A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. Its female form is crown princess, which may refer either to an heir apparent or in earlier times, the wife of the person styled crown prince. Crown prince as a descriptive term has been used throughout history for the prince being first in line to a throne and is expected to succeed barring any unforeseen future event preventing this. In certain monarchies, a more specific substantive title may be accorded and become associated with the position of heir apparent. In these monarchies, the term crown prince may be used less than the substantive title; until the late twentieth century, no modern monarchy adopted a system whereby females would be guaranteed to succeed to the throne. A crown princess would therefore more refer to the spouse of a crown prince and would be styled crown princess not in her own right but by courtesy; the term crown prince is not used in monarchies wherein the hereditary sovereign holds a title below that of king/queen, although it is sometimes used as a synonym for heir apparent.
In Europe, where primogeniture governed succession to all monarchies except those of the Papacy and Andorra, the eldest son or eldest child of the current monarch fills the role of crown prince or princess, depending upon whether females of the dynasty enjoy personal succession rights. Primogeniture has been abolished in Belgium, Luxembourg, Sweden, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom; the eldest living child of a monarch is sometimes not the heir apparent or crown prince, because that position can be held by a descendant of a deceased older child who, by "right of representation", inherits the same place in the line of succession that would be held by the ancestor if he or she were still living. In some monarchies, those of the Middle East for example, in which primogeniture is not the decisive factor in dynastic succession, a person may not possess the title or status of crown prince by right of birth, but may obtain it as a result of an official designation made on some other legal or traditional basis, such as former crown prince Hassan bin Talal of Jordan.
Compare heir apparent and heir presumptive. In Scandinavian kingdoms, the heir presumptive to the crown may hold a different title than the heir apparent: hereditary prince, it is the title borne by the heir apparent of Liechtenstein, as well as the heir apparent or presumptive of Monaco. In Luxembourg, the heir apparent bears the title of hereditary grand duke. Many monarchies use or did use substantive titles for their heirs apparent of historical origin: Dauphin Duke of Brabant Duke of Braganza Duke of Cornwall Duke of Rothesay used by the Prince of Wales in place of his Welsh title when in Scotland Grand Prince Margrave of Moravia Prince of Asturias Prince of Girona Prince Imperial Prince of Orange, whether or not the equivalent title is held by the spouse of the titleholder is decided by the Dutch parliament Prince of Piedmont a title conferred by King Joseph Bonaparte to be hereditary on his children and grandchildren in the male and female line. Prince Royal Prince of Turnovo Prince of Viana Rex iunior, lit.
Junior king as he was crowned during the life of the incumbent king Tsesarevich Some monarchies have used a territorial title for heirs apparent which, though perceived as a crown princely title, is not automatically hereditary. It requires a specific conferral by the sovereign, which may be withheld. Current and past titles in this category include: Caesar or Kaisar in honor of Gaius Julius Caesar, distinguished from the senior Augustus Symbasileus, lit. co-emperor but still distinguished from the senior, addressed as Autocrator Aetheling and edling, lit. of the royal family Duke of Estonia and Lolland Prince of Norway.
Val Gardena is a valley in Northern Italy, in the Dolomites of South Tyrol. It is best known as a skiing, rock climbing, woodcarving area; the valley's main river is the Rio Gardena. The three municipalities in Val Gardena are Ortisei and Santa Cristina. Val Gardena is one of five valleys with a majority of Ladin speakers; the form of the Ladin language spoken in this valley is called Gardenese in Italian, Grödnerisch in German and Gherdëina in Ladin. The woodcarving industry has flourished in Val Gardena since the 17th century. Since the 19th century and altars carved in the area have been shipped to Catholic Churches throughout the world. In the 18th century, besides religious statuettes, the production of woodcarved figurines of genre art was widespread in the valley. Among them statuettes of beggars in pairs, four seasons, watchstands were popular. In the 19th and 20th century, carving of wooden toys was such a widespread occupation in all Gardenese families that Amelia Edwards called Ortisei the "capital of Toyland".
