University of Greifswald
The University of Greifswald is a public research university located in Greifswald, Germany, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Founded in 1456, it is one of the oldest universities in Europe, with generations of notable alumni, as the fourth-oldest university in present Germany, it was temporarily the oldest university of the Kingdoms of Sweden and Prussia, respectively. Approximately two thirds of the 12,000 students are from outside the state, the University of Greifswald was founded on 17 October 1456 with the approval of the Holy Roman Empire and the Pope. The founding took place in the cathedral, which was remodeled by Caspar David Friedrich and his brother. The founding of the university was made possible by a decree that restricted teaching activity at the University of Rostock, several professors left Rostock for Greifswald to continue their work there, where Heinrich Rubenow took the chance of establishing his own university. Originally, the university consisted of the four divisions, Philosophy, Medicine.
In Germany, there are three older universities by count of the years of existence, the University of Heidelberg, the University of Leipzig. International co-operation with other institutions of education in northern Europe existed already in the earliest years. From 1456 until 1526,476 Scandinavians were enrolled at Greifswald University and 22 faculty members as well as six rectors came from Scandinavia and this was a relatively high percentage compared to the total number of students at the time. Sources suggest a relatively segregated life of Swedish students in the primarily German university though, the early sixteenth century saw significant co-operation of the university, the Lutheran church, the city and the Duchy of Pomerania. Professors of theology simultaneously served as pastors in the three cathedrals, professors of medicine usually served as personal physicians of the duke. Professors of law where working at the courts while professors of the faculty of philosophy usually taught the sons.
The landed nobility funded university-related purposes such as scholarships and student bursaries, the Reformation was introduced at the university in 1539. Johannes Bugenhagen, an alumnus of the university, was an important figure during the German and Scandinavian reformation as well as a friend of Martin Luther. After the secularisation of the monastery at Eldena near Greifswald, Duke Philipp I of Pomerania gave all revenue created by the now secularised Amt Eldena to the university. His successor, Duke Ernst Ludwig, began the construction of a college building, Duke Philipp Julius presented the university a gown that was used by the rector on ceremonial occasions up until very recently. In 1604, the Greifswald University Library became the first centralised university library in Germany, the university signed a contract with a book printer from Wittenberg, for the amount of 2,000 Gulden. This contract lasted nearly a due to the disruption caused by the Thirty Years War
Dresden is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the border with the Czech Republic, Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendour. The city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque, the controversial American and British bombing of Dresden in World War II towards the end of the war killed approximately 25,000, many of whom were civilians, and destroyed the entire city centre. After the war restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the inner city, including the Katholische Hofkirche, the Zwinger. Since German reunification in 1990 Dresden is again a cultural and political centre of Germany, the Dresden University of Technology is one of the 10 largest universities in Germany and part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative.
The economy of Dresden and its agglomeration is one of the most dynamic in Germany and it is dominated by high-tech branches, often called as “Silicon Saxony”. The city is one of the most visited in Germany with 4,3 million overnight stays per year. The royal buildings are among the most impressive buildings in Europe, main sights are the nearby National Park of Saxon Switzerland, the Ore Mountains and the countryside around Elbe Valley and Moritzburg Castle. The most prominent building in the city of Dresden is the Frauenkirche, built in the 18th century, the church was destroyed during World War II. The remaining ruins were left for 50 years as a war memorial, the church was rebuilt from 1994 to 2005. Although Dresden is a relatively recent city of Germanic origin followed by settlement of Slavic people, Dresdens founding and early growth is associated with the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples, mining in the nearby Ore Mountains, and the establishment of the Margraviate of Meissen. Its name etymologically derives from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the forest, Dresden evolved into the capital of Saxony.
