Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj was the fifth Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire created by his grandfather, Shivaji Maharaj. He was Shivaji's eldest son and successor. Shahu, as a child, was taken prisoner along with his mother in 1689 by Mughal sardar, Zulfikar Khan Nusrat Jang After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, leading Mughal courtiers released Shahu with a force of fifty men, thinking that a friendly Maratha leader would be a useful ally. At that time he fought a brief war with his aunt Tarabai in an internecine conflict to gain the Maratha throne in 1707; the battle is known as Battle of Khed, On 12th of October 1707 Supreme commander of Maratha forces Dhanaji Jadhav joined Shahuji in that battle. Tarabai along with her son Shivaji 2 left for Panhala fort and Finally Shahuji captured Satara and became the emperor of Marathas with the capital at Satara, he crowned himself as the Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire on 12th January 1708. Meanwhile Tarabai set up a new court at Kolhapur with her son Shivaji II as the Emperor.
Under Shahu's reign, Maratha power and influence extended to all corners of the Indian subcontinent. He was a powerful ruler of Maratha Samrajya after his grandfather father Sambhaji; however after his death, power moved from the ruling chhatrapati to his ministers and the generals who had carved out their own fiefdoms such as Bhonsle of Nagpur, Gaekwad of Baroda, Scindia of Gwalior and Holkar of Indore. He remained the most famous ruler expanding the territories of Maratha empire Chhatrapati Shahu's Seal। श्री वर्धिष्णुर्विक्रमे विष्णोः। सा मूर्तिरिव वामनी । । शंभूसुतोरिव । मुद्रा शिवराजस्य राजते ।। Early in his reign, Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj appointed Bahiroji Pingale as the Peshwa and Dhanaji Jadhav as the Sar Senapati. Bahiroji Pingale was taken as prisoner by Kanhoji Angre in 1711. In 1713 Shahu Maharaj appointed Balaji Vishwanath as his Peshwa and other 7 ministers as Ashtapradhan Mandal. Over the next few years, Under the directions and orders of Chhatrapati Shahu, Balaji followed by his son, Bajirao I and grandson Balaji Bajirao with help of capable military leaders such as Shinde, Gaekwad and Bhonsle of Nagpur expanded Maratha power in all directions of the Indian subcontinent..
Shahu fathered four daughters. He adopted two sons, Fatehsinh I and Rajaram II of Satara. Rajaram II had been brought to him by Shahu's paternal aunt, who claimed that the young man was her grandson and a descendant of Shivaji, but disowned him as an imposter. After Shahu's death the powers were indirectly shifted to the Peshwa Balaji Bajirao and other ministers with Shrimant Rajaram 2 as the Chhatrapati of the Kingdom Shahu died in 1749, his adopted son Rajaram II of Satara succeeded him. Rajaram 2 was a powerful ruler but Tarabai tried to control his decisions, This led to a conflict between Tararani Sarkar and Rajaram 2, She told that Rajaram was just a imposter and so the actual power of Chhatrapati declined but still he continued to be the Chhatrapati and Chhatrapati enjoyed a lot of respect and ransom from the ministers as they were the real kings of the Maratha Empire, but the actual power was held by others: first by Tarabai and by Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao. Moreover the Peshwas lost their power and other independent kings started exercising real control.
Satara district Mehta, Jaswant Lal. Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707-1813. Sterling Publishers. Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 441. Kasar, D. B. Rigveda to Raigarh making of Shivaji the great, Mumbai: Manudevi Prakashan, Rs. 165. Akkalkot, Solapur district gazette
Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Ramchandra Neelkanth Bawadekar known as Ramchandra Pant Amatya, served on the Council of 8 as the Finance Minister to Emperor Shivaji dating from 1674 to 1680. He served as the Imperial Regent to four emperors, namely Sambhaji, Shivaji II and Sambhaji II, he authored the Adnyapatra, a famous code of civil and military administration, is renowned as one of the greatest civil administrators and military strategists of the Maratha Empire. Ramchandra Pant was born in a Deshastha Brahmin family in 1650, he was the youngest son of Neelkanth Sondeo Bahutkar who had risen from a local revenue collection post to the post of Minister in the court of Shivaji Maharaj, His family came from the village of Kolwan, near Kalyan Bhiwandi. Ramchandra Pant's grandfather Sonopant and uncle Abaji Sondeo were in the close circle of Shivaji; the Bahutkar family was associated with Samarth Ramdas, the spiritual guru of Shivaji Maharaj Samarth Ramdas is believed to be the one who named the newly born child as Ramchandra.
