Australian National University
The Australian National University is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. Its main campus in Acton encompasses seven teaching and research colleges, in addition to several national academies and institutes. Founded in 1946, it is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. A postgraduate research university, ANU commenced undergraduate teaching in 1960 when it integrated the Canberra University College, established in 1929 as a campus of the University of Melbourne. ANU employs 3,753 staff; the university's endowment stood at A$1.13 billion in 2012. ANU is regarded as one of the world's leading research universities, it is ranked 1st in Australia and the whole of Oceania, 24th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings, 49th in the world by the 2019 Times Higher Education. ANU was named the world's 7th most international university in a 2017 study by Times Higher Education. In the 2017 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates' employability, ANU was ranked 21st in the world.
ANU is ranked 100th in the CWTS Leiden ranking. The university is well known for its programmes in the arts and social sciences, ranks among the best in the world for a number of disciplines including politics and international relations, social policy, geography. ANU counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni; the university has educated two prime ministers, 30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of government departments of Australia. The latest releases of ANU's scholarly publications are held through ANU Press online. Calls for the establishment of a national university in Australia began as early as 1900. After the location of the nation's capital, was determined in 1908, land was set aside for the university at the foot of Black Mountain in the city designs by Walter Burley Griffin. Planning for the university was disrupted by World War II but resumed with the creation of the Department of Post-War Reconstruction in 1942 leading to the passage of the Australian National University Act 1946 by the Chifley Government on 1 August 1946.
A group of eminent Australian scholars returned from overseas to join the university, including Sir Howard Florey, Sir Mark Oliphant, Sir Keith Hancock and Sir Raymond Firth. Economist Sir Douglas Copland was appointed as ANU's first Vice-Chancellor and former Prime Minister Stanley Bruce served as the first Chancellor. ANU was organised into four centres—the Research Schools of Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Pacific Studies and the John Curtin School of Medical Research; the first residents' hall, University House, was opened in 1954 for faculty members and postgraduate students. Mount Stromlo Observatory, established by the federal government in 1924, became part of ANU in 1957; the first locations of the ANU Library, the Menzies and Chifley buildings, opened in 1963. The Australian Forestry School, located in Canberra since 1927, was amalgamated by ANU in 1965. Canberra University College was the first institution of higher education in the national capital, having been established in 1929 and enrolling its first undergraduate pupils in 1930.
Its founding was led by Sir Robert Garran, one of the drafters of the Australian Constitution and the first Solicitor-General of Australia. CUC was affiliated with the University of Melbourne and its degrees were granted by that university. Academic leaders at CUC included historian Manning Clark, political scientist Finlay Crisp, poet A. D. Hope and economist Heinz Arndt. In 1960, CUC was integrated into ANU as the School of General Studies with faculties in arts, economics and science. Faculties in Oriental studies and engineering were introduced later. Bruce Hall, the first residential college for undergraduates, opened in 1961; the Canberra School of Music and the Canberra School of Art combined in 1988 to form the Canberra Institute of the Arts, amalgamated with the university as the ANU Institute of the Arts in 1992. ANU established its Medical School in 2002, after obtaining federal government approval in 2000. On 18 January 2003, the Canberra bushfires destroyed the Mount Stromlo Observatory.
ANU astronomers now conduct research from the Siding Spring Observatory, which contains 10 telescopes including the Anglo-Australian Telescope. In February 2013, financial entrepreneur and ANU graduate Graham Tuckwell made the largest university donation in Australian history by giving $50 million to fund an undergraduate scholarship program at ANU. ANU is well known for its history of student activism and, in recent years, its fossil fuel divestment campaign, one of the longest-running and most successful in the country; the decision of the ANU Council to divest from two fossil fuel companies in 2014 was criticised by ministers in the Abbott government, but defended by Vice Chancellor Ian Young, who noted:On divestment, it is clear we were in the right and played a national and international leadership role. E seem to have played a major role in a movement; as of 2014 ANU still had investments in major fossil fuel companies. A survey conducted by the Australian Human Rights Commission in 2017 found that the ANU had the second highest incidence of sexual assault and sexual harassment.