One of the valley's best-known products is the peg wooden doll, popular all over Europe and America in the 19th century. In one of her many trips Margaret Warner Morley went to Europe to Val Gardena where she was inspired to write the novel Donkey John of the toy valley; the Parish Church of Ortisei displays a rich collection of statues carved by local artists in the last two centuries. The Museo della Val Gardena in Ortisei owns a rich collection of historical wooden toys, woodcarved statues and figurines; the valley hosted the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships in 1970. Val Gardena is home to the Saslong Classic, a men's World Cup downhill race, held every year since 1969. Since 2002, the downhill has been paired with a Super-G race, from 1979 to 1982 a combined event was held; the Saslong course is considered one of the five "classic" men's downhill races, along with Garmisch-Partenkirchen's Kandahar, Kitzbühel's Hahnenkamm, Wengen's Lauberhorn, Val-d'Isère's Criterium. It is well known for the "Camel Humps", a series of three small jumps which racers must negotiate in quick succession.
Two men have won the Saslong title four times in a career: Austrian Franz Klammer and Italy's Kristian Ghedina. If Super-G wins are included, two other men have matched that feat: Peter Müller of Switzerland and Austrian Michael Walchhofer. A women's slalom and parallel slalom were held in 1975. Val Gardena is part of the Sella Ronda alpine ski touring circuit; the Gardena Spring Trophy is an annual international figure skating competition held every spring in the Valley. Val Gardena has the Hockey Club Gardena. Carolina Kostner, figure skater and cousin of Isolde Kostner, the ski-champion Giorgio Moroder, record producer, performer and DJ Woodcarved beggars Amelia Edwards. Untrodden peaks and unfrequented valleys. A midsummer ramble in the Dolomites. Longman's, Co.. London 1873. Margaret Warner Morley. Donkey John of the toy valley. Chicago A. C. McClurg & Co. 1909. Old prints of Val Gardena
Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939, he was involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust. Hitler was raised near Linz, he moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I. In 1919, he joined the German Workers' Party, the precursor of the NSDAP, was appointed leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he was imprisoned. In jail, he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf. After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda, he denounced international capitalism and communism as part of a Jewish conspiracy.
By July 1932 the Nazi Party was the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, but did not have a majority, no party was able to form a majority parliamentary coalition in support of a candidate for chancellor. Former chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservative leaders persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933. Shortly after, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act of 1933, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France, his first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the abrogation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, the annexation of territories inhabited by millions of ethnic Germans, which gave him significant popular support.
Hitler sought Lebensraum for the German people in Eastern Europe, his aggressive foreign policy is considered the primary cause of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and, on 1 September 1939, invaded Poland, resulting in Britain and France declaring war on Germany. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941, German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. In December 1941, shortly after Japan attacked Pearl Harbour, Hitler declared war on the United States, bringing it directly into the conflict. Failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United States into the war forced Germany onto the defensive and it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, he married his longtime lover Eva Braun. Less than two days on 30 April 1945, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Soviet Red Army. Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims who he and his followers deemed Untermenschen or undesirable.
Hitler and the Nazi regime were responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 28.7 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during World War II was unprecedented in warfare, the casualties constitute the deadliest conflict in history. Hitler's father Alois; the baptismal register did not show the name of his father, Alois bore his mother's surname Schicklgruber. In 1842, Johann Georg Hiedler married Alois's mother Maria Anna. Alois was brought up in the family of Johann Nepomuk Hiedler. In 1876, Alois was legitimated and the baptismal register changed by a priest to register Johann Georg Hiedler as Alois's father. Alois assumed the surname "Hitler" spelled Hiedler, Hüttler, or Huettler; the name is based on "one who lives in a hut". Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Alois's mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz, that the family's 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois.
No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenberger's existence, so historians dismiss the claim that Alois's father was Jewish. Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, a town in Austria-Hungary, close to the border with the German Empire, he was christened as "Adolphus Hitler". He was the fourth of six children born to his third wife, Klara Pölzl. Three of Hitler's siblings—Gustav and Otto—died in infancy. Living in the household were Alois's children from his second marriage: Alois Jr. and Angela. When Hitler was three, the family moved to Germany. There he acquired the distinctive lower Bavarian dialect, rather than Austrian German, which marked his speech throughout his life; the family returned to Austria and settled in Leonding in 1894, in June 1895 Alois retired to Hafeld, near Lambach, where he farmed and kept bees. Hitler attended Volksschule (a state-owned primary schoo
Herdecke is a town in the district of Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis, North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. It is located south of Dortmund in the Ruhr Area, its location between the two Ruhr reservoirs Hengsteysee and Harkortsee has earned it the nickname Die Stadt zwischen den Ruhrseen. The city is located in the area of the Regionalverband Ruhr; the two Ruhr lakes as well as the forests on the Ardey heights make the town attractive to tourists. The historic center with its many half timbered houses and the 30-metre-high railway viaduct across the Ruhr valley are two more landmarks. Herdecke is located at the foot of the Ardeygebirge, the northwestern part of the Sauerland, between Dortmund in the North and Northeast, Hagen in the South, Wetter in the Southwest and Witten in the West and Northwest. Herdecke lies between 274 meters above sea levels, it lies on the north bank of the river Ruhr, between the Harkortsee to the west and the Hengsteysee to the east. Though part of the Ruhrgebiet, the town was only indirectly influenced by the mining of coal, as it has few coal beds.