Before 1672, Ramchandra Pant was engaged in various clerical jobs in Shivaji's administration. In 1672, he and his elder brother Narayan were both promoted to the post of Revenue Minister by Shivaji. In 1674, at the coronation ceremony, the post of Mujumdar was renamed as Amatya and the title was bestowed upon Ramchandra Pant, he worked in this capacity until 1678. On his death bed, Shivaji named him as one among six pillars of the Maratha Empire that would save the kingdom in difficult times. After Shivaji's death in 1680, Sambhaji became ruler of the Maratha Empire and Ramchandra Pant continued with his administration in various posts. Among other duties, Ramchandra Pant was sent to Prince Akbar, Aurangzeb's rebel son, for negotiations and, in 1685, Sambhaji deployed him as an envoy to Vijapur for certain sensitive talks. Ramchandra Pant Amatya was the only person who dedicatedly served The Maratha Swarajya under 5 Chhatrapati's in a row; when the Marathi empire was in trouble he used his wisdom, dedication to the throne and force as needed to keep the empire and its Swarajya safe.
During the coronation of Shivaji Maharaj, Ramchandra Pant Amatya was the youngest Pradhan of all the Asthapradhan's existing at that time. Thereafter, during the reign of Sambhaji Maharaj, Rajaram Maharaj, Maharani Tarabai and Sambhaji Raje, Pant Amatya always held a prominent positions; as Riyasatkar rightly said that ‘ever since the time of Shivaji Maharaj, Ramchandra Pant Amatya was the only person in the history of the Marathas who seems to have dedicatedly served the throne.’ Ramchandra Pant Amatya has laid down all the experiences encountered by him, while serving the throne in his book Rajniti. The said book is a testament to his dedication and service to the throne of Chatrapati's and Hindavi Swarajya; the forefathers of Ramchandra Pant Amatya had close relations with the Bhosle Gharana before the establishment of Swarajya. Before the coronation of Shivaji Maharaj, Ramchandra Pant Amatya's father used to participate in various initiatives undertaken by Shivaji Maharaj. Ramchandra Pant Amatya subsequently carried forward this tradition with more impact.
Ramchandra Pant Amatya took the lead. Being Impressed by his efforts, Shivaji Maharaj included Ramchandra Pant as Amatya in his First AshtaPradhan mandal i.e. Council of Ministers. This, in itself portrays the qualities. During the coronation ceremony of Shivaji Maharaj, Pant was included as Amatya, he must’ve been 22–23 years old then. Before the coronation, a PradhanMandal was appointed by Maharaj in the year 1662 which included Ramchandra Pant's father Neelkanth Sondev as Maharaj's Amatya; this legacy was carried forward, as after the death of Neelkanth Sondev his son Ramchandra Pant was appointed as Maharaj's Amatya. According to the information provided by the bakharkar, Ramchandra Pant Amatya was one of the few people present when Shivaji Maharaj was on his death bed at Raigad. Shivaji maharaj had named a few people. Ramchandra Pant Amatya was one of them. During the Reign of Sambhaji Maharaj, Ramchandra Pant Amatya was given an important position. After the unfortunate demise of Sambhaji Maharaj, the Maratha Empire was in great trouble.
Aurangzeb had taken a vow to defeat the Maratha empire at any cost, with that motive, he attacked many forts of the Marathas with a huge army. Sadness prevailed all over the Maratha Empire. In this situation, Ramchandra Pant Amatya acted with a lot of patience; this was the era of the freedom struggle of the Maratha empire. Ramchandra Pant Amatya did every thing he could to keep the royal family and the Maratha empire safe and endure the struggle of the troubled times. Ramchandra Pant Amatya, Santaji Ghorpade, Dhanaji Jadhav, Parshurampant Pant-Pratinidhi where the major contributors to the struggle for freedom. Rajaram Maharaj's stay in Jingi ended in 1697, he returned to Maharashtra. However, Rajaram Maharaj died in 1700; the Maratha empire was in trouble again. Ramchandra Pant Amatya did everything he could to save the Maratha Empire from the trouble and he succeeded; this was no mean achievement. Ramchandra Pant had paid a visit to Rajaram Maharaj. Pant had sensed the inevitable, he wrote letters to many Sardars and informed them of the dire situation and brought to their notice, the need to protect the Empire.