3.5 per cent of respondents from the ANU re
In mathematics, the Poincaré conjecture is a theorem about the characterization of the 3-sphere, the hypersphere that bounds the unit ball in four-dimensional space. The conjecture states: Every connected, closed 3-manifold is homeomorphic to the 3-sphere. An equivalent form of the conjecture involves a coarser form of equivalence than homeomorphism called homotopy equivalence: if a 3-manifold is homotopy equivalent to the 3-sphere it is homeomorphic to it. Conjectured by Henri Poincaré, the theorem concerns a space that locally looks like ordinary three-dimensional space but is connected, finite in size, lacks any boundary; the Poincaré conjecture claims that if such a space has the additional property that each loop in the space can be continuously tightened to a point it is a three-dimensional sphere. The analogous conjectures for all higher dimensions had been proved. After nearly a century of effort by mathematicians, Grigori Perelman presented a proof of the conjecture in three papers made available in 2002 and 2003 on arXiv.
The proof built upon the program of Richard S. Hamilton to use the Ricci flow to attempt to solve the problem. Hamilton introduced a modification of the standard Ricci flow, called Ricci flow with surgery to systematically excise singular regions as they develop, in a controlled way, but was unable to prove this method "converged" in three dimensions. Perelman completed this portion of the proof. Several teams of mathematicians verified; the Poincaré conjecture, before being proved, was one of the most important open questions in topology. In 2000, it was named one of the seven Millennium Prize Problems, for which the Clay Mathematics Institute offered a $1 million prize for the first correct solution. Perelman's work survived review and was confirmed in 2006, leading to his being offered a Fields Medal, which he declined. Perelman was awarded the Millennium Prize on March 18, 2010. On July 1, 2010, he turned down the prize saying that he believed his contribution in proving the Poincaré conjecture was no greater than Hamilton's.
As of 2019, the Poincaré conjecture is the only solved Millennium problem. On December 22, 2006, the journal Science honored Perelman's proof of the Poincaré conjecture as the scientific "Breakthrough of the Year", the first time this honor was bestowed in the area of mathematics. At the beginning of the 20th century, Henri Poincaré was working on the foundations of topology—what would be called combinatorial topology and algebraic topology, he was interested in what topological properties characterized a sphere. Poincaré claimed in 1900 that homology, a tool he had devised based on prior work by Enrico Betti, was sufficient to tell if a 3-manifold was a 3-sphere. However, in a 1904 paper he described a counterexample to this claim, a space now called the Poincaré homology sphere; the Poincaré sphere was the first example of a homology sphere, a manifold that had the same homology as a sphere, of which many others have since been constructed. To establish that the Poincaré sphere was different from the 3-sphere, Poincaré introduced a new topological invariant, the fundamental group, showed that the Poincaré sphere had a fundamental group of order 120, while the 3-sphere had a trivial fundamental group.
In this way he was able to conclude that these two spaces were, different. In the same paper, Poincaré wondered whether a 3-manifold with the homology of a 3-sphere and trivial fundamental group had to be a 3-sphere. Poincaré's new condition—i.e. "trivial fundamental group"—can be restated as "every loop can be shrunk to a point." The original phrasing was as follows: Consider a compact 3-dimensional manifold V without boundary. Is it possible that the fundamental group of V could be trivial though V is not homeomorphic to the 3-dimensional sphere? Poincaré never declared whether he believed this additional condition would characterize the 3-sphere, but nonetheless, the statement that it does is known as the Poincaré conjecture. Here is the standard form of the conjecture: Every connected, closed 3-manifold is homeomorphic to the 3-sphere; this problem seemed to lay dormant until J. H. C. Whitehead revived interest in the conjecture, when in the 1930s he first claimed a proof and retracted it.
