SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Martial arts

Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense. Although the term martial art has become associated with the fighting arts of East Asia, it referred to the combat systems of Europe as early as the 1550s; the term means "arts of Mars", the Roman god of war. Some authors have argued that fighting arts or fighting systems would be more appropriate on the basis that many martial arts were never "martial" in the sense of being used or created by professional warriors. Martial arts may be categorized using a variety of criteria, including: Traditional/historical arts vs. contemporary styles: e.g. folk wrestling compared to modern hybrid martial arts. Techniques taught: armed vs. unarmed, within these categories armed: by type of weapon unarmed: by type of combat By application or intent: self-defense, combat sport, choreography or demonstration of forms, physical fitness, etc. Within Chinese tradition: "external" vs. "internal" styles UnarmedUnarmed martial arts can be broadly grouped into those focusing on strikes, those focusing on grappling, those that cover both fields described as hybrid martial arts.

Strikes Punching: Boxing, Wing Chun, Karate Kicking: Taekwondo, Savate Others using strikes: Lethwei, Muay Thai, Kung Fu, Pencak SilatGrappling Throwing: Hapkido, Sumo, Aikido Joint lock/Chokeholds/Submission holds: Judo, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Kung Fu Pinning Techniques: Judo, AikidoArmedThe traditional martial arts that cover armed combat encompass a wide spectrum of melee weapons, including bladed weapons and polearms. Such traditions include eskrima, kalaripayat and historical European martial arts those of the German Renaissance. Many Chinese martial arts feature weapons as part of their curriculum. Sometimes, training with one specific weapon may be considered a style in its own right in the case of Japanese martial arts, with disciplines such as kenjutsu and kendo and kyudo. Modern martial arts and sports include modern fencing, stick-fighting systems like canne de combat, modern competitive archery. Combat-oriented Health-orientedMany martial arts those from Asia teach side disciplines which pertain to medicinal practices.

This is prevalent in traditional Asian martial arts which may teach bone-setting and other aspects of traditional medicine. Spirituality-orientedMartial arts can be linked with religion and spirituality. Numerous systems are reputed to have been disseminated, or practiced by monks or nuns. Throughout the Asian arts, meditation may be incorporated as part of training. In those arts influenced by Hindu-Buddhist philosophy, the practice itself may be used as an aid to attaining enlightenment. Japanese styles, when concerning non-physical qualities of the combat, are strongly influenced by Mahayana Buddhist philosophy. Concepts like "empty mind" and "beginner's mind" are recurrent. Aikido practitioners for instance, can have a strong philosophical belief of the flow of energy and peace fostering, as idealised by the art's founder Morihei Ueshiba. Traditional Korean martial arts place emphasis on the development of the practitioner's spiritual and philosophical development. A common theme in most Korean styles, such as Taekkyon and taekwondo, is the value of "inner peace" in a practitioner, stressed to be only achievable through individual meditation and training.

The Koreans believe. Systema draws upon breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as elements of Russian Orthodox thought, to foster self-conscience and calmness, to benefit the practitioner in different levels: the physical, the psychological and the spiritual; some martial arts in various cultures can be performed in dance-like settings for various reasons, such as for evoking ferocity in preparation for battle or showing off skill in a more stylized manner, with capoeira being the most prominent example. Many such martial arts incorporate music strong percussive rhythms. Human warfare dates back to the Epipalaeolithic to early Neolithic era; the oldest works of art depicting scenes of battle are cave paintings from eastern Spain dated between 10,000 and 6,000 BC that show organized groups fighting with bows and arrows. Similar evidence of warfare has been found in Epipalaeolithic to early Neolithic era mass burials, excavated in Germany and at Jebel Sahaba in Northern Sudan. Wrestling is the oldest combat sport, with origins in hand-to-hand combat.

Belt wrestling was depicted in works of art from Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt circa 3000 BC, in the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. The earliest known depiction of boxing comes from a Sumerian relief in Mesopotamia from the 3rd millennium BC. Chinese martial arts originated during the legendary apocryphal, Xia Dynasty more than 4000 years ago, it is said. The Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who before becoming China's leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine and martial arts. One of his main opponents was Chi You, credited as the creator of jiao di, a forerunner to the modern art of Chinese wrestling; the foundation of modern Asian martial

Live at the Olympic: The Last DJ

Live at the Olympic: The Last DJ is a live DVD by American musician rock band Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers, first released in September 2003. The film features the band's 2002 album The Last DJ performed in its entirety. Featured are several of the band's other songs, "You Wreck Me" from Petty's 1994 solo album Wildflowers, it was directed by Martyn Atkins. The DVD package includes a Bonus CD containing four covers, recorded for the PBS program Soundstage. "The Last DJ" "Money Becomes King" "Dreamville" "Joe" "When a Kid Goes Bad" "Like a Diamond" "Lost Children" "Blue Sunday" "You and Me" "The Man Who Loves Women" "Have Love Will Travel" "Can't Stop the Sun" "Change of Heart" "I Need to Know" "Shake and Roll" "Around and Around" "Mary Jane's Last Dance" "You Wreck Me" "I'm Crying" – 4:17 "Done Somebody Wrong" – 4:07 "I Got a Woman" – 3:01 "Carol" – 5:29 Tom Petty - lead vocals, lead & rhythm guitar Mike Campbell - lead guitar Benmont Tench - piano, synthesizer, backing vocals Ron Blair - bass, backing vocals Scott Thurston - rhythm guitar, lap steel guitar, backing vocals Steve Ferrone - drums, percussion Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers - official website