After the death of Rajaram Mahar
Raghunathrao was a Peshwa of the Maratha Empire for a brief period from 1773 to 1774. Raghunathrao known as "Raghoba", "Raghoba Dada" and "Ragho Bharari," was the younger brother of Nanasaheb Peshwa, his father was Peshwa Bajirao mother was Kashibai. Raghunathrao was born in Mahuli near Satara on 8 December 1734. Much of his childhood was spent in Satara. In his early years he fought with great success in the north, his expedition during 1753–1755 was concluded by an advantageous treaty with Jat. He is favorably remembered by Hindus for the fact that during that expedition he brought an end to Muslim rule at Hindu religious places such as Mathura, Gaya, Kurukshetra. Raghunathrao made Alamgir II Emperor in his place. At the end of 1756, Ahmad Shah Abdali was preparing to invade Delhi once again. Nanasaheb Peshwa, Malharrao Holkar and Dattaji Shinde and it was decided that Marathas being the protectors of the Mughal Emperor would make another expedition to North India to stop another Afghan invasion.
Nanasaheb Peshwa gave the command of this expedition to Ragunathrao and Malharrao Holkar was asked to assist Ragunathrao. Malharrao Holkar left for Indore at the end of 1756 and Ragunathrao followed him with his army after few weeks in October 1756. Ragunathrao was joined by Malharrao Holkar; the purpose of Ragunathrao’s northern expedition was twofold: first was to defend the Mughal Emperor from Afghan invasion and second to collect funds and tributes to meet with Peshwa’s growing debts. So in the middle of May 1757, Ragunathrao sent an advance force of 20,000 into the Ganga Doab to recover lost possessions of Marathas, with Malharrao Holkar and the remaining force decided to invade Rajputana to collect funds. Due to the fortified lands and the martial nature of the people, Ragunathrao was unable to gather funds for the subsistence of his army and sent letters to Poona asking Peshwa for funds.“I am feeding myself only by looting villages. In this country most places are fortified, not a grain of food can be obtained without fighting.
I have no money, cannot raise a loan. My soldiers have been fasting for one or two days at a time.” - Ragunathrao's letter to PeshwaThe Maratha army moved through Mewar from Indore and on its way collected a ransom of one lakh from Jawad and plundered Ranikheda in March 1757. Reaching Jaipur in April 1757, Ragunathrao demanded payments from Madho Singh and laid siege to Barwada belonging to the Shekhawats. Lacking siege materials the Maratha army could not force the Shekhawats to surrender, the long standing siege started taking its toll on the Maratha army. Kaniram, the Jaipur minister offered Ragunathrao payment as agreed in the past between Marathas and Rajputs, but Ragunathrao was adamant, he demanded 40 to 50 lakhs and territory worth 14 lakhs or threatened to wait out the siege and take territory worth 40 to 50 lakhs from the Rajputs. Madho Singh, king of Jaipur refused all of Ragunathrao’s terms and asked all his feudatories to fortify their posts and stay vigilant; the Maratha army in Rajputana at the time did not have the numbers necessary to storm forts of Barwada and Jaipur and so on 12 July 1757 Ragunathrao agreed to peace talks with Madho Singh.
He accepted a payment of eleven lakhs from Jaipur. On 12 July 1757, Ragunathrao wrote to Peshwa: "I is any loan available. My troops are in debt. Prices here are high. I am daily getting my food only by sacking the villages.” - Ragunathrao's letter to Peshwa on 12th July 1757Having thus concluded the business in Rajputana and Malharrao Holkar with the remaining Maratha forces started making for Delhi to liberate it from the Afghan agents at the end of July 1757, by which point of time Ahmad Shah Abdali was well away in his country. The Maratha troops sent by Ragunathrao to recover lost possessions in the Ganga Doab under the command of Sakharam Bapu, Vithal Shivdev, Tatya Gangadhar and Antaji Mankeshwar into the Ganga Doab reached Agra in May 1757. On reaching Agra, the Marathas advanced to Yamuna, they crossed Yamuna at Agra, occupied Etawah and Sikandra, encamped at Kasganj on the southern bank of the Ganga on 17 June 1757. Antaji Mankeshwar went to Anupshahar about 2 July 1757. Meerut, occupied by Najib Khan’s agents resisted the Marathas but were swiftly defeated.