In the process, he discovered some interesting examples of simply-connected non-compact 3-manifolds not homeomorphic to R3, the prototype of, now called the Whitehead manifold. In the 1950s and 1960s, other mathematicians attempted proofs of the conjecture only to discover that they contained flaws. Influential mathematicians such as G. de Rham, Haken and Papakyriakopoulos attempted to prove the conjecture. In 1958 Bing proved a weak version of the Poincaré conjecture: if every simple closed curve of a compact 3-manifold is contained in a 3-ball the manifold is homeomorphic to the 3-sphere. Bing described some of the pitfalls in trying to prove the Poincaré conjecture. Włodzimierz Jakobsche showed in 1978 that, if the Bing–Borsuk conjecture is true in dimension 3 the Poincaré conjecture must be true. Over time, the conjecture gained the reputation of being tricky to tackle. John Milnor commented that sometimes the errors in false proofs can be "rather subtle and difficult to detect." Work on the conjecture improved understanding of 3-manifolds.
Experts in the field were reluctant to announce proofs, tended to view any such announcement with skepticism. The 1980s and 1990s witnessed some well-publicized fallacious proofs. An expo
University of Southampton
The University of Southampton is a research university located in Southampton, England. The university's origins date back to the founding of the Hartley Institution in 1862. In 1902, the Institution developed into the Hartley University College, awarding degrees from the University of London. On 29 April 1952, the institution was granted full university status, allowing it to award its own degrees. Southampton is a founding member of the Russell Group of research-intensive universities in Britain. In the most recent Research Excellence Framework the university was ranked 18th in the United Kingdom for average quality of research submitted, 11th for research power and 8th for research intensity; the university has seven teaching campuses. The main campus is located in the Highfield area of Southampton and is supplemented by four other campuses within the city: Avenue Campus housing the Faculty of Humanities, the National Oceanography Centre housing courses in Ocean and Earth Sciences, Southampton General Hospital offering courses in Medicine and Health Sciences, Boldrewood Campus an engineering and maritime technology campus housing the university's strategic ally Lloyd's Register.
In addition, the university operates a School of Art based in nearby Winchester and an international branch in Malaysia offering courses in Engineering. Each campus is equipped with its own library facilities; the University of Southampton has 17,535 undergraduate and 7,650 postgraduate students, making it the largest university by higher education students in the South East region. The University of Southampton Students' Union, provides support and social activities for the students ranging from involvement in the Union's four media outlets to any of the 200 affiliated societies and 80 sports; the university owns and operates a sports ground at nearby Wide Lane for use by students and operates a sports centre on the main campus. The University of Southampton has its origin as the Hartley Institution, formed in 1862 from a benefaction by Henry Robinson Hartley. Hartley had inherited a fortune from two generations of successful wine merchants. At his death in 1850, he left a bequest of £103,000 to the Southampton Corporation for the study and advancement of the sciences in his property on Southampton's High Street, in the city centre.
Hartley was an eccentric straggler, who had little liking of the new age docks and railways in Southampton. He did not desire to create a college for many but a cultural centre for Southampton's intellectual elite. After lengthy legal challenges to the Bequest, a public debate as to how best interpret the language of his Will, the Southampton Corporation choose to create the Institute. On 15 October 1862, the Hartley Institute was opened by the Prime Minister Lord Palmerston in a major civic occasion which exceeded in splendor anything that anyone in the town could remember. After initial years of financial struggle, the Hartley Institute became the Hartley College in 1883; this move was followed by increasing numbers of students, teaching staff, an expansion of the facilities and registered lodgings for students. In 1902, the Hartley College became the Hartley University college, a degree awarding branch of the University of London; this was after inspection of the teaching and finances by the University College Grants Committee, donations from Council members.
An increase in student numbers in the following years motivated fund raising efforts to move the college to greenfield land around Back Lane in the Highfield area of Southampton. On 20 June 1914, Viscount Haldane opened the new site of the renamed Southampton University College. However, the outbreak of the First World War six weeks meant no lectures could take place there, as the buildings were handed over by the college authorities for use as a military hospital. To cope with the volume of casualties, wooden huts were erected at the rear of the building; these were donated to university by the War Office after the end of fighting, in time for the transfer from the high street premises in 1920. At this time, Highfield Hall, a former country house and overlooking Southampton Common, for which a lease had earlier been secured, commenced use as a halls of residence for female students. South Hill, on what is now the Glen Eyre Halls Complex was acquired, along with South Stoneham House to house male students.