Around the late 12th century, a Slavic settlement called Drežďany had developed on the southern bank, another settlement existed on the northern bank, but its Slavic name is unknown. It was known as Antiqua Dresdin by 1350, and as Altendresden, Margrave of Meissen, chose Dresden as his interim residence in 1206, as documented in a record calling the place Civitas Dresdene. After 1270, Dresden became the capital of the margraviate and it was given to Friedrich Clem after death of Henry the Illustrious in 1288. It was taken by the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1316 and was restored to the Wettin dynasty after the death of Valdemar the Great in 1319, from 1485, it was the seat of the dukes of Saxony, and from 1547 the electors as well. The Elector and ruler of Saxony Frederick Augustus I became King Augustus II the Strong of Poland in personal union and he gathered many of the best musicians and painters from all over Europe to the newly named Royal-Polish Residential City of Dresden. His reign marked the beginning of Dresdens emergence as a leading European city for technology, during the reign of Kings Augustus II the Strong and Augustus III of Poland the Zwinger Royal Palace, the Hofkirche and the Frauenkirche were built
Pelle the Conqueror
Pelle the Conqueror is a 1987 Danish-Swedish drama film co-written and directed by Bille August, based upon the famous 1910 novel of the same name by Danish writer Martin Andersen Nexø. The film was acclaimed, winning the Palme dOr at the 1988 Cannes Film Festival. The film tells the story of two Swedish immigrants to Denmark, a father and son, who try to build a new life for themselves. It stars Pelle Hvenegaard as the young Pelle, with Max von Sydow as his father, in the late 1850s, the elderly emigrant Lasse Karlsson and his son Pelle arrive to the Danish island of Bornholm from Skåne County, in southern Sweden. Lasse tells Pelle a better life awaits them in Denmark after the death of Pelles mother and he immediately finds it difficult to find employment, given his advanced age and Pelles youth. The most they can find is work at a large farm, the managers work under the tyrannical Kongstrup, who has a history of affairs leading to illegitimate children. One of them is Rud, who befriends Pelle and helps him learn Danish, Pelle becomes more confident in his work at the farm, and begins going to school, though he is still discriminated against as a foreigner.
Pelle befriends the Swedish worker Erik, constantly harassed for alleged sloth, Erik shares his dream of visiting America and Negroland with Pelle, to conquer the world. Lasse begins an affair with Mrs. Olsen, who is believed to be a widow since her husband has not returned from a sea voyage. Pelle consequently faces ridicule at school for being the son of a lecher, Erik is injured and rendered disabled after attempting to lead a mutiny against management. Mrs. Olsens husband returns from his voyage, and Lasse is overcome with depression and alcoholism. The two appeal to the Kongstrups for aid against their harassment, with the benign Mrs. Kongstrup offering support, while her husband, Pelle is initially given a promotion, but upon seeing Erik removed from the farm, vows to leave. Lasse at first resolves to go with him, before deciding he is too old to travel, the film, based on the 1910 novel of the same name by Martin Andersen Nexø, was co-production by Danish and Swedish companies. With the story involving Danish and Swedish elements, cooperation between producers in both countries had practical benefit, the screenplay, by director Bille August, Per Olov Enquist, Max Lundgren, and Bjarne Reuter, adapted only the Boyhood part of Nexøs four-volume work.
August decided to film the novel because it is considered essential reading in Denmark, for the title role, Pelle Hvenegaard, who was 11, was cast after August and the crew auditioned 3,000 children. August ruled out hundreds of the children for having ambitious mothers, and decided on Hvenegaard and he was coincidentally named after the character in Nexøs book. The film marked the first collaboration between production designer Anna Asp, who had worked on Offret, and August, who had attended a Stockholm school of photography with her. Asp said that in designing the house seen in Pelle the Conqueror, she wanted to evoke a prison, filming took place for nearly six months
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Communist Party of Denmark
The Communist Party of Denmark is a communist political party in Denmark. The party assumed its present name in November 1920, when it joined the Comintern, the DKP is represented in the Danish parliament through the Red-Green Alliance. DKP is one of four active communist parties in Denmark, in particular, they opposed cooperation with the Radical Liberal Party, with whom the Social Democrats allied themselves in general elections. The Socialist Labour Party of Denmark began laying the foundations for a new party in March 1918, the party participated in the 2nd Comintern Congress in 1920. The party approved the admission requirements, and changed its name to the Communist Party of Denmark and this, led to a split within the party, with the syndicalist faction, led by FS, withdrawing the party. Following a rapprochement between the two groups, and with the approval of the USSR, the DKP and FS formed a joint federation in 1921, the cooperation would be short lived. During this period, the party made little electoral or popular advancement, declining from 0. 5% of the vote in 1924, to 0. 4% in 1926, and 0. 3% in 1929.