Imad-ul-mulk sent his diwan Nagar Mal to Anupshahar to establish friendly relations with the Marathas once again. Shuja-ud-daulah had agreed to remain neutral in the conflict between Najib-ud-daulah and the Marathas, thus most of the Doab came under the control of Marathas. Ahmad Shah Abdali, before heading home in Afghanistan, kept Alamgir II on the throne with Imad-ul-Mulk as his wazir, but Abdali gave all the real power to Najib-ud-Daulah, his supreme agent in India and made him Mir Bakshi. Alamgir II, Imad-ul-Mulk all wanted to be free from Najib Khan’s dominance and asked the Marathas for aid in liberating Delhi from Afghan influence. Ragunathrao agreed and marched on the imperial capital in July 1757. Sakharam Bapu, present in the Doab region at the time, occupied Patparganj, Shamsher Bahadur with the artillery division reached Rewari on 27 July 1757. Grain was stopped from entering the city. Najib Khan in preparation of the coming battle, dug trenches at Khizirabad outside the city to halt the cavalry advance of the Marathas.
Najib Khan on hearing of Ragunathrao’s advance, sent his wakil Meghraj to Imad-ul-Mulk to seek terms of peace, but Imad proposed humiliating terms which were unacceptable to Najib. And so there was no oth
Pune called Poona, is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai. It is the ninth most populous city in the country with an estimated population of 3.13 million. Along with its Industrial Estate Pimpri Chinchwad and the three cantonment towns of Pune and Dehu Road, Pune forms the urban core of the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region. According to the 2011 census, the urban area has a combined population of 5.05 million while the population of the metropolitan region is estimated at 7.27 million. Situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river, Pune is the administrative headquarters of its namesake district. In the 18th century, the city was the seat of the Peshwas, the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire and so was one of the most important political centres on the Indian subcontinent. Pune is ranked the number one city in India in the ease of living ranking index; the city is considered to be the cultural capital of Maharashtra.
It is known as the "Oxford of the East" due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions. The city has emerged as a major educational hub in recent decades, with nearly half of the total international students in the country studying in Pune. Research institutes of information technology, education and training attract students and professionals from India and overseas. Several colleges in Pune have student-exchange programmes with colleges in Europe. Pune is an important centre for civil services training; the earliest reference to Pune is an inscription on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated 937 CE, which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya, meaning "sacred news". By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi. Copper plates dated 858 and 868 CE show that by the 9th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed at the location of the modern Pune; the plates indicate. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era. Pune was part of the territory ruled by the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327.
Pune was part of the Jagir granted to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi. Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate. Maloji Bhosale's grandson, the founder of the Maratha Empire, was born at Shivneri, a fort not far from Pune. Pune changed hands several times between the Mughals and the Marathas in the period 1660 to 1705. After the destruction of the town in raids by the Adil Shahi dynasty in 1630 and again between 1636 and 1647, Dadoji Konddeo, the successor to Dhadphale, oversaw the reconstruction of the town, he stabilised the revenue collection and administrative systems of the areas around Pune and the neighbouring Maval region. He developed effective methods to manage disputes and to enforce law and order; the Lal Mahal was commissioned in 1631 and construction was completed in 1640 AD. Shivaji spent his young years at the Lal Mahal, his mother, Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple. The Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded as the presiding deity of the city.
From 1703 to 1705, towards the end of the 27-year-long Mughal–Maratha Wars, the town was occupied by Aurangzeb and its name was changed to Muhiyabad. Two years the Marathas recaptured Sinhagad fort, Pune, from the Mughals. In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed Peshwa of the Maratha Empire by Chhatrapati Shahu, he moved his base from Saswad to Pune in 1728, marking the beginning of the transformation of what was a kasbah into a large city. He commissioned the construction of the Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha River; the construction was completed in 1730. Bajirao's son and successor, Nanasaheb constructed a lake at Katraj on the outskirts of the city and an underground aqueduct to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada and the city; the aqueduct was still in working order in 2004. The patronage of the Maratha Peshwas resulted in a great expansion of Pune, with the construction of around 250 temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati Hill and many Maruti, Vishnu, Rama and Ganesh temples.
