a first class honours degree. Regarding his political affiliations, he was a Maoist and a member of the Socialist Campaign for a Labour Victory, an offshoot of the International-Communist League, now known as the Alliance for Workers' Liberty. At Cambridge, Marr says he was a "raving leftie" who handed out copies of Mao's Little Red Book and he acquired the nickname Red Andy. Marr joined The Scotsman as a trainee and junior business reporter in 1981. In 1984, he moved to London where he became a parliamentary correspondent for the newspaper, a political correspondent in 1986.
Marr met the political journalist Anthony Bevins, who became his close friend. Bevins was responsible for Marr's first appointment at The Independent as a member of the newspaper's launch staff in 1986. Marr left shortly afterwards, joined The Economist, where he contributed to the weekly "Bagehot" political column and became the magazine's political editor in 1988. Marr has remarked that his time at The Economist "changed me quite a lot" and "made me question a lot of my assumptions". Marr returned to The Independent as the newspaper's political editor in 1992, became its editor in 1996 during a turbulent time at the paper. Faced with price cutting by the Murdoch-owned Times, sales had begun to decline, Marr made two attempts to arrest the slide, he made use of bold'poster-style' front pages, in 1996 radically re-designed the paper along a mainland European model, with Gill Sans headline fonts, stories being grouped together by subject matter, rather than according to strict news value. This tinkering proved disastrous.
With a limited advertising budget, the re-launch struggled for attention was mocked for reinterpreting its original marketing slogan'It Is – Are You' to read'It's changed – have you?'. At the beginning of 1998, Marr was sacked, according to one version of events, for having refused to reduce the newspaper's production staff to just five subeditors. According to Nick Cohen's account, the sacking was due to the intervention of Alastair Campbell, director of communications for Tony Blair. Campbell had demanded that David Montgomery, the paper's publisher, fire Marr over an article in which he had compared Blair with his predecessor John Major; this article had followed an earlier one by Blair published in The Sun, in which Blair had written: "On the day we remember the legend that St George slayed a dragon to protect England, some will argue that there is another dragon to be slayed: Europe." Marr's response asserted that Blair had spoken in bad faith, opportunistically championing Europe to pro-EU audiences while criticising it to anti-EU ones.
Three months Marr returned to The Independent. Tony O'Reilly had bought out owners, the Mirror Group. O'Reilly, who had a high regard for Marr, asked him to collaborate as co-editor with Rosie Boycott, in an arrangement whereby Marr would edit the comment pages, Boycott would have overall control of the news pages. Many pundits predicted the arrangement would not last and two months Boycott left to replace Richard Addis as editor of the Daily Express. Marr was sole editor only for one week. Simon Kelner, who had worked on the paper when it was first launched, accepted the editorship and asked Marr to stay on as a political columnist. Kelner was not Marr's "cup of tea", Marr observed and he left the paper for the last time in May 1998. Marr was a columnist for the Daily Express and The Observer. Marr presented a three-part television series shown on BBC Two from 31 January to 2 February 2000 after Newsnight. A state-of-the-nation reflection, The Day Britain Died had an accompanying book. Among Marr's other publications is My Trade: A Short History of British Journalism
British Academy of Film and Television Arts
The British Academy of Film and Television Arts is an independent charity that supports and promotes the art forms of the moving image in the United Kingdom. In addition to its annual awards ceremonies, BAFTA has an international programme of learning events and initiatives offering access to talent through workshops, scholarships and mentoring schemes in the United Kingdom and the United States. BAFTA started out as the British Film Academy, was founded in 1947 by a group of directors David Lean, Alexander Korda, Roger Manvell, Laurence Olivier, Emeric Pressburger, Michael Powell, Michael Balcon, Carol Reed, other major figures of the British film industry. David Lean was the founding chairman of the academy; the first Film Awards ceremony took place in May 1949 and honouring the films The Best Years of Our Lives, Odd Man Out and The World Is Rich. The Guild of Television Producers and Directors was set up in 1953 with the first awards ceremony in October 1954, in 1958 merged with the British Film Academy to form the Society of Film and Television Arts, whose inaugural meeting was held at Buckingham Palace and presided over by HRH The Duke of Edinburgh.