In 1929, the Comintern intervened, by means of a letter to the party. For the next 18 months, the party was placed under the administration of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The new leadership that was appointed consisted of pro-Soviet hardliners, with Aksel Larsen becoming the new Chairman of the Central Committee and this intervention resulted in DKP making an ultra-left turn. Concurrently, the Great Depression was reaching its peak in Denmark, the party grew in popularity amongst the unemployed. The party grew in popularity amongst students and intellectuals for its anti-fascist activities, in the 1932 elections, DKP achieved parliamentary representation for the first time, obtaining 1. 1% of the vote and 2 seats. This increased to 1. 9% of the vote in 1935, the 1930s was a period of constant advancement for the party. On 9 April 1940 Germany invaded Denmark, the party was subsequently outlawed when the Communist Law was signed into law two months on 22 August 1941. A national unity government was formed by the major parties.
DKP continued to operate underground, and was a force of the Danish resistance. Members of DKP sat on the Danish Freedom Council, the largest underground resistance force against the German occupation, following the collapse of the national unity government on 29 August 1943, the DKP, along with other non-socialist resistance forces, became the informal government of the country. The Social Democrats experienced a decline in influence during this period
Extraversion and introversion
The trait of extraversion–introversion is a central dimension of human personality theories. The terms introversion and extraversion were popularized by Carl Jung, although both the understanding and psychological usage differ from his original intent. Extraversion tends to be manifested in outgoing, energetic behavior, whereas introversion is manifested in more reserved, virtually all comprehensive models of personality include these concepts in various forms. Extraversion and introversion are typically viewed as a single continuum, so, to be high in one necessitates being low in the other. Extraversion is the state of primarily obtaining gratification from outside oneself, Extraverts tend to enjoy human interactions and to be enthusiastic, talkative and gregarious. Extraverts are energized and thrive off being around other people and they take pleasure in activities that involve large social gatherings, such as parties, community activities, public demonstrations, and business or political groups.
They tend to work well in groups, an extraverted person is likely to enjoy time spent with people and find less reward in time spent alone. They tend to be energized when around people, and they are more prone to boredom when they are by themselves. Introversion is the state of being interested in ones own mental self. Introverts are typically perceived as more reserved or reflective, some popular psychologists have characterized introverts as people whose energy tends to expand through reflection and dwindle during interaction. This is similar to Jungs view, although he focused on mental energy rather than physical energy, few modern conceptions make this distinction. Introverts often take pleasure in activities such as reading, using computers. The archetypal artist, sculptor, composer, an introvert is likely to enjoy time spent alone and find less reward in time spent with large groups of people, though they may enjoy interactions with close friends. Trust is usually an issue of significance, a virtue of utmost importance to introverts is choosing a worthy companion and they prefer to concentrate on a single activity at a time and like to observe situations before they participate, especially observed in developing children and adolescents.
They are more analytical before speaking, mistaking introversion for shyness is a common error. Introverts prefer solitary to social activities, but do not necessarily fear social encounters like shy people do, Steven Spielberg and Larry Page. Ambiversion is falling more or less directly in the middle, an ambivert is moderately comfortable with groups and social interaction, but relishes time alone, away from a crowd. Susan Cains 2012 book Quiet, The Power of Introverts in a World That Cant Stop Talking reports that studies indicate 33–50% of the American population are introverts
On 6 August 2016, the project completed project number 10,000. Most releases are in the English language, but many works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, LibriVox is closely affiliated with Project Gutenberg from where the project gets some of its texts, and the Internet Archive that hosts their offerings. LibriVox was started in August 2005 by Montreal-based writer Hugh McGuire, who set up a blog, the first recorded book was The Secret Agent by Joseph Conrad. LibriVox is an invented word inspired by Latin words liber in its genitive form libri and vox, the word was coined because of other connotations as liber means child and free, unrestricted. As the LibriVox forum says it, We like to think LibriVox might be interpreted as child of the voice, the other link we like is library so you could imagine it to mean Library of Voice. There has been no decision or consensus by LibriVox founders or the community of volunteers for a single pronunciation of LibriVox and it is accepted that any audible pronunciation is accurate.