The building of temples led to religion being responsible for about 15% of the city's economy during this period. Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa, he developed Saras Baug, Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial and residential localities. Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed; the Peshwa's influence in India declined after the defeat of Maratha forces at the Battle of Panipat but Pune remained the seat of power. In 1802 Pune was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Pune, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805; the Peshwa rule ended with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II by the British East India Company in 1818. The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the British East India Company in 1817; the Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki on 5 November near Pune and the city was seized by the British. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency and the British built a large military cantonment to the east of the city.
The Southern Command of the Indian Army was established in 1895 and has its headquarters in Pune cantonment. The city was known as Poona during British rule. Poona Municipality was established in 1858. A rai
Baji Rao I
Baji Rao was a general of the Maratha Empire in India. He served as Peshwa to the fifth Maratha Chhatrapati Shahu from 1720 until his death. Bajirao was Peshwa in the Ashtapradhan mandal of Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj, he is known by the name Bajirao Ballal. Baji Rao is credited with expanding the Maratha Empire alongwith other commanders like Holkars,Shindes,Gaekwads,Pawars,Bhonsales in India. Maratha empire reached its zenith on under reign of Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj and he was one of the major contributors in expansion over the Indian subcontinent. In his military career spanning 20 years Baji Rao never lost a battle just like that of Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj Bajirao was born into the Bhat family, his father Balaji Vishwanath was technically the third Peshwa of Chhatrapati Shahu. Baji Rao had two sisters, Bihubai Joshi and Anubai Ghorpade; the eldest of his sisters was married into a Deshastha family. He spent his childhood in his father's newly acquired fiefdom of Saswad. Bajirao would accompany his father on military campaigns.
He fought his first battle in Daulatabad at the age of 12. He was with his father when the latter was imprisoned by Damaji Thorat before being released for a ransom; when Vishwanath died in 1720, Chhatrapati Shahu appointed the 20-year old Baji Rao as the Peshwa. He was known as Shrimant Thorle Bajirao Balal Peshwa, he is said to have preached the ideal of Hindu Pad Padshahi,Bajirao intended to plant the Maratha flag upon the walls of Delhi and other cities governed by the Mughals and their subjects. He intended to create a Hindu-Pat-Padshahi; the twenty year old Bajirao was appointed Peshwa in succession to his father by Chhatrapati Shahu. By the time of Baji Rao's appointment, Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah had in 1719 recognized Marathas' rights over the territories possessed by Shivaji at his death; the treaty included the Maratha rights to collect taxes in the six provinces of Deccan. Bajirao believed that the Mughal Empire was in decline and wanted to take advantage of this situation with aggressive expansion in north India.
Sensing the declining fortune of the Mughals, he is reported to have said, "Strike, strike at the roots and the biggest tree will fall down." However, as a new Peshwa, he faced several challenges: His appointment as the Peshwa at a young age had evoked jealousy from senior officials like Naro Ram Mantri, Anant Ram Sumant and Shripatrao Pant Pratinidhi. This led Bajirao to promote as commanders young men like himself who were out of teens such as Malhar Rao Holkar, Ranoji Shinde, the Pawar brothers; these men did not belong to families that held hereditary Deshmukhi rights under the Deccan Sultanates. The Mughal viceroy of Deccan Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah I, had created his own independent kingdom in the region, he challenged Shahu's right to collect taxes in Deccan on the pretext that he did not know whether Shahu or his cousin Sambhaji II of Kolhapur were the rightful heir to the Maratha throne. The Marathas needed to assert their rights over the nobles of the newly gained territories in Malwa and Gujarat.
Several areas that were nominally part of the Maratha territory, were not under Peshwa's control. For example, the Siddis controlled the Janjira fort. On 4 January 1721, Baji Rao met Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah I at Chikhalthan to settle their disputes through agreement. However, Nizam refused to recognize the Maratha rights to collect taxes from the Deccan provinces. Nizam was made Vizier of Mughal Empire in 1721, but alarmed at his growing power, emperor Muhammad Shah transferred him from Deccan to Awadh in 1723. Nizam resigned as the Vizier and marched towards Deccan; the emperor sent an army against him. In response, Mughal emperor was forced to recognize him as the viceroy of Deccan; the Marathas, led by Bajirao, helped. In fact, for his bravery in the battle, Baji Rao was honored with a robe, a mansabdari of 7,000, an elephant and a jewel. After the battle, Nizam tried to appease both the Maratha Chhatrapati Shahu as well as the Mughal emperor. However, in reality, he wanted to carve out a sovereign kingdom and considered the Marathas his rivals in the Deccan.
