Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Walther Funk was a German economist and Nazi official who served as Reich Minister for Economic Affairs from 1938 to 1945 and was tried and convicted as a major war criminal by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. Sentenced to life in prison, he remained incarcerated until he was released on health grounds in 1957, he died three years later. Funk was born into a merchant family in 1890 in Danzkehmen near Trakehnen in East Prussia, he was the only one of the Nuremberg defendants, born in the former eastern territories of Germany. He was the son of Wiesenbaumeister Walther Funk the elder and his wife Sophie, he studied law and philosophy at the Humboldt University of Berlin and the University of Leipzig. In World War I, he joined the infantry, but was discharged as unfit for service in 1916. In 1920, Funk married Luise Schmidt-Sieben. Following the end of the First World War, he worked as a journalist, in 1924 he became the editor of the centre-right financial newspaper the Berliner Börsenzeitung.
Funk, a nationalist and anti-Marxist, resigned from the newspaper in the summer of 1931 and joined the Nazi Party, becoming close to Gregor Strasser, who arranged his first meeting with Adolf Hitler. Because of his interest in economic policy, he was elected a Reichstag deputy in July 1932, within the party, he was made chairman of the Committee on Economic Policy in December 1932, a post that he did not hold for long. After the Nazi Party came to power, he stepped down from his Reichstag position and was made Chief Press Officer of the Third Reich. In March 1933, Funk was appointed as a State Secretary at the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda. In 1938, he assumed the title of Chief Plenipotentiary for Economics, he became Reich Minister of Economics in February 1938, replacing Hjalmar Schacht, dropped in November 1937. Schacht had been dismissed in a power struggle with Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, quick to tie the ministry more to his Four Year Plan Office. At Nuremberg, Funk was accused by Allied prosecutors of having been involved in the State confiscation and disposal of the property of German Jews.
He boasted that by 1938, the German state had confiscated Jewish property worth two million marks, using decrees from Hitler and other top Nazis to force German Jews to leave their property and assets to the State if they emigrated, such as the Reich Flight Tax. They were forced by Göring to pay for the damage caused by the Nazis to their own property on Kristallnacht, deprived of their personal wealth and assets as the Second World War approached. Between April 1938-March 1939 Funk was a Director of the Swiss-based multi-national Bank of International Settlements, in January 1939, Hitler appointed Funk as President of the Reichsbank, replacing Schacht, he was appointed to the Central Planning Board in September 1943. Despite poor health, Funk was tried with other Nazi leaders at the Nuremberg trials. Accused of conspiracy to commit crimes against peace. At the Nuremberg trials American Chief Prosecutor Robert Jackson labeled Funk as "The Banker of Gold Teeth", referring to the practice of extracting gold teeth from Nazi concentration camp victims, forwarding the teeth to the Reichsbank for melting down to yield bullion.
Many other gold items were stolen from victims, such as jewellery and finger rings. Göring described Funk as "an insignificant subordinate," but documentary evidence and his wartime biography Walther Funk, A Life for Economy were used against him during the trial, leading to his conviction on counts 2, 3 and 4 of the indictment and his sentence of life imprisonment. Funk was held at Spandau Prison along with other senior Nazis, he was released on 16 May 1957 because of ill health. He made a last-minute call on Rudolf Hess, Albert Speer and Baldur von Schirach before leaving the prison, he died three years in Düsseldorf of diabetes. Works by or about Walther Funk at Internet Archive Funk war crimes dossier Newspaper clippings about Walther Funk in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
East Germany the German Democratic Republic, was a country that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. It described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state", the territory was administered and occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II — the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line; the Soviet zone did not include it. The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet zone, while the Federal Republic was established in the three western zones. East Germany was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in 1948, the GDR began to function as a state on 7 October 1949. However, Soviet forces remained in the country throughout the Cold War; until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party, though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany.
The SED made the teaching of Marxism -- the Russian language compulsory in schools. The economy was centrally planned and state-owned. Prices of housing, basic goods and services were set by central government planners rather than rising and falling through supply and demand. Although the GDR had to pay substantial war reparations to the USSR, it became the most successful economy in the Eastern Bloc. Emigration to the West was a significant problem – as many of the emigrants were well-educated young people, it further weakened the state economically; the government fortified its western borders and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall. Many people attempting to flee were killed by border guards or booby traps, such as landmines. Several others were imprisoned for many years. In 1989, numerous social and political forces in the GDR and abroad led to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the establishment of a government committed to liberalisation; the following year, open elections were held, international negotiations led to the signing of the Final Settlement treaty on the status and borders of Germany.