The average precipitation is between 900 mm. The average temperature is around 10.6 °C. Most of Herdecke lies North of the Ruhr except for a small part at the Ruhr bridge; the town is about 8 kilometers in length from North-East to South-West and 5 kilometers in width from North-West to South-East. Herdecke has two major settlements: Herdecke Ende; the latter covers the former town of Ende with its farming communities Kirchende, Ostende and Gedern as well as the "mansion district" Ahlenberg. The origin of Herdecke was the foundation of a women's monastery at the beginning of the 9th century; the former monastery church, rebuilt in the second half of the 13th century, still retains parts of the original Carolingian construction. In 1324 Herdecke went from ownership of the Bishopric of Cologne to the County of Mark; the count took all jurisdiction from the abbess and erected a pillory in front of the church which existed until 1700. 1355 market rights were given by Count Engelbert III. In the following centuries the regionally important corn market developed thanks to the good connection to trading roads from Cologne to the Weser area, Münsterland and Siegerland.
1594 free jurisdiction was canceled. In 1615 Herdecke became a Freiheit. In the winter of 1624/1625, Herdecke was host to a garrison of Spanish military, it was given city rights by Friedrich Wilhelm I in 1739. The Fourth Edition of Meyers Konversations-Lexikon noted in 1888: „Herdecke, town in Prussian government district Arnsberg, Hagen, 104 meters above sea levels. Lies at the navigable Ruhr and the lines Hagen-Witten, Hagen-Dahlhausen and Schwelm-Dortmund of the Prussian State Railroad Company. Has an evangelic and catholic church, great sandstone quarries as well as factories for fabrics, leather paper and hardware, dye works and beer brewing. On the heights of the town is the Kaisberg with a tower commemorating the Baron of Stein. Underneath the Hohensyburg lies the Sonnenstein, a 200 meter high plateau where every year in June the famous Rhein-Westfalic Sonnenstein fair is being held. Next to Herdecke lies Vorhalle with its iron and brass factories.“1939 Ende was incorporated into Herdecke.
In World War II the town was godfather to the U 751, a submarine, sunk in the Atlantic by British planes on 17 July 1942. In the course of two centuries between 1739 and 1939 Herdecke changed from a medieval market town to a flourishing small town; the population between 1939 and 1993 grew at 147% because of people's wishes to "have a green home". In the 1990s the population reached its maximum to this day; the population declined afterwards. Because of the population grow Herdecke is a town with the most sealed surfaces in the Government District of Arnsberg. More than a third of the town's surface has been built upon and 300 square metres of surface per person is sealed; the Herdecke emblem is a silvern oak on a hill bearing yellow fruit upon a red shield. The so-called "Herta-Oak" has been the city's trademark for a long time. A city seal of 1784 shows a tree. Since the giving of the emblem by the Prussian Government in 1902, the official emblem bears a wall with three towers on the top side.
Since 2009 the city council has 38 members. The election results of 25 May 2014 were: At the mayor election on 30 August 2009 Katja Strauss-Koester won with 70.9% against Renate Drewke. Strauss-Koester was an independent candidate supported by FDP and the Green Party. At the election in 2004 the long-term mayor Hans-Werner Koch was confirmed in the office, having 51% of all votes in the first ballot. There is a town partnership with Blankenburg; the town has a display on every Herdecke May Fair where typical foods and beverages as well are offered and touristic offers are being shown. Tourism is popular around and on the two Ruhr lakes. There is the historical part of Herdecke. Ruhr Viaduct Gut Schede Haus Mallinckrodt Haus Ende Haus Kallenberg Herdecke's old town districtIndustrial culture Koepchenwerk Water power station Hengstey Power station Stiftsmühle Churches Protestant Church St. Marien Protestent Church of Kirchende Catholic Church of St. Philippus and Jakobus Herdecke has a lot of forest areas where one can hike or jog.