In 1725, Nizam sent an army to clear out the Maratha revenue collectors from the Carnatic region. The Marathas dispatched a force under Fateh Singh Bhosle to counter him; the Marathas were forced to retreat. They launched a second campaign after the monsoon season, but once again, they were unable to prevent the Nizam from ousting the Maratha collectors. Meanwhile, in Deccan, Sambhaji II of Kolhapur State had become a rival claimant to the title of the Maratha Chhatrapati. Nizam took advantage of this dispute among the Marathas, he refused to pay the chauth or sardeshmukhi on the grounds that it was unclear, the real Chhatrapati: Shahu or Sambhaji II. Nizam offered to act as an arbitrator in this dispute. At the court of Shahu, Nizam's spokesman was Parshuram Pant Pratinidhi, a Deshastha Brahmin and a rival of Bajirao. At the court of Sambhaji II, his supporter was Chandrasen Jadhav, who had fought Bajirao's father a decade earlier. Bajirao convinced Shahu not to accept Nizam's arbitration offer and instead launch an assault against him.
On 27 August 1727, Baji Rao started a march against Nizam. He raided and plundered several of Nizam's territories, such as Jalna and Khandesh. While Bajirao was away, Nizam invaded Pune, where he installed Samb
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated large portion of Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji and ended in 1818 with the defeat of Puppet Peshwa Bajirao 2 installed by Maratha Nobles under Monarch Chhatrapati Pratapsingh; the Marathas are credited to a large extent for ending Mughal rule in India. The Warrior Maratha were a group of various castes referred to as "Mavla". Maratha Empire had Kshatriya Kings and people from all castes as warriors in the empire from the western Deccan Plateau who rose to prominence by establishing a Hindavi Swarajya; the Maratha became prominent in the 17th century under the leadership of Shivaji, who revolted against the Adil Shahi dynasty, founded the empire with Raigad as his capital. Known for their mobility, the Maratha were able to consolidate their territory during the Mughal–Maratha Wars and controlled a large part of the Indian subcontinent.
After Shivaji his son Sambhaji a talented and clever King,a sanskrit Scholar and having a great Physique ruled the kingdom. After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707,Sambhajis son Chhattrapati Shahu, grandson of Shivaji, was released by the Mughals. Following a brief struggle with his aunt Tarabai, Shahu became the ruler and appointed Bahiroji Pingale and Balaji Vishwanath and his descendants, as the peshwas of the empire. Shahu appointed Ashtapradhan like Chitnis, Sar Senapati, etc Maratha Nobles played a key role in the expansion of Maratha rule; the empire at its peak stretched from Tamil Nadu in the south, to Peshawar in the north, Bengal Subah in the east. The Maratha discussed abolishing the Mughal throne and placing Vishwasrao on the Mughal imperial throne in Delhi but were not able to do so; this lead to a decrease in the power of Peshwa like that of Chhatrapati's In 1761, the Maratha Army lost the Third Battle of Panipat against Ahmad Shah Abdali of the Afghan Durrani Empire, which halted their imperial expansion into Afghanistan.
Ten years after Panipat, the young Peshwa Madhavrao I's Maratha Resurrection reinstated Maratha authority over North India. But after his death Peshwas became puppet of the Maratha Nobles like Shindes, Holkars, Bhonsales of Nagpur In a bid to manage the large empire, Madhavrao gave semi-autonomy to the strongest of the knights, created a confederacy of Maratha states; these leaders became known as the Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore and Malwa, the Scindias of Gwalior and Ujjain, the Bhonsales of Nagpur, the Meheres of Vidharbha and the Puars of Dhar and Dewas. In 1775, the East India Company intervened in a Peshwa family succession struggle in Pune, which led to the First Anglo-Maratha War; the Marathas were victorious. The Maratha remained the pre-eminent power in India until their defeat in the Second and Third Anglo-Maratha Wars, which resulted in the East India Company controlling most of India. A large portion of the Maratha empire was coastline, secured by the potent Maratha Navy under commanders such as Kanhoji Angre.