Chola Nadu

Cauvery Delta is a region of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. It encompasses the lower reaches of the Kaveri River and its delta, formed the cultural homeland and political base of the Chola Dynasty which ruled most of South India and parts of Sri Lanka and South-East Asia between the 9th and 13th centuries AD. Uraiyur served as the early Chola capital medieval Cholas shifted to Thanjavur and cholas king Rajendra Chola I moved the capital to Gangaikonda Cholapuram in the 11th century; the boundaries of the region correlates with those of the British India districts of Tanjore and Trichinopoly. Culturally, the region includes Pudukkottai District, Ariyalur District, Perambalur District, Parts of Karur district and the territory of Karaikal, Pondicherry; the Delta region covers East-Central Tamil Nadu. The region is sandwiched between the historical regions of Tondai Nadu in the north, the Madurai region in the south and Kongu Nadu in the west and extends from Chidambaram in north to the southern frontier of the erstwhile Pudukkottai kingdom and from Tiruchirapalli in the west to the Bay of Bengal in the east.

According to the Gazetteer of the Trichinopoly District, Vol II, 1931, p 67, "the traditional meeting place of the three Tamil kingdoms was the temple of Cellānti Amman on the banks of the Kāvēri, twelve miles west of Kulittalai and three miles below the junction of the Amarāvati and the Kāvēri. The temple was the common place of worship for the kings of the three Tamil dynasties; the genealogy of the Chola empire as found in the Tamil literature and in the many inscriptions left by the Chola kings contains a number of kings recorded for whom there is no verifiable historic evidence. There are as many versions of this lineage; the main source is the Sangam literature – religious literature such as Periapuranam, semi-biographical poems of the Chola period such as the temple and cave inscription and left by medieval Cholas. Irrespective of the source, no list of the kings has a high level of historic fact and, while they are similar to each other, no two lists are the same. Modern historians consider these lists not as reliable sources but as comprehensive conglomerations of various Hindu deities and Puranic characters attributed to local chieftains and invented ancestry of dynasty attempting to re-establish their legitimacy and supremacy in a land they were trying to conquer.

The history of the region begins with the rise of the Early Chola kingdom in the 4th century BC. The Early Cholas ruled from the town of Uraiyur near Tiruchirapalli and their kingdom comprised the whole of the present-day Cauvery Delta. Flourishing centres of Roman trade have been excavated at Poompuhar stand testimony to a prosperous civilization; the Chola Nadu region is renowned as a hub of Tamil civilization. The region has been continuously inhabited since the 1st millennium BC. Arts and music flourished under the Cholas whose reign is considered to be the golden age in the history of Tamil Nadu. During the hegemony of the Vijayanagar Empire and its successors, the zThanjavur Nayak kingdom, there were frequent migrations of priests, administrators and artists from the Telugu and Kannada districts of the north who brought in their traditions and dance forms. Despite its rise and initial success in the northern part of Karnataka, Carnatic music flourished in the Cauvery Delta. Kambar was a renowned medieval Tamil poet and the author of the Ramavataram, popularly known as Kambaramayanam, the Tamil version of Ramayana.

Kambar authored other literary works in Tamil, such as'Thirukkai Vazakkam',Erezhupathu, Kangai Puranam, sadagopar anthathi, Sarasvati Anthati hails from the Cauvery Delta region. The three great Carnatic music composers, Syama Sastri and Muthuswami Dikshitar who form the Great Trinity of Carnatic music hailed from the Chola Nadu region as the music composers Muthu Thandavar, Arunachala Kavi and Marimutthu Pillai who form the Tamil Trinity of Carnatic music. Apart from music and drama have flourished in the Cauvery Delta; the Bhagavathar Melas, a series of dance-dramas, written entirely in Telugu, were introduced by migrants who sought refuge in the town of Melattur following the collapse of the Vijayanagar kingdom at the Battle of Talikota. Bharatanatyam, a popular dance form by Bharatha muni, flourished in the dance of sadir, practised in the temples of Chola Nadu by ritual temple dances or devadasis. Patronized and financed by dharmakarthas and rich mirasidars, sadir was popular until the early years of the 20th century when a strong voiced campaign resulted in the devadasi practised being outlawed.

Sadir has, purged itself of its erotic symbolism and movements and evolved into the commoners' dance Bharathanatyam. The Chola Nadu region had a population of over 10 million with a density of above 400 persons per square kilometre in 2001. Due to fertile soil and favourable climate, the region has been the most densely populated in the Tamil country since ancient times. More than 90 percent of the population speak Tamil. There is a significant Telugu speaking minority, who had descended from migrants who had moved in during the Vijayanagar and Thanjavur Nayak periods. There are smaller populations speaking Kannada and Urdu. There are a considerable body of Marathi speaking people who are present in the urban areas of Thanjavur District