LibriVox is a volunteer-run, free content, Public Domain project and it has no budget or legal personality. The development of projects is managed through an Internet forum, supported by an admin team, in early 2010, LibriVox ran a fundraising drive to raise $20,000 to cover hosting costs for the website of about $5, 000/year and improve front- and backend usability. Volunteers can choose new projects to start, either recording on their own or inviting others to join them, once a volunteer has recorded his or her contribution, it is uploaded to the site, and proof-listened by members of the LibriVox community. Finished audiobooks are available from the LibriVox website, and MP3, recordings are available through other means, such as iTunes, being free of copyright, they are frequently distributed independently of LibriVox on the Internet and otherwise. LibriVox only records material that is in the domain in the United States. Because of copyright restrictions, LibriVox produces recordings of only a number of contemporary books.
These have included, for example, the 9/11 Commission Report and it contains much popular classic fiction, but includes less predictable texts, such as Immanuel Kants Critique of Pure Reason and a recording of the first 500 digits of pi. The collection features poetry, religious texts and non-fiction of various kinds, in January 2009, the catalogue contained approximately 55 percent fiction and drama,25 percent non-fiction and 20 percent poetry. By the end of 2016, the most viewed item was The Adventures of Tom Sawyer in a 2006 solo recording by John Greenman, around 90 percent of the catalogue is recorded in English, but recordings exist in 31 languages altogether. Chinese and German are the most popular languages other than English amongst volunteers, LibriVox has garnered significant interest, in particular from those interested in the promotion of volunteer-led content and alternative approaches to copyright ownership on the Internet. It has received support from the Internet Archive and Project Gutenberg, intellectual freedom and commons proponent Mike Linksvayer described it in 2008 as perhaps the most interesting collaborative culture project this side of Wikipedia
Project Gutenberg is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks. It was founded in 1971 by Michael S. Hart and is the oldest digital library, most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books. The project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, as of 3 October 2015, Project Gutenberg reached 50,000 items in its collection. The releases are available in plain text but, wherever possible, other formats are included, such as HTML, PDF, EPUB, MOBI, most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, including regional, Project Gutenberg is closely affiliated with Distributed Proofreaders, an Internet-based community for proofreading scanned texts. Project Gutenberg was started by Michael Hart in 1971 with the digitization of the United States Declaration of Independence, Hart, a student at the University of Illinois, obtained access to a Xerox Sigma V mainframe computer in the universitys Materials Research Lab.
Through friendly operators, he received an account with an unlimited amount of computer time. Hart has said he wanted to back this gift by doing something that could be considered to be of great value. His initial goal was to make the 10,000 most consulted books available to the public at little or no charge and this particular computer was one of the 15 nodes on ARPANET, the computer network that would become the Internet. Hart believed that computers would one day be accessible to the general public and he used a copy of the United States Declaration of Independence in his backpack, and this became the first Project Gutenberg e-text. He named the project after Johannes Gutenberg, the fifteenth century German printer who propelled the movable type printing press revolution, by the mid-1990s, Hart was running Project Gutenberg from Illinois Benedictine College. More volunteers had joined the effort, all of the text was entered manually until 1989 when image scanners and optical character recognition software improved and became more widely available, which made book scanning more feasible.
Hart came to an arrangement with Carnegie Mellon University, which agreed to administer Project Gutenbergs finances, as the volume of e-texts increased, volunteers began to take over the projects day-to-day operations that Hart had run. Starting in 2004, an online catalog made Project Gutenberg content easier to browse, access. Project Gutenberg is now hosted by ibiblio at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Italian volunteer Pietro Di Miceli developed and administered the first Project Gutenberg website and started the development of the Project online Catalog. In his ten years in this role, the Project web pages won a number of awards, often being featured in best of the Web listings, Hart died on 6 September 2011 at his home in Urbana, Illinois at the age of 64. In 2000, a corporation, the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Long-time Project Gutenberg volunteer Gregory Newby became the foundations first CEO, in 2000, Charles Franks founded Distributed Proofreaders, which allowed the proofreading of scanned texts to be distributed among many volunteers over the Internet