Both Ruhr lakes are usable for watersports. The leisure centre "Bleichstein" has large grass areas. There is a hall pool. In addition to the "Bleichstein" there is "Am Kalkheck" in Kirchende. There are
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine. It is taught as an academic discipline in universities and seminaries. Theology is the study of deities or their scriptures in order to discover what they have revealed about themselves, it occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supernatural, but especially with epistemology, asks and seeks to answer the question of revelation. Revelation pertains to the acceptance of God, gods, or deities, as not only transcendent or above the natural world, but willing and able to interact with the natural world and, in particular, to reveal themselves to humankind. While theology has turned into a secular field, religious adherents still consider theology to be a discipline that helps them live and understand concepts such as life and love and that helps them lead lives of obedience to the deities they follow or worship. Theology is derived from the Greek theologia, which derived from Τheos, meaning "God", -logia, meaning "utterances, sayings, or oracles" which had passed into Latin as theologia and into French as théologie.
The English equivalent "theology" had evolved by 1362. The sense the word has in English depends in large part on the sense the Latin and Greek equivalents had acquired in patristic and medieval Christian usage, although the English term has now spread beyond Christian contexts. Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia, as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity"; the term can, however, be used for a variety of fields of study. Theology begins with the assumption that the divine exists in some form, such as in physical, mental, or social realities, that evidence for and about it may be found via personal spiritual experiences or historical records of such experiences as documented by others; the study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper but is found in the philosophy of religion, through the psychology of religion and neurotheology. Theology aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives.
Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument to help understand, test, defend or promote any myriad of religious topics. As in philosophy of ethics and case law, arguments assume the existence of resolved questions, develop by making analogies from them to draw new inferences in new situations; the study of theology may help a theologian more understand their own religious tradition, another religious tradition, or it may enable them to explore the nature of divinity without reference to any specific tradition. Theology may be used to propagate, reform, or justify a religious tradition or it may be used to compare, challenge, or oppose a religious tradition or world-view. Theology might help a theologian address some present situation or need through a religious tradition, or to explore possible ways of interpreting the world. Greek theologia was used with the meaning "discourse on god" in the fourth century BC by Plato in The Republic, Book ii, Ch. 18. Aristotle divided theoretical philosophy into mathematike and theologike, with the last corresponding to metaphysics, for Aristotle, included discourse on the nature of the divine.
Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical and civil. Theologos related to theologia, appears once in some biblical manuscripts, in the heading to the Book of Revelation: apokalypsis ioannoy toy theologoy, "the revelation of John the theologos". There, the word refers not to John the "theologian" in the modern English sense of the word but—using a different sense of the root logos, meaning not "rational discourse" but "word" or "message"—one who speaks the words of God, logoi toy theoy; some Latin Christian authors, such as Tertullian and Augustine, followed Varro's threefold usage, though Augustine used the term more to mean'reasoning or discussion concerning the deity'In patristic Greek Christian sources, theologia could refer narrowly to devout and inspired knowledge of, teaching about, the essential nature of God. The Latin author Boethius, writing in the early 6th century, used theologia to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of academic study, dealing with the motionless, incorporeal reality.
Boethius' definition influenced medieval Latin usage. In scholastic Latin sources, the term came to denote the rational study of the doctrines of the Christian religion, or the academic discipline which investigated the coherence and implications of the language and claims of the Bible and of the theological tradition. In the Renaissance with Florentine Platonist apologists of Dante's poetics, the distinction between "poetic theology" and "revealed" or Biblical theology serves as steppingstone for a revival of philosophy as independent of theological authority, it is in this last sense, theology as an academic discipline involving rational study of Christian teaching
Martin Ludwig Bormann was a prominent official in Nazi Germany as head of the Nazi Party Chancellery. He gained immense power by using his position as Adolf Hitler's private secretary to control the flow of information and access to Hitler. After Hitler's suicide on 30 April 1945, he was Party Minister of the National Socialist German Workers' Party. Bormann joined a paramilitary Freikorps organisation in 1922 while working as manager of a large estate, he served nearly a year in prison as an accomplice to his friend Rudolf Höss in the murder of Walther Kadow. Bormann joined the Nazi Party in 1927 and the Schutzstaffel in 1937, he worked in the party's insurance service, transferred in July 1933 to the office of Deputy Führer Rudolf Hess, where he served as chief of staff. Bormann used his position to create an extensive bureaucracy and involve himself as much as possible in the decision making, he gained acceptance into Hitler's inner circle, accompanied him everywhere, providing briefings and summaries of events and requests.