Further expansion through the 1920s and 1930s was made possible through private donors, such as the two daughters of Edward Turner Sims for the construction of the university library, from the people of Southampton, enabling new buildings on both sides of University Road. During World War II the university suffered damage in the Southampton Blitz with bombs landing on the campus and its halls of residence; the college decided against evacuation, instead expanding its Engineering Department, School of Navigation and developing a new School of Radio Telegraphy. Halls of residence were used to house Polish and American troops. After the war, departments such as Electronics grew under the influence of Erich Zepler and the Institute of Sound and Vibration was established. On 29 April 1952, Queen Elizabeth II granted the University of Southampton a Royal Charter, the first to be given to a university during her reign, which enabled it to award degrees. Six faculties were created: Arts, Engineering, Economics and Law.
The first University of Southampton degrees were awarded on 4 July 1953, following the appointment of the Duke of We
C. T. C. Wall
Charles Terence Clegg "Terry" Wall is a British mathematician, educated at Marlborough and Trinity College, Cambridge. He is an emeritus professor of the University of Liverpool, where he was first appointed professor in 1965. From 1978 to 1980 he was the president of the London Mathematical Society, his early work was in cobordism theory in algebraic topology. His research was mainly in the area of manifolds geometric topology and related abstract algebra included in surgery theory, of which he was one of the founders. In 1964 he introduced the Brauer–Wall group of a field, his 1970 research monograph "Surgery on Compact Manifolds" is a major reference work in geometric topology. In 1971 he conjectured; this conjecture is known as "Wall's conjecture". It motivated much progress in the understanding of splittings of groups. In 1985 Martin Dunwoody proved; the resolution of the full conjecture took until 1991 when, surprising to most mathematicians at the time, Dunwoody found a finitely generated group, not accessible and hence the conjecture turned out to be not correct in its general formulation.
Wall's work since the mid-1970s has been in singularity theory as developed by R. Thom, J. Milnor and V. Arnold, concerns the classification of isolated singularities of differentiable maps and of algebraic varieties, he has written two research monographs on singularity theory, "The Geometry of Topological Stability" with Andrew du Plessis, "Singular Points of Plane Curves". His notable students include Michael Boardman, Bill Bruce, Andrew Casson, Francis E. A. Johnson, David Mond, Andrew du Plessis, David Trotman. 1965 – Berwick Prize 1966 – Invited address at the 1966 ICM in Moscow 1969 – Elected Fellow of the Royal Society 1970 – Invited address at the 1970 ICM in Nice 1976 – Senior Whitehead Prize 1988 – Pólya Prize 1988 – Sylvester Medal 1990 – Elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters 2000 – Elected Honorary Member of the Irish Mathematical Society 2012 – Fellow of the American Mathematical Society Terry Wall has been married to Sandra Hearnshaw since 1959, they have four children together.
He was the treasurer of the Wirral area SDP from 1985 until its merger with the Liberal Party in 1988. Wall continued on as treasurer of the newly formed Wirral West Liberal Democrats and, as of August 2010, was still their treasurer. Wall has been an LEA appointed governor of West Kirby Grammar School since 1987, he has held the post of treasurer at Hoylake Chamber Concert Society since 2000. He has 7 grandchildren of which he lives with 3, Alex and Josie. O'Connor, John J.. Wall", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, his contact details and list of recent publications 70th birthday conference, Edinburgh, 2006 Surgery theory
Geometric group theory
Geometric group theory is an area in mathematics devoted to the study of finitely generated groups via exploring the connections between algebraic properties of such groups and topological and geometric properties of spaces on which these groups act. Another important idea in geometric group theory is to consider finitely generated groups themselves as geometric objects; this is done by studying the Cayley graphs of groups, which, in addition to the graph structure, are endowed with the structure of a metric space, given by the so-called word metric. Geometric group theory, as a distinct area, is new, became a identifiable branch of mathematics in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Geometric group theory interacts with low-dimensional topology, hyperbolic geometry, algebraic topology, computational group theory and differential geometry. There are substantial connections with complexity theory, mathematical logic, the study of Lie Groups and their discrete subgroups, dynamical systems, probability theory, K-theory, other areas of mathematics.