He was successful at keeping foreign naval ships at bay those of the Portuguese and British nations. Securing the coastal areas and building land-based fortifications were crucial aspects of the Maratha's defensive strategy and regional military history; the Maratha Empire is referred to as the Maratha Confederacy. The historian Barbara Ramusack says that the former is a designation preferred by Indian nationalists, while the latter was that used by British historians, she notes, "neither term is accurate since one implies a substantial degree of centralisation and the other signifies some surrender of power to a central government and a longstanding core of political administrators. Maratha power was fragmented among several discrete fragments". Although at present, the word Maratha refers to a particular caste of warriors and peasants, in the past the word has been used to describe Marathi people; the empire had its head in the Chhatrapati as de facto rulers, but after the death of Shahu the de facto governance was in the hands of the Peshwas.
After the death of Chhatrapati Shahu and with the death of Madhavrao – I, various chiefs played the role of the de facto rulers in their own regions. Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj son of Shahaji Bhonsale and Rajmata Jijabai was a Maratha aristocrat of the Bhosale clan, considered to be the founder of the Maratha empire, it was his parents dream to found a Empire of Self rule referred to as Hindavi Swarajya. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj led a resistance to free the people from the Sultanate of Bijapur in 1645 by winning the fort Torna, followed by many more forts, placing the area under his control and establishing Hindavi Swarajya, he created an independent Maratha kingdom with Raigad as its capital and fought against the Mughals to defend his kingdom. He was crowned as Chhatrapati of the new Maratha kingdom in 1674; the Maratha kingdom comprised about 4.1% of the subcontinent, but it was spread over large tracts from Tanjavore in Tamil Nadu till Northern Maharashtra. At the time of his death, it was reinforced with about 352 forts, defended by about 50,000 cavalry, 80,000 foot soldiers, as well as naval establishments along the west coast.
He is known as the "Father of Indian Navy". Over time, the kingdom would increase in heterogeneity. Shivaji had two sons: Sam
Peshwa Madhav Rao II was Peshwa of the Maratha Empire in India, from his infancy. He was known as Madhav Rao Narayan, he was the posthumous son of Narayanrao Peshwa, murdered in 1773 on the orders of Raghunathrao. Madhavrao was considered the legal heir, was installed as Peshwa by the Treaty of Salbai in 1782. Madhavrao was the Posthumous son of Peshwa Narayanrao by Gangabai. After Narayanrao's murder, Raghunathrao became Peshwa but was soon deposed by the courtiers and knights of the Maratha Empire, they instead installed Gangabai's new born son, Madhavrao II, as the Peshwa with the courtiers, led by Nana Fadnavis, as the Regents. Madhavrao was made Peshawa when he was 40 days old, his time in power was dominated by the political intrigues of Nana Phadnis. After the British loss in 1782 in the First Anglo-Maratha War, Mahadji Shinde got Madhvrao recognized as Peshwa by the British. However, all powers of the peshwa were in the hands of ministers like Nana Fadnavis, Mahadaji Shinde and others. In,1788 when Ghulam Qadir attacked Delhi, Mahadaji Shinde led the army of marathas to Delhi and saved the mughal emperor and his family.
In 1790, the Marathas won over rajput states in the Battle of Patan. After the death of Mahadaji Shinde In 1794, the Maratha power got concentrated in the hands of Nana Fadnavis. Madhavrao was fond of the out-doors and had a private collection of exotic animals such as lions and rhinoceros; the area where he hunted became the Peshwe park zoo in Pune. He was fond of his herd of trained dancing deer. Madhavrao committed suicide at the age of 21 by jumping off from the high walls of the Shaniwar Wada in Pune.. The cause of the suicide was that he could not endure the highhandedness of Nana Fadnavis. Just before his suicide, it is said that in ordering the execution of the despised police commissioner, Ghashiram Kotwal, Madhavrao was able to defy the wishes of Nana for the first time Nana Fadnavis Mahadaji Pant Guruji Mahadaji Scindia Narayan Rao Jayapalan, N.. History of India. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors Limited. P. 79. ISBN 9788171569281. Retrieved 2014-10-12. Maratha Empire Peshawe Family Peshwa Maratha emperors