Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Civil law notary
Civil-law notaries, or Latin notaries, are agents of noncontentious private civil law who draft and record instruments for private parties and are vested as public officers with the authentication power of the State. As opposed to most notaries public, their common-law counterparts, civil-law notaries are trained, licensed practitioners providing a range of regulated services, whereas they hold a public office, they nonetheless operate usually—but not always—in private practice and are paid on a fee-for-service basis, they receive the same education as attorneys at civil law but without qualifications in advocacy, procedural law, or the law of evidence, somewhat comparable to solicitor training in certain common-law countries. Civil-law notaries are limited to areas of private law, that is, domestic law which regulates the relationships between individuals and in which the State is not directly concerned; the most common areas of practice for civil-law notaries are in residential and commercial conveyancing and registration, contract drafting, company formation and estate planning, powers of attorney.
Ordinarily, they have no authority to appear in court on their client's behalf. In some countries, such as the Netherlands, France or Italy, among others, they retain and keep a minute copy of their instruments—in the form of memoranda—in notarial protocols, or archives. Notaries hold undergraduate degrees in civil law and graduate degrees in notarial law. Notarial law involves expertise in a broad spectrum of private law including family law and testamentary law and property law, the law of agency, contract and company law. Student notaries must complete a long apprenticeship or articled clerkship as a trainee notary and spend some years as a junior associate in a notarial firm before working as a partner or opening a private practice. Any such practice is tightly regulated, most countries parcel out areas into notarial districts with a set number of notary positions; this has the effect of making notarial appointments limited. A civil-law notary executes legal instruments called notarial instruments.
To be valid, a notarial instrument must be signed contemporaneously by the appearer, sometimes in the presence of attesting witnesses, before the notary who signs and officiates the signing ceremony. Notarial instruments, if prima facie duly executed, are: presumed regular. Traditionally, notarial instruments trigger a præsumptio veritatis et solemnitatis entailing two consequences—regularity and probativity. First, being an official act, a presumption of regularity attaches to the instrument, meaning all prescribed formalities have been carried out, including the reading over of the instrument. Second, a notarial instrument is self-authenticating and probative, i.e. it constitutes full proof of the agreement it contains, as against the parties, their heirs, successors. It means the notary's firsthand narrations of fact are conclusively presumed true and correct, whereas secondhand narrations are assertio notarii which are rebuttably presumed valid. While all notarial instruments are official documents, they are not all public.
In either case, the appearer always walks away with an instrument, self-executing, that is, it requires no further implementing action to be effective and enforceable, just like a court order. Notarial instruments have a fixed effective or signature date that cannot be ante- or postdated, or left blank and filled in after signing. Notarial instruments can not be overridden by prior or subsequent instruments under hand. In other words, for example, a notarial will could not be amended or superseded by a non-notarial codicil or will, they estop an appearer as contract denier from raising most affirmative defenses as to enforceability, including: non est factum, the contents do not express the appearers' intentions, defenses against formation. One thing that distinguishes a civil-law notary's instruments from those of a common lawyer is the fact that, under common law legal systems and non-identical copies are considered separate documents, while under civil law public documents may be proved by secondary evidence.
An unexecuted minute is deemed firsthand proof of an instrument and considered the original, whereas the engrossment is not. The minute is therefore the authenticum, or original instrument of writing, as distinguished from the self-executing copy, or instrumentum. A notarial instrument’s “valid” portions are open to direct rebuttal, but the “conclusive” portions can, in some jurisdictions, only be rebutted by an action of improbation in which a challenger must bring a collateral attack against the instrument, proving a willful material error by strong and positively convincing proof, rather than the ordinary prepo
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
History of Auvergne
The history of the Auvergne dates back to the early Middle Ages, when it was a historic province in south central France. It was the feudal domain of the Counts of Auvergne. Auvergne was a province of France deriving its name from the Arverni, a Gallic tribe who once occupied the area, well known for its fierce resistance, led by Vercingetorix, to conquest by the Roman Empire. Christianized by Saint Austremoine, Auvergne was quite prosperous during the Roman period. After a short time under the Visigoths, it was conquered by the Franks in 507. During the earlier medieval period, Auvergne was a county within the duchy of Aquitaine and as such part of the "Angevin Empire" until the 13th century. In 1225, Louis VIII of France granted Auvergne to his third son Alfonso. On Alfonso's death in 1271, along with the County of Toulouse and the Comtat Venaissin, reverted to the royal domain; the Middle Ages the 10th to 13th centuries, were a period of great development for Auvergne, with the building of famous abbeys and churches in a Romanesque style.
In 1095, the historic Council of Clermont was held to rally support for the First Crusade. Its wide autonomy was ended by King Philippe-Auguste of France, who linked it to the royal possessions. Hardly impacted by the Hundred Years' War, the religion wars and epidemics, integrated to the kingdom of France, it turned itself more and more into an agricultural province, although reputed for its products. In 1790, the historical province was divided into the modern-day départements of Puy-de-Dôme, Haute-Loire, Allier, although Haute-Loire and Allier include some land from the historical provinces of Bourbonnais and Velay; the region is famed for its charcuterie, celebrated in "La Mangona" festivals in many Auvergnat villages, for its cheeses, for its mineral waters. Michelin tires are produced there. Auvergne is the site of several major hydroelectric projects located on the Dordogne, Cère, Truyère rivers; the region is quite touristic, thanks to its landscapes. Auvergnat, a variety of the Occitan language, was spoken in the Auvergne.
It is still spoken there. Aubrac oxen, a rare breed, are raised in the Aubrac hills; the Auvergne emigrants, together with other Aveyron and Italian emigrants influenced the Parisian Bal-musette music. Composer Joseph Canteloube based Songs of the Auvergne, his well-known piece for voice and orchestra, on folk music and songs from the Auvergne. Singer-songwriter Georges Brassens composed Chanson pour l'Auvergnat. Composer Camille Saint-Saëns composed Rhapsodie d'Auvergne in 1884, based upon folk songs from the Auvergne. Vercingetorix, King of the Arverni, leader of the Gallic resistance against Julius Caesar. Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette, born in Auvergne, was a national hero in both France and the United States for his roles in the American Revolutionary War and the French Revolution. Pierre-Andre Coffinhal, Jacobin leader and vice-president of the Revolutionary Tribunal, was born in Auvergne. A close friend of Robespierre, he was executed following the events of the 9 Thermidor. Jean-Baptiste Carrier was a French Revolutionary born at Yolet in Auvergne.
He was famous for his brutality towards his enemies. In 1794, he was guillotined upon the conviction of the National Convention. Sylvester II, pope and scholar, born Gerbert of Aurillac, a significant player in the transition from the Carolingians to the Capetians; the Dalfi d'Alvernha or Dauphin d'Auvergne and patron of troubadours, Count of Clermont and Montferrand Joseph Canteloube, French composer. Guy Debord and leader of the Situationist International, acquired a country house in the region in 1975, where he lived until committing suicide there in 1994. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, President of France, although not born in the Auvergne, was educated in Clermont-Ferrand and represented it in the National Assembly. Pierre Laval, Prime Minister of France and of the Vichy French regime, was born near Clermont-Ferrand, although he made his political career in Paris. Blaise Pascal, inventor, Christian apologist Audrey Tautou, internationally successful French actress, was born and raised in Auvergne: her surname is Occitan.
Lestat de Lioncourt Gabrielle de Lioncourt Nicolas de Lenfent Philippe Charboneau Philip Kent.