In 1976, Queen Elizabeth, The Duke of Edinburgh, The Princess Royal and The Earl Mountbatten of Burma opened the organisation's headquarters at 195 Piccadilly, in March the society became the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. BAFTA is an independent charity with a mission to "support and promote the art forms of the moving image, by identifying and rewarding excellence, inspiring practitioners and benefiting the public", it is a membership organisation comprising 7,500 individuals worldwide who are creatives and professionals working in and making a contribution to the film and games industries in the UK. In 2005, it placed an overall cap on worldwide voting membership "which now stands at 6,500". BAFTA does not receive any funding from the government: it relies on income from membership subscriptions, individual donations, trusts and corporate partnerships to support its ongoing outreach work. BAFTA has offices in Scotland and Wales in the UK, in Los Angeles and New York in the United States and runs events in Hong Kong and mainland China.
Amanda Berry OBE has been chief executive of the organisation since December 2000. In addition to its high-profile awards ceremonies, BAFTA manages a year-round programme of educational events and initiatives including film screenings and Q&As, tribute evenings, interviews and debates with major industry figures. With over 250 events a year, BAFTA's stated aim is to inspire and inform the next generation of talent by providing a platform for some of the world's most talented practitioners to pass on their knowledge and experience. Many of these events are free to watch online via its official channel on YouTube. BAFTA runs a number of scholarship programmes across US and Asia. Launched in 2012, the UK programme enables talented British citizens who are in need of financial support to take an industry-recognised course in film, television or games in the UK; each BAFTA Scholar receives up to £12,000 towards their annual course fees, mentoring support from a BAFTA member and free access to BAFTA events around the UK.
Since 2013, three students every year have received one of the Prince William Scholarships in Film and Games, supported by BAFTA and Warner Bros. These scholarships are awarded in the name of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge in his role as president of BAFTA. In the US, BAFTA Los Angeles offers financial support and mentorship to British graduate students studying in the US, as well as scholarships to provide financial aid to local LA students from the inner city. BAFTA New York's Media Studies Scholarship Program, set up in 2012, supports students pursuing media studies at undergraduate and graduate level institutions within the New York City area and includes financial aid and mentoring opportunities. Since 2015, BAFTA has been offering scholarships for British citizens to study in China, vice versa. BAFTA presents awards for film and games, including children's entertainment, at a number of annual ceremonies across the UK and in Los Angeles, USA; the BAFTA award trophy is a mask, designed by American sculptor Mitzi Cunliffe.
When the Guild merged with the British Film Academy to become the Society of Film and Television Arts the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, the first'BAFTA award' was presented to Sir Charles Chaplin on his Academy Fellowship that year. Today's BAFTA award – including the bronze mask and marble base – weighs 3.7 kg and measures 27 cm x 14 cm x 8 cm. In 2017, the British Academy of Film and Television Arts introduced new entry rules for British Films Only starting from 2018 season. BAFTA's annual film awards ceremony is known as the British Academy Film Awards, or "the BAFTAs", reward the best work of any nationality seen on British cinema screens during the preceding year. In 1949 the British Film Academy, as it was known, presented the first awards for films made in 1947 and 1948. Since 2008 the ceremony has been held at the Royal Opera House in London's Covent Garden, it had been held in the Odeon cinema on Leicester Square since 2000. Since 2017, the BAFTA ceremony has been held at the Royal Albert Hall.
The ceremony had been performed during April or May of each year, but since 2002 it has been held in February to precede the academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences' Academy Awards, or Oscars. In order for a film to be considered for a BAFTA nomination its first public exhibition must be displayed in a cinema and it must have a