He began acting as Hitler's personal secretary on 12 August 1935. Bormann assumed Hess' former duties, with the title of Head of the Parteikanzlei, after Hess' solo flight to Britain on 10 May 1941 to seek peace negotiations with the British government, he had final approval over civil service appointments and approved legislation, by 1943 had de facto control over all domestic matters. Bormann was one of the leading proponents of the ongoing persecution of the Christian churches and favoured harsh treatment of Jews and Slavs in the areas conquered by Germany during World War II. Bormann returned with Hitler to the Führerbunker in Berlin on 16 January 1945 as the Red Army approached the city. After Hitler committed suicide and others attempted to flee Berlin on 2 May to avoid capture by the Soviets. Bormann committed suicide on a bridge near Lehrter station, his body was buried nearby on 8 May 1945, but was not found and confirmed as Bormann's until 1972. Bormann was tried in absentia by the International Military Tribunal in the Nuremberg trials of 1945 and 1946.
He was sentenced to death by hanging. Born in Wegeleben in the Kingdom of Prussia in the German Empire, Bormann was the son of Theodor Bormann, a post office employee, his second wife, Antonie Bernhardine Mennong; the family was Lutheran. He had two half-siblings from his father's earlier marriage to Louise Grobler, who died in 1898. Antonie Bormann gave birth to three sons. Martin and Albert survived to adulthood. Theodor died when Bormann was three, his mother soon remarried. Bormann's studies at an agricultural trade high school were interrupted when he joined the 55th Field Artillery Regiment as a gunner in June 1918, in the last days of World War I, he never saw action, but served garrison duty until February 1919. After working a short time in a cattle feed mill, Bormann became estate manager of a large farm in Mecklenburg. Shortly after starting work at the estate, Bormann joined an antisemitic landowners association. While hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic meant that money was worthless, foodstuffs stored on farms and estates became more valuable.
Many estates, including Bormann's, had Freikorps units stationed on site to guard the crops from pillaging. Bormann joined the Freikorps organisation headed by Gerhard Roßbach in 1922, acting as section leader and treasurer. On 17 March 1924 Bormann was sentenced to a year in Elisabethstrasse Prison as an accomplice to his friend Rudolf Höss in the murder of Walther Kadow; the perpetrators believed Kadow had tipped off the French occupation authorities in the Ruhr District that fellow Freikorps member Albert Leo Schlageter was carrying out sabotage operations against French industries. Schlageter was arrested and was executed on 23 May 1923. On the night of 31 May, Höss, Bormann and several others took Kadow into a meadow out of town, where he was beaten and his throat cut. After one of the perpetrators confessed, police laid charges in July. Bormann was released from prison in February 1925, he joined the Frontbann, a short-lived Nazi Party paramilitary organisation created to replace the Sturmabteilung, banned in the aftermath of the failed Munich Putsch.
Bormann returned to his job at Mecklenburg and remained there until May 1926, when he moved in with his mother in Oberweimar. In 1927, Bormann joined the National Socialist German Workers Party, his membership number was 60,508. He joined the Schutzstaffel on 1 January 1937 with number 278,267. By special order of Heinrich Himmler in 1938, Bormann was granted SS number 555 to reflect his Alter Kämpfer status. Bormann took a job with Der Nationalsozialist, a weekly paper edited by NSDAP member Hans Severus Ziegler, deputy Gauleiter for Thuringia. After joining the NSDAP in 1927, Bormann began duties as regional press officer, but his lack of public-speaking skills made him ill-suited to this position, he soon put his organisational skills to use as business manager for the Gau. He moved to Munich in October 1928; the NSDAP provided coverage through insurance companies for members who were hurt or killed in the frequent violent skirmishes with members of other political parties. As insurance companies were unwilling to pay out claims for such activities, in 1930 Bormann set up the Hilfskasse der NSDAP, a be
The Simba rebellion of 1964 was a revolt in Congo-Léopoldville which took place within the wider context of the Congo Crisis and the Cold War. The rebellion, located in the east of the country, was led by the followers of Patrice Lumumba, ousted from power in 1960 by Joseph Kasa-Vubu and Joseph-Désiré Mobutu and subsequently killed in January 1961 in Katanga; the rebellion was contemporaneous with the Kwilu rebellion led by fellow Lumumbist Pierre Mulele in central Congo. The causes of the Simba Rebellion should be viewed as part of the wider struggle for power within the Republic of the Congo following independence from Belgium on 30 June 1960 as well as within the context of other Cold War interventions in Africa by the West and the Soviet Union; the rebellion can be traced back to the assassination of the first Prime Minister of the Congo, Patrice Lumumba, in January 1961. Political infighting and intrigue followed, resulting in the ascendancy of Joseph Kasa-Vubu and Joseph-Désiré Mobutu in Kinshasa at the expense of politicians who had supported Lumumba such as Antoine Gizenga, Christophe Gbenye and Gaston Soumialot.