The GDR dissolved itself, Germany was reunified on 3 October 1990, becoming a sovereign state again. Several of the GDR's leaders, notably its last communist leader Egon Krenz, were prosecuted in reunified Germany for crimes committed during the Cold War. Geographically, the German Democratic Republic bordered the Baltic Sea to the north. Internally, the GDR bordered the Soviet sector of Allied-occupied Berlin, known as East Berlin, administered as the state's de facto capital, it bordered the three sectors occupied by the United States, United Kingdom and France known collectively as West Berlin. The three sectors occupied by the Western nations were sealed off from the rest of the GDR by the Berlin Wall from its construction in 1961 until it was brought down in 1989; the official name was Deutsche Demokratische Republik abbreviated to DDR. Both terms were used in East Germany, with increasing usage of the abbreviated form since East Germany considered West Germans and West Berliners to be foreigners following the promulgation of its second constitution in 1968.
West Germans, the western media and statesmen avoided the official name and its abbreviation, instead using terms like Ostzone, Sowjetische Besatzungszone, sogenannte DDR. The centre of political power in East Berlin was referred to as Pankow. Over time, the abbreviation DDR was increasingly used colloquially by West Germans and West German media; the term Westdeutschland, when used by West Germans, was always a reference to the geographic region of Western Germany and not to the area within the boundaries of the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this use was not always consistent. Before World War II, Ostdeutschland was used to describe all the territories east of the Elbe, as reflected in the works of sociologist Max Weber and political theorist Carl Schmitt. Explaining the internal impact of the DDR regime from the perspective of German history in the long term, historian Gerhard A. Ritter has argued that the East German state was defined by two dominant forces – Soviet Communism on the one hand, German traditions filtered through the interwar experiences of German Communists on the other.
It always was constrained by the powerful example of the prosperous West, to which East Germans compared their nation. The changes wrought by the Communists were most apparent in ending capitalism and transforming industry and agriculture, in the militarization of society, in the political thrust of the educational system and the media. On the other hand, there was little change made in the independent domains of the sciences, the engineering professions, the Protestant churches, in many bourgeois lifestyles. Social policy, says Ritter, became a critical legitimization tool in the last decades and mixed socialist and traditional elements about equally. At the Yalta Conference during World War II, the Allies (the U. S. the UK and
Ernst Scholz was a lawyer as well a politician in the Weimar Republic. He was chairman of the German People's Party proceeding the death of Gustav Stresemann and a member of the Reichstag from 1921 to 1930. Born to a judicial council in Wiesbaden, Scholz graduated grammar school and pursued law as a career, he began his studies at the University of Freiburg and became a member of the Corps Suevia Freiburg moving to the University of Marburg. In 1895, Scholz graduated from Heidelberg University, thus completing his academic career and earning him a Doctorate in law. In 1899, Scholz became a civil Assessor and in 1900, he became the First Secretary of the General Cooperative Association in Charlottenburg, he travelled to Frankfurt in 1901 as a municipal assistant. Scholz was a veteran of the First World War, enlisting in the Reichswehr in 1914, getting wounded that same year and earning the position of major before retiring. Scholz wrote about German mortgage law and the municipal taxation system in Prussia as well as authoring a legal book for cooperatives.
From 1922 to 1929 he chaired the Professional Association of Senior Municipal Officials in Germany. He began his political career in 1919, joining the German People's Party, a party he remained in until his death. After the sudden death of long-time leader, Gustav Stresemann, Scholz took over as president. However, he resigned in 1930 due to health reasons, being replaced by Eduard Dingeldey, who would remain leader until the party's dissolution in 1933. Active in many municipal governments, Scholz was the assistant minister and treasurer in both his birthplace of Wiesbaden and Düsseldorf. From 1912-1913 he was the lord mayor of Kassel and from 1913-1914 and 1917-1920 he was the lord mayor of Charlottenburg, being the last person to hold that position in the city, as it was incorporated in the Berlin; as a member of the "Lord Mayor Group", Scholz was a member of the Prussian House of Lords from 1912 to 1918. On June 25, 1920, Scholz assumed the position of Reich Minister of Economics in the Fehrenbach cabinet until May 10, 1921.