In the introduction to his book Topics in Geometric Group Theory, Pierre de la Harpe wrote: "One of my personal beliefs is that fascination with symmetries and groups is one way of coping with frustrations of life's limitations: we like to recognize symmetries which allow us to recognize more than what we can see. In this sense the study of geometric group theory is a part of culture, reminds me of several things that Georges de Rham practices on many occasions, such as teaching mathematics, reciting Mallarmé, or greeting a friend". Geometric group theory grew out of combinatorial group theory that studied properties of discrete groups via analyzing group presentations, that describe groups as quotients of free groups. Combinatorial group theory as an area is subsumed by geometric group theory. Moreover, the term "geometric group theory" came to include studying discrete groups using probabilistic, measure-theoretic, arithmetic and other approaches that lie outside of the traditional combinatorial group theory arsenal.
In the first half of the 20th century, pioneering work of Max Dehn, Jakob Nielsen, Kurt Reidemeister and Otto Schreier, J. H. C. Whitehead, Egbert van Kampen, amongst others, introduced some topological and geometric ideas into the study of discrete groups. Other precursors of geometric group theory include Bass -- Serre theory. Small cancellation theory was introduced by Martin Grindlinger in the 1960s and further developed by Roger Lyndon and Paul Schupp, it studies van Kampen diagrams, corresponding to finite group presentations, via combinatorial curvature conditions and derives algebraic and algorithmic properties of groups from such analysis. Bass–Serre theory, introduced in the 1977 book of Serre, derives structural algebraic information about groups by studying group actions on simplicial trees. External precursors of geometric group theory include the study of lattices in Lie Groups Mostow rigidity theorem, the study of Kleinian groups, the progress achieved in low-dimensional topology and hyperbolic geometry in the 1970s and early 1980s, spurred, in particular, by William Thurston's Geometrization program.
The emergence of geometric group theory as a distinct area of mathematics is traced to the late 1980s and early 1990s. It was spurred by the 1987 monograph of Mikhail Gromov "Hyperbolic groups" that introduced the notion of a hyperbolic group, which captures the idea of a finitely generated group having large-scale negative curvature, by his subsequent monograph Asymptotic Invariants of Infinite Groups, that outlined Gromov's program of understanding discrete groups up to quasi-isometry; the work of Gromov had a transformative effect on the study of discrete groups and the phrase "geometric group theory" started appearing soon afterwards.. Notable themes and developments in geometric group theory in 1990s and 2000s include: Gromov's program to study quasi-isometric properties of groups. A influential broad theme in the area is Gromov's program of classifying finitely generated groups according to their large scale geometry. Formally, this means classifying finitely generated groups with their word metric up to quasi-isometry.
This program involves: The study of properties. Examples of such properties of finitely generated groups include: the growth rate of a finitely generated group. Theorems which use quasi-isometry invariants to prove algebraic results about groups, for example: Gromov's polynomial growth theorem. Quasi-isometric rigidity theorems, in which one classifies algebraically all groups that are quasi-isometric to some given group or metric space; this dire
University of Sussex
The University of Sussex is a public research university in Falmer, England. Its campus is located in the South Downs National Park and is a short distance away from Central Brighton; the university received its Royal Charter in August 1961, the first of the plate glass university generation, was a founding member of the 1994 Group of research-intensive universities. It has more than a third of its students enrolled in postgraduate programs and around a third of its staff is drawn from outside the United Kingdom. Sussex has a diverse community of over 17,000 students, with around one in three being foreign students, over 2,600 academics, representing over 140 different nationalities; the annual income of the institution for 2016–17 was £286.1 million with an expenditure of £270.4 million. In 2017, over 25,000 students applied to the University of Sussex, with around 5,000 joining the institution; the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2018 placed Sussex 147th in the world overall,39th in the world for Social Sciences and 49th globally for Business and Law studies.