In 1961, this change in power led Antoine Gizenga to declare the creation of a rebel government in Stanleyville. This new state, dubbed the Free Republic of the Congo, received support from the Soviet Union and China as they positioned themselves as being "socialists" opposed to American intervention in the Congo and involvement in the death of Lumumba although, as with Lumumba, there is some dispute over the true political inclinations of the Lumumbists. However, in August 1961, Gizenga dissolved the government in Stanleyville with the intention of taking part in the United Nations sponsored talks at Lovanium University; these talks did not deliver the Lumumbist government, intended, Gizenga was arrested and imprisoned on Balu-Bemba and many of the Lumumbists went into exile. It was in exile. In 1963, the Conseil National de Libération was founded by Gbenye and Soumialot in Brazzaville, capital of the neighbouring Republic of the Congo. However, whilst these plans for rebellion were being developed in exile, Pierre Mulele returned from his training in China to launch a revolution in his native province of Kwilu.
Mulele proved to be a capable leader and scored a number of early successes, although these would remain localised to Kwilu. With the country again seeming to be in open rebellion of the government in Kinshasa, the CNL launched its rebellion in their political heartland around Stanleyville. Simba meaning a lion or big lion in Swahili, is used in eastern parts of Congo and in other countries of the African Great Lakes, it was from across this area. The majority were young teens although children were not unheard of in the conflict; the rebels were led by Gaston Soumialot and Christophe Gbenye, members of Gizenga's Parti Solidaire Africain, Laurent Kabila, a member of the Lumumba aligned Association générale des Baluba du Katanga. Because of the range of political beliefs amongst the Simba rebels, attributing an ideology to the rebellion is complex. Whilst the leaders claimed to be influenced by Chinese Maoist ideas, the Cuban military advisor Che Guevara wrote that the majority of the fighters did not hold these views.
The fighters practised a system of traditional beliefs which held that correct behaviour and the regular reapplying of dawa would leave the fighters impervious to bullets. The Simba rebels managed to intimidate two well-equipped battalions of government Armée Nationale Congolaise soldiers into retreating without a fight, they began to capture important cities. Within weeks, they controlled about half of the Congo. By August they had captured Stanleyville where a 1,500-man ANC force fled leaving behind weapons and vehicles which the Simba rebels captured; the attack consisted with forty Simba warriors. No shots were fired by the Simba rebels; as the rebel movement spread, discipline became more difficult to maintain, acts of violence and terror increased. Thousands of Congolese were executed, including government officials, political leaders of opposition parties and local police, school teachers, others believed to have been Westernized. Many of the executions were carried out with extreme cruelty, in front of a monument to Patrice Lumumba in Stanleyville.
With much of Northern Congo and the Congolese upcountry under control, the Simba rebels moved south against Kasai Province. Kasai had rich mining concerns but was a strategic key to more lasting control of Congo. If the rebels could capture Kasai Province up to the Angola border they could cut the government forces in half, isolating Katanga Province and overstretching ANC lines. In August 1964 unknown thousands of Simbas moved down out of the hills and began the conquest of Kasai; as before ANC forces retreated with little fight by either throwing down arms or defecting to the rebels. Newly appointed Prime Minister Moïse Tshombe acted decisively against the new threat. Using contacts he had made while exiled in Spain, Tshombe was able to organize an airlift of his former soldiers exiled in rural Angola; the airlift was enacted by the United States and facilitated by the Portuguese as both feared a Soviet influenced socialist state in the middle of Africa. Tshombe's forces were composed of Belgian trained Katangese Gendarmes who had served the Belgian Colonial Authority.
They were a disciplined and well equipped force who had only just lost a bid for independence in the previous conflict. In addition the force was