Scholz was elected to the Reichstag in the East Prussia constituency on March 7, 1921, where he remained until 1930. He retired from the Reichstag in 1930 due to health reasons. Honorary Degree in engineering Scholzplatz in Berlin-Charlottenburg dedicated to him Help
Doctor of Law
Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law. The application of the term varies from country to country, includes degrees such as the Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor juris, Doctor of Philosophy, Juris Doctor, Legum Doctor. In Argentina the Doctor of Laws or Doctor of Juridical Sciences is the highest academic qualification in the field of Jurisprudence. To obtain the doctoral degree the applicant must have achieved, at least the undergraduate degree of Attorney.. The doctorates in Jurisprudence in Argentina might have different denominations as is described as follow: Doctorate in Law Doctorate in Criminal Law Doctorate in Criminal Law and Criminal Sciences Doctorate in Juridical Sciences Doctorate in Juridical and Social Sciences Doctorate in Private Law Doctorate in Public Law and Government Economics In Brazil, the Doctor of Laws degree, known in Portuguese as Doutor em Direito or Doutor em Ciências Jurídicas, is the highest academic degree in law available. In some of the country's most important universities there is a higher title known as livre docência, like the habilitation in some European countries.
However, this higher title is not a degree in the strict sense, because livre docência nowadays is an internal title, that applies within the institution granting it. In the past, livre docência was a degree in the fullness of the term, a professor bearing the title would enjoy the privileges of livre docência if he transferred from one institution to another; the doctoral degree is awarded upon the completion and the successful defense of a thesis prepared by the doctoral candidate under the supervision of a tutor. The thesis must be examined by a board of five professors, holders of the title of doctor or of a livre docência. Two of the members of the board must be professors from another institution. In most Brazilian Law Schools, the candidates are required to earn a minimum number of credits. Unlike the rules of other countries, the Brazilian norms governing the grant of doctoral titles do not require the publication of the thesis as a precondition for the award of the degree. Copies of the thesis must be delivered to the institution's library.
Doctoral thesis are published by specialized editors after the grant of the doctoral title. If one obtains a doctoral title in a foreign country, one cannot enjoy the academic privileges of the title in Brazil unless the title be first validated by a Brazilian University. In that case, the doctor asking for the validation of the title will present his thesis and other documents relating to his foreign doctoral course to a board examiners of the Brazilian University and the examiners will pass judgement on whether the work done by the candidate adheres to the minimum standards of quality that are required by a Brazilian university when granting doctoral degrees. Admission to doctoral courses is universally reserved to holders of a master's degree. Therefore, a bachelor of Laws, seeking the degree of doctor must complete a postgraduate course to attain the degree of Master of Laws, only after being a Master of Laws, one will apply for admission to a doctoral course. There are, however, a few universities that allow "direct" admission to the doctoral course without previous completion of the Master's course in exceptional circumstances.
Thus, in rare cases, a bachelor of Laws, can be admitted directly to a doctoral course. One is allowed three years time to complete a Master of Laws degree, four years time to complete the doctoral course. So, if one were to graduate from Law School and enter a Master of Laws course and a Doctor of Laws course in immediate succession, that person would become a doctor about seven years after graduating from the Law School. On the other hand, in the rare cases in which a bachelor of Laws is allowed to pursue a "direct" doctorate, he is allowed five years time to complete the doctoral course. Unlike the Master of Laws dissertation, the Doctoral Thesys must contain an original contribution to the field of Law under study. In Canada, there are several academic law-related doctorates: the Doctor of Laws; the Doctor of Jurisprudence is the professional doctorate degree, required for admissions to post-graduate studies in law. The first law degree was known until as the Bachelor of Laws. However, since law schools in Canada insist on a prior degree or some equivalent in order to grant admission, it was a more advanced degree than the LL.
B. degrees awarded by programs abroad. The majority of Canadian universities now grant that degree rather than the LL. B.. B. with a J. D. in 2010, because the Canadian LL. B. is equivalent to the J. D. All Canadian J. D. programs are three years, all have similar mandatory firs
University of Tübingen
The University of Tübingen the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, is a public research university located in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is a German Excellence University, Tübingen is ranked as one of the best universities in Germany and is known as a centre for the study of medicine and theology and religion; the university's noted alumni include numerous presidents, ministers, EU Commissioners and judges of the Federal Constitutional Court. The university is associated with eleven Nobel laureates in the fields of medicine and chemistry; the University of Tübingen was founded in 1477 by Count Eberhard V the first Duke of Württemberg, a civic and ecclesiastic reformer who established the school after becoming absorbed in the Renaissance revival of learning during his travels to Italy. Its first rector was Johannes Nauclerus, its present name was conferred on it in 1769 by Duke Karl Eugen who appended his first name to that of the founder. The university became the principal university of the kingdom of Württemberg.
Today, it is one of nine state universities funded by the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg. The University of Tübingen has a history of innovative thought in theology, in which the university and the Tübinger Stift are famous to this day. Philipp Melanchthon, the prime mover in building the German school system and a chief figure in the Protestant Reformation, helped establish its direction. Among Tübingen's eminent students have been the astronomer Johannes Kepler. "The Tübingen Three" refers to Hölderlin and Schelling, who were roommates at the Tübinger Stift. Theologian Helmut Thielicke revived postwar Tübingen when he took over a professorship at the reopened theological faculty in 1947, being made administrative head of the university and President of the Chancellor's Conference in 1951; the university rose to the height of its prominence in the middle of the 19th century with the teachings of poet and civic leader Ludwig Uhland and the Protestant theologian Ferdinand Christian Baur, whose circle and students became known as the "Tübingen School", which pioneered the historical-critical analysis of biblical and early Christian texts, an approach referred to as "higher criticism."
The University of Tübingen was the first German university to establish a faculty of natural sciences, in 1863. DNA was discovered in 1868 at the University of Tübingen by Friedrich Miescher. Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, the first female Nobel Prize winner in medicine in Germany works at Tübingen; the faculty for economics and business was founded in 1817 as the "Staatswissenschaftliche Fakultät" and was the first of its kind in Germany. The University played a leading role in efforts to legitimize the policies of the Third Reich as "scientific". Before the victory of the Nazi Party in the general election in March 1933, there were hardly any Jewish faculty and a few Jewish students. Physicist Hans Bethe was dismissed on 20 April 1933 because of "non-Aryan" origin. Religion professor Traugott Konstantin Oesterreich and the mathematician Erich Kamke were forced to take early retirement in both cases the "non-Aryan" origin of their wives. At least 1158 people were sterilized at the University Hospital.
In 1966, Joseph Ratzinger, who would become Pope Benedict XVI, was appointed to a chair in dogmatic theology in the Faculty of Catholic Theology at Tübingen, where he was a colleague of Hans Küng. In 1967, Jürgen Moltmann, one of the most influential Protestant theologians of the 20th century, was appointed Professor of Systematic Theology in the Faculty of Protestant Theology. Drafted in 1944 by Nazi Germany, he was an Allied prisoner of war 1945-1948, he was influenced by friend Ernst Bloch, the Marxist philosopher. In 1970, the university was restructured into a series of faculties as independent departments of study and research after the manner of French universities; the university made the headlines in November 2009 when a group of left-leaning students occupied one of the main lecture halls, the Kupferbau, for several days. The students' goal was to protest tuition fees and maintain that education should be free for everyone. In May 2010, Tübingen joined the Matariki Network of Universities together with Dartmouth College, Durham University, Queen’s University, University of Otago, University of Western Australia and Uppsala University.
The University of Tübingen undertakes a broad range of research projects in various fields. Among the more prominent ones in the natural sciences are the Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, which focuses on general and cellular neurology as well as neurodegeneration, the Centre for Interdisciplinary Clinical Research, which deals with cell biology in diagnostics and therapy of organ system diseases. In the liberal arts, the University of Tübingen is noteworthy for having the only faculty of rhetoric in Germany – the department was founded by Walter Jens, an important intellectual and literary critic; the university boasts continued pre-eminence in its centuries-old traditions of research in the fields of philosophy and philology. Since at least the nineteenth century, Tübingen has been the home of world-class research in prehistoric studies and the study of antiquity, including the study of the ancient Near East.
Hans-Dietrich Genscher was a German statesman and a member of the liberal Free Democratic Party, who served as the Federal Minister of the Interior from 1969 to 1974, as the Federal Minister of Foreign Affairs and Vice Chancellor of Germany from 1974 to 1992, making him the longest-serving occupant of either post and the only person, holding one of these posts under two different Chancellors of the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1991 he was chairman of the Organization for Co-operation in Europe. A proponent of Realpolitik, Genscher has been called "a master of diplomacy." He is regarded as having been a principal "architect of German reunification." In 1991, he played a pivotal role in the breakup of Yugoslavia by pushing for international recognition of Croatia and other republics declaring independence, in an effort to halt "a trend towards a Greater Serbia." After leaving office, he worked as international consultant. He was President of the German Council on Foreign Relations and was involved with several international organisations, with former Czech President Václav Havel, he called for a Cold War museum to be built in Berlin.
Genscher was born on 21 March 1927 in Reideburg, now a part of Halle, in what became East Germany. He was the son of Kurt Genscher, his father, a lawyer, died. In 1943, he was drafted to serve as a member of the Air Force Support Personnel at the age of 16. At age 17, close to the end of the war, he and his fellow soldiers became members of the Nazi Party due to a collective application by his Wehrmacht unit, he said he was unaware of it at the time. Late in the war, Genscher was deployed as a soldier in General Walther Wenck's 12th Army, which ostensibly was directed to relieve the siege of Berlin. After the German surrender he was an American and British prisoner of war, but was released after two months. Following World War II, he studied law and economics at the universities of Halle and Leipzig and joined the East German Liberal Democratic Party in 1946. In 1952, Genscher fled to West Germany, he became a solicitor in Bremen. During these early years after the war, Genscher continuously struggled with illness.
From 1956 to 1959 he was a research assistant of the FDP parliamentary group in Bonn. From 1959 to 1965 he was the FDP group managing director, while from 1962 to 1964 he was National Secretary of the FDP. In 1965 Genscher was elected on the North Rhine-Westphalian FDP list to the West German parliament and remained a member of parliament until his retirement in 1998, he was elected deputy national chairman in 1968. From 1969 he served as minister of the interior in the SPD-FDP coalition government led by Chancellor Willy Brandt. In 1974 he became both posts he would hold for 18 years. From 1 October 1974 to 23 February 1985 he was Chairman of the FDP, it was during his tenure as party chairman that the FDP switched from being the junior member of social-liberal coalition to being the junior member of the 1982 coalition with the CDU/CSU. In 1985 he gave up the post of national chairman. After his resignation as Foreign Minister, Genscher was appointed honorary chairman of the FDP in 1992. After the federal election of 1969 Genscher was instrumental in the formation of the social-liberal coalition of chancellor Willy Brandt and was on 22 October 1969 appointed as federal minister of the interior.
In 1972, while minister for the interior, Genscher rejected Israel's offer to send an Israeli special forces unit to Germany to deal with the Munich Olympics hostage crisis. A flawed rescue attempt by German police forces at Fürstenfeldbruck air base resulted in a bloody shootout, which left all eleven hostages, five terrorists, one German policeman dead. Genscher's popularity with Israel declined further when he endorsed the release of the three captured attackers following the hijacking of a Lufthansa aircraft on 29 October 1972. In the SPD–FDP coalition, Genscher helped shape Brandt's policy of deescalation with the communist East known as Ostpolitik, continued under chancellor Helmut Schmidt after Brandt's resignation in 1974, he would be a driving factor in continuing this policy in the new conservative-liberal coalition under Helmut Kohl. In the negotiations on a coalition government of SPD and FDP following the 1976 elections, it took Genscher 73 days to reach agreement with Chancellor Helmut Schmidt.
As Foreign Minister, Genscher stood for a policy of compromise between East and West, developed strategies for an active policy of détente and the continuation of the East-West dialogue with the USSR. He was regarded a strong advocate of negotiated settlements to international problems; as a popular story on Genscher's preferred method of shuttle diplomacy has it, "two Lufthansa jets crossed over the Atlantic, Genscher was on both."Genscher was a major player in the negotiations on the text of the Helsinki Accords. In December 1976, the General Assembly of the United Nations in New York City accepted Genscher's proposal of an anti-terrorism convention in New York, set among other things, to respond to demands from hostage-takers under any circumstances. Genscher was one of the FDP's driving forces when, in 1982, the party switched sides from its coalition with the SPD to support the CDU/CSU in their Constructive vote of no confidence to have incumbent Helmut Schmidt replaced with opposition leader Helmut Kohl as Cha