Sussex is known for its Humanities and Social Sciences departments, with its Development studies program being placed at number 1 globally in the QS World University Ranking. Sussex counts 5 Nobel Prize winners, 15 Fellows of the Royal Society, 9 Fellows of the British Academy, 24 fellows of the Academy of Social Sciences and a winner of the Crafoord Prize among its faculty. By 2011, many of its faculty members had received the Royal Society of Literature Prize, the Order of the British Empire and the Bancroft Prize. Alumni include heads of states, politicians, eminent scientists and activists. In an effort to establish a university to serve Sussex, a public meeting was held in December 1911 at the Royal Pavilion in order to discover ways to fund the construction of a university; the idea was revived in the 1950s and, in June 1958, the government approved the corporation's scheme for a university at Brighton, to be the first of a new generation of what came to be known as plate glass universities.
The university was established as a company in 1959, with a Royal Charter being granted on 16 August 1961. This was the first university in the UK since the Second World War; the university's organisation broke new ground in seeing the campus divided into Schools of Study, with students able to benefit from a multidisciplinary teaching environment. Sussex would emphasise cross-disciplinary activity, so that students would emerge from the university with a range of background or'contextual' knowledge to complement their specialist'core' skills in a particular subject area. For example, arts students spent their first year taking sciences; the university grew, starting with 52 students in 1961–62, to having 3200 in 1967–68. After starting at Knoyle Hall in Brighton, the Falmer campus was built with Falmer House opening in 1962, its campus was praised as gorgeously groundbreaking, receiving numerous awards. Its Student Union was quite active, organising concerts. Performers like Pink Floyd, Jimi Hendrix and Chuck Berry performed at the University Common Room, giving the university a reputation for Rock and Roll.
Academically, Sussex was home to figures such as Lord Asa Briggs, Helmut Pappe, Gillian Rose, Jennifer Platt and Tom Bottomore. In its first years, the university attracted a number of renowned academics such as Sir John Cornforth, John Maynard Smith, Martin Wight, David Daiches, Roger Blin-Stoyle and Colin Eaborn. Renowned scholars like Marcus Cunliffe, Gabriel Josipovici, Quentin Bell, Dame Helen Wallace, Stuart Sutherland and Marie Jahoda became central figures at the university and founded many of its current departments. In the late 1960s, the United Nations asked for science policy recommendations from a team of renowned academics at Sussex; the ensuing report became known as the Sussex Manifesto. Sussex came to be identified with student radicalism. In 1973, a mob of students physically prevented United States government adviser Samuel P. Huntington from giving a speech on campus, due to his involvement in the Vietnam War; when the spokesperson for the US embassy, Robert Beers, visited to give a talk to students entitled'Vietnam in depth' three students were waiting outside Falmer House and threw a bucket of red paint over the diplomat as he was leaving.
This came to be known as the Vietnam Bucket of Paint incident. In both 1967 and 1969, Sussex won the UK University Challenge. In 1980, Sussex edged out the University of Oxford to become the university with the highest income from research grants and contracts. In an attempt to appeal to a modern audience, the university chose in 2004 to cease using its coat of arms and to replace it with the "US" logo.2011 marked Sussex's 50th anniversary and saw the production of a number of works including a book on the university's history and an oral history and photography project. The university launched its first major fundraising campaign, Making the Future, gathered over $51.3 million. The university underwent a number of changes with the Sussex Strategic Plan 2009–2015, including the introduction of new academic courses, the opening of new research centres, the renovation and refurbishment of a number of its schools and buildings as well as the ongoing expansion of its student housing facilities.
The university has spent over £100 million on campus redevelopment, ongoing with £500 million set to be spent by the year 2021. Sussex is involved with the larger community across England in East Sussex. There are many regular community projects, such as children's
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate