55 Wall Street
The National City Bank Building at 55 Wall Street between William and Hanover Streets in the Financial District of downtown Manhattan, New York City, was built in 1836–1841 as the Merchants' Exchange, replacing the previous exchange, which had opened in 1827 and burned down in the Great Fire of New York in 1835. The new building was designed by Isaiah Rogers in the Greek Revival style; the United States Custom House moved into the building in 1862 – with the conversion of the building overseen by William A. Potter – and occupied it until 1907, when it moved to the Alexander Hamilton U. S. Custom House at 1 Bowling Green. After the Custom House left, James Stillman, president of National City Bank, arranged for his company to buy the building from the government to be their headquarters. Charles Follen McKim of McKim, Mead & White was engaged to enlarge the building, including removing the dome, adding four floors and a second colonnade and gutting the interior, the main floor of which McKim redesigned with William S. Richardson.
The old main banking hall has been used as a ballroom and event space since 1998, the remainder of the building is now condominium apartments.55 Wall Street became the new home of National City Bank on December 19, 1908, when the bank moved across the street from 52 Wall Street. Stillman ordered that the building's Ionic colonnade be preserved and that the interior be remodeled to look like the Pantheon in Rome.55 Wall Street served as Citibank's global headquarters from 1908 to 1961, when it moved to the newly completed 399 Park Avenue, one of the earlier migrations by Wall Street commercial and investment banks from downtown to midtown Manhattan. Years after the headquarters move, 55 Wall Street continued as a full service retail branch, as well as a substantial location for private banking operations; the building served as the headquarters for the law firm of Shearman & Sterling, lead counsel for Citibank and the Rockefeller family for decades. The building was sold by Citibank in 1990 to private investors for $69 million.
Citibank ended its branch banking presence at 55 Wall Street in 1992. It is owned by Cipriani. Notable people who spent time at 55 Wall Street include President Chester A. Arthur, who worked as a customs collector in the 1870s, writer Herman Melville, who worked as a customs inspector and wrote part of Moby Dick while working there; the original building was designed by Boston architect Isaiah Rogers in the Greek Revival style and built in 1836–1842. The facade of the original four-story, Greek revival style featured twelve massive Ionic columns, each a single block of Quincy Granite. In 1899, National City Bank, which subsequently became Citibank, commissioned architect Charles McKim of McKim, Mead & White to remodel the building for use as their headquarters; the architects added four stories to the building and superimposed a second colonnade of Corinthian columns above the original facade. They redesigned the interior into an immense banking hall, featuring a sixty-foot-high central dome and offices at each corner.
Monumental Corinthian columns support an elegant entablature. The room features elegant gray marble floors and walls, a coffered ceiling, delicate mezzanine railings. According to Forbes magazine back in 1917, the branch at 55 Wall Street "does more business in its head office than is done under any other nongovernmental banking roof on the face of the earth." The exterior of this building was designated a New York City Landmark in 1965. The building was named a National Historic Landmark in 1978. In 1998 it was rebuilt as The Regent Wall Street Hotel. After the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001, 55 Wall Street served as a relief center for workers and area residents; the hotel closed in 2003 due to lack of business after the 9/11 attacks. It has been renovated again and was converted to condos by the Cipriani S. A. empire of restaurants and ballrooms. The main banking hall "now serves as one of the most elegant ballrooms in the world", has been called a "facility unequaled in America"A curious remnant of the building's days as a customs house were the jail cells used to detain smugglers and spies.
When National City Bank was doing renovations in 1908 it uncovered a cannonball embedded in a wall as well as keg of gunpowder and over 100 rudimentary bombs, believed to be armaments for Customs House employees during the New York City draft riots of 1863. The Designated Landmark of New York City plaque was installed by the New York Landmarks Preservation Foundation in 2002; the building was the location for the finale of Jonathan Demme's 2004 film The Manchurian Candidate, was used as a backdrop for Die Hard with a Vengeance and The Dark Knight Rises. Notes Bibliography Citibank. "55 Wall Street: A Working Landmark", 1979 American Memory from the Library of Congress The Rise of Wall Street The Skyscraper Museum
Great Fire of New York
The 1835 Great Fire of New York was one of three fires that rendered extensive damage to New York City in the 18th and 19th centuries. The fire occurred in the middle of an economic boom, covering 17 city blocks, killing two people, destroying hundreds of buildings, with an estimated $20 million of property damage. By 1835, New York City was the premier American city, its financial prowess surpassed that of Philadelphia or Boston; the opening of the Erie Canal ten years earlier connected New York to raw materials and commercial interests in the Midwest and allowed the city to rise to prominence as a market hub. Over half of the country's exports left through New York Harbor, while more than a third of American imports arrived there. Insurance companies, investment firms, real estate companies and others made New York their home; as the city expanded northward and its economic significance increased, fire was a major concern. Insurance companies worried; the mayor and common council members held stock in or were board members of many fire insurance firms.
City officials made efforts to hire more watchmen. One serious impediment to firefighting was the lack of a reliable water source, as little had been done by 1835 to solve the city's water problem; the city's residents, as well as its firefighters, relied on neighborhood wells, forty fire cisterns, a reservoir located at 13th Street and the Bowery. The fire department's growth in the 1820s and 1830s had not kept pace with the growth of the city; the city's population had swelled by an additional 145,000 in the previous decade, but the department had added only about 300 firemen. A roster of 1,500 firemen, 55 engines, 6 ladder companies, 5 hose carts were deemed insufficient to protect the city. Throughout the summer and fall of 1835, the department had fought numerous fires. On December 14, the entire fire department had spent the freezing, miserable evening fighting two large fires, which destroyed thirteen buildings and two shops; the city's fire cisterns were nearly empty and its firefighting force exhausted when disaster struck.
The fire began on the evening of December 16, 1835, in a five-story warehouse at 25 Merchant Street, now known as Beaver Street, at the intersection of Hanover Square and Wall Street. As it spread, gale-force winds blowing from the northwest towards the East River spread the fire; the conflagration was visible from Philadelphia 80 miles away. At the time of the fire, major water sources including the East River and the Hudson River were frozen in temperatures as low as −17 °F. Firefighters were forced to drill holes through ice to access water, which re-froze around the hoses and pipes. Attempts were made to deprive the fire of fuel by demolishing surrounding buildings, but at first there was insufficient gunpowder in Manhattan. In the evening, U. S. Marines returned with gunpowder from the Brooklyn Navy Yard and began to blow up buildings in the fire's path. An investigation found; the fire destroyed between 530 and 700 buildings. This part of the city is now known as Coenties Slip, an area between the East River and Maiden Lane in the north and William Street in the west.
According to an account published in the History of the City of New York: Many of the stores destroyed in the fire were new, with iron shutters and doors and copper roofs. When they burned, witnesses described appearance of immense iron furnaces in full blast; the heat at times melted the liquid ran off in great drops. A gale blew towards the East River. Wall after wall was heard tumbling like an avalanche. Fiery tongues of flame leaped from roof and windows along whole streets and seemed to be making angry dashes at each other; the water of the bay looked like a vast sea of blood. The bells rang for a while and ceased. Both sides of Pearl Street and Hanover Square were at the same instant engulfed in flames. A report from London gave a colorful account of the damage, praising the resilience of the population: A most awful conflagration occurred at New York on the 15th of December, by which 600 buildings were destroyed, comprising the most valuable district of the city, including the entire destruction of the Exchange, the Post Office and an immense number of stores.
The fire raged incessantly for upwards of fifteen hours. The shipping along the line of wharfs suffered considerably; the property consumed is estimated at 20,000,000 dollars. In the midst of this terrible visitation, however, it is consolatory to see the elastic energy of the people. Instead of wasting their time in despondency over this frightful desolation, the whole population seems to on the alert to repair the mischief. Recovery meant improved buildings. Negotiations were swiftly undertaken, the cooperation of banks was crucial in preventing an economic disaster. A London magazine wrote, "Plans of rebuilding on an improved scale and modes of borrowing money for that purpose, on sound securities, are under arrangement; the energy of the inhabitants and the ready manner in which the banks had offered to make advances to the different insurance companies, as well as to private individuals, would avert, it was expected, a commercial crisis."The destroyed wooden buildings were replaced by larger stone and brick ones that were less prone to burn.
The fire prompted construction of a new municipal water supply, the Old Croton Aqueduct, a reform and expansion of the fire service. The fire bankrupted several insurance companies, slowing the processing of c
Sailors' Snug Harbor
Sailors' Snug Harbor known as Sailors Snug Harbor, Snug Harbor Cultural Center and Botanical Garden, informally, Snug Harbor, is a collection of architecturally significant 19th-century buildings set in an 83-acre park along the Kill Van Kull on the north shore of Staten Island in New York City, United States. It was once a home for aged sailors; some of the buildings and the grounds are used by arts organizations under the umbrella of the Snug Harbor Cultural Center and Botanical Garden. Sailors' Snug Harbor includes 26 Greek Revival, Beaux Arts and Victorian style buildings; the site is considered Staten Island's "crown jewel" and "an incomparable remnant of New York's 19th-century seafaring past." It is a National Historic Landmark District. Snug Harbor was founded through a bequest after the death of Revolutionary War soldier and ship master Captain Robert Richard Randall, namesake of the nearby neighborhood of Randall Manor. Randall left his country estate in Manhattan, bounded by Fifth Avenue, Broadway, 10th Street, the southern side of 8th Street adjacent to what is now Washington Square, to build an institution to care for "aged and worn-out" seamen.
Randall's disappointed heirs contested the will extensively, delaying the opening of the sailors' home for decades. By the time the will challenge was settled, the once-rural land around the Manhattan estate had become well-developed. Snug Harbor's trustees decided to maximize the profits on the Manhattan property, they changed the proposed site of the institution to another piece of land bequeathed by Randall: a 130-acre plot on Staten Island overlooking the Kill Van Kull. Sailors' Snug Harbor opened in 1833, the country's first home for retired merchant seamen; the residents were referred to as "inmates" in the parlance of the day. The institution began with a single building, now the centerpiece in the row of five Greek Revival temple-like buildings on the New Brighton waterfront. From 1867 to 1884, Captain Thomas Melville, a retired sea captain and brother of Moby-Dick author Herman Melville, was governor of Snug Harbor. In 1890, Captain Gustavus Trask, the governor of Snug Harbor, built a Renaissance Revival church, the Randall Memorial Chapel and, next to it, a music hall, both designed by Robert W. Gibson.
At its peak in the late 19th century, about 1,000 retired sailors lived at Snug Harbor one of the wealthiest charities in New York. Its Washington Square area properties yielded a surplus exceeding the retirement home's costs by $100,000 a year. By the mid-20th century, Snug Harbor was in financial difficulty. Once-grand structures fell into disrepair, some were demolished. With the arrival of the Social Security system in the 1930s, demand for accommodation for old sailors declined. In the 1960s, the institution's trustees proposed to redevelop the site with high-rise buildings. A series of legal battles ensued, but the validity of landmark designation was upheld and it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1965. In the 1970s, the trustees moved the institution to Sea Level, North Carolina and sold the Staten Island site to the City of New York. Today, Randall's Trust no longer operates a retirement home, but the Trustees of the Sailors' Snug Harbor in the City of New York continues its work, using funds from the endowment to help mariners all over the country.
On September 12, 1976, the Snug Harbor Cultural Center was opened to the public. In 2008, the Cultural Center and the Staten Island Botanical Garden merged to become the Snug Harbor Cultural Center and Botanical Garden; the Sailors' Snug Harbor Archives are preserved at the Stephen B. Luce Library at SUNY Maritime College in the Bronx. A station on the now-defunct North Shore Branch of the Staten Island Railway bore the name Sailors Snug Harbor. Now, the S40 bus travels to the St. George Terminal, stopping at Snug Harbor's front gate; the five interlocking Greek Revival buildings at Snug Harbor are regarded as "the most ambitious moment of the classic revival in the United States" and the "most extraordinary" suite of Greek temple-style buildings in the country. Built around the 1833 Building C, the buildings "form a symmetrical composition on Richmond Terrace, an eight-columned portico in the center and two six-columned porticoes on either end."Paul Goldberger wrote, "Snug Harbor has something of the feel of a campus, something of the feel of a small-town square.
Indeed, these rows of classical temples, set side-by-side with tiny connecting structures recessed behind the grand facades, are perplexing because they fit into no pattern we recognize — they are lined up as if on a street, yet they are set in the landscape of a park. They seem at once to embrace the 19th-century tradition of picturesque design and, by virtue of their rigid linear order, to reject it."The 1833 administration building by Minard Lafever is a "magnificent" Greek Revival building with a monumental Ionic portico, is the architect's oldest surviving work. It was renovated in 1884 with "an eye-popping triple-height gallery with stained glass and ceiling murals," and restored in the 1990s. All five buildings are individually landmarked, as are: the 131-year-old chap
Morristown, New Jersey
Morristown is a town and the county seat of Morris County, New Jersey, United States. Morristown has been called "the military capital of the American Revolution" because of its strategic role in the war for independence from Great Britain. Today this history is visible in a variety of locations throughout the town that collectively make up Morristown National Historical Park. According to British colonial records, the first permanent European settlement at Morristown occurred in 1715, when a settlement was founded as New Hanover by migrants from New York and Connecticut. Morris County was created on March 1739, from portions of Hunterdon County; the county, Morristown itself, was named for the popular Governor of the Province, Lewis Morris, who championed benefits for the colonists. Morristown was incorporated as a town by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 6, 1865, within Morris Township, it was formally set off from the township in 1895; as of the 2010 United States Census, the town's population was 18,411, reflecting a decline of 133 from the 18,544 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 2,355 from the 16,189 counted in the 1990 Census.
The area was inhabited by the Lenni Lenape Native Americans for up to 6,000 years prior to exploration of Europeans. The first European settlements in this portion of New Jersey were established by the Swedes and Dutch in the early 17th century, when a significant trade in furs existed between the natives and the Europeans at temporary posts, it became part of the Dutch colony of New Netherland, but the English seized control of the region in 1664, granted to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton, as the Province of New Jersey. Morristown was settled around 1715 by English Presbyterians from Southold, New York on Long Island and New Haven, Connecticut as the village of New Hanover; the town's central location and road connections led to its selection as the seat of the new Morris County shortly after its separation from Hunterdon County on March 15, 1739. The village and county were named for Lewis Morris, the first and sitting royal governor of a united colony of New Jersey.
By the middle of the 18th century, Morristown had 250 residents, with two churches, a courthouse, two taverns, two schools, several stores, numerous mills and farms nearby. George Washington first came to Morristown in May 1773, two years before the Revolutionary War broke out, traveled from there to New York City together with John Parke Custis and Lord Stirling. In 1777, General George Washington and the Continental Army marched from the victories at Trenton and Princeton to encamp near Morristown from January to May. Washington had his headquarters during that first encampment at Jacob Arnold's Tavern located at the Morristown Green in the center of the town. Morristown was selected for its strategic location, it was between Philadelphia and New York and near New England while being protected from British forces behind the Watchung Mountains. It was chosen for the skills and trades of the residents, local industries and natural resources to provide arms, what was thought to be the ability of the community to provide enough food to support the army.
The churches were used for inoculations for smallpox. That first headquarters, Arnold's Tavern, was moved.5 miles south of the green onto Mount Kemble Avenue to become All Souls Hospital in the late 19th century. It suffered a fire in 1918, the original structure was demolished, but new buildings for the hospital were built directly across the street. From December 1779 to June 1780 the Continental Army's second encampment at Morristown was at Jockey Hollow. Washington's headquarters in Morristown was located at the Ford Mansion, a large mansion near what was the'edge of town.' Ford's widow and children shared the house with Martha Washington and officers of the Continental Army. The winter of 1780 was the worst winter of the Revolutionary War; the starvation was complicated by extreme inflation of lack of pay for the army. The entire Pennsylvania contingent mutinied and 200 New Jersey soldiers attempted to emulate them. During Washington's second stay, in March 1780, he declared St. Patrick's Day a holiday to honor his many Irish troops.
Martha Washington traveled from Virginia and remained with her husband each winter throughout the war. The Marquis de Lafayette came to Washington in Morristown to inform him that France would be sending ships and trained soldiers to aid the Continental Army; the Ford Mansion, Jockey Hollow, Fort Nonsense are all preserved as part of Morristown National Historical Park managed by the National Park Service, which has the distinction among historic preservationists of being the first National Historical Park established in the United States. During Washington's stay, Benedict Arnold was court-martialed at Dickerson's Tavern, on Spring Street, for charges related to profiteering from military supplies at Philadelphia, his admonishment was made public, but Washington promised the hero, Arnold, to make it up to him. Alexander Hamilton courted and wed Elizabeth Schuyler at a residence where Washington's personal physician was billeted. Locally known as the Schuyler-Hamilton House, the Dr. Jabez Campfield House is listed on both the New Jersey and National Register of Historic Places.
The Morristown Green has a statue commemorating the meeting of George Washington, the young Marquis de LaFayette, young Alexander Hamilton depicting them discussing forthcoming aid of French tall ships and troops being sent by King Louis XVI of France to aid the Continental Army. Morristown's Burnham Park has a statue of the "Father of the American Revolution", Thomas Paine, who wr
National Academy of Design
The National Academy of Design is an honorary association of American artists, founded in New York City in 1825 by Samuel Morse, Asher Durand, Thomas Cole, Martin E. Thompson, Charles Cushing Wright, Ithiel Town, others "to promote the fine arts in America through instruction and exhibition." The original founders of the National Academy of Design were students of the American Academy of the Fine Arts. However, by 1825 the students of the American Academy felt a lack of support for teaching from the academy, its board composed of merchants and physicians, from its unsympathetic president, the painter John Trumbull. Samuel Morse and other students set about forming "the drawing association", to meet several times each week for the study of the art of design. Still, the association was viewed as a dependent organization of the American Academy, from which they felt neglected. An attempt was made to reconcile differences and maintain a single academy by appointing six of the artists from the association as directors of the American Academy.
When four of the nominees were not elected, the frustrated artists resolved to form a new academy and the National Academy of Design was born. Morse had been a student at the Royal Academy in London and emulated its structure and goals for the National Academy of Design. After three years and some tentative names, in 1828 the academy found its longstanding name "National Academy of Design", under which it was known for one and a half centuries. In 1997, newly appointed director Annette Blaugrund rebranded the institution as the "National Academy Museum and School of Fine Art", to reflect "a new spirit of integration incorporating the association of artists and school", to avoid confusion with the now differently understood term "design"; this change was reversed in 2017. 1825 The New York Drawing Association 1826 The National Academy of The Arts of Design 1828 The National Academy of Design 1997 The National Academy Museum and School of Fine Art 2017 The National Academy of Design The Academy occupied several locations in Manhattan over the years.
Notable among them was a building on Park Avenue and 23rd Street designed by architect P. B. Wight and built 1863–1865 in a Venetian Gothic style modeled on the Doge's Palace in Venice. Another location was at West 109th Amsterdam Avenue. Since 1942 the academy has occupied a mansion at Fifth Avenue and Eighty-ninth Street, the former home of sculptor Anna Hyatt Huntington and philanthropist Archer M. Huntington, who donated the house in 1940; the academy is a professional honorary organization, with a museum. One cannot apply for membership, which since 1994, after many changes in numbers, is limited to 450 American artists and architects. Instead, members are elected by their peers on the basis of recognized excellence. Full members of the National Academy are identified by the post-nominal "NA", associates by "ANA"; the school offers studio instruction, master classes, intensive critiques, various workshops, lunchtime lectures. Scholarships are available; the museum houses a public collection of over 7,000 works of American art from the 19th, 20th, 21st centuries.
As of November 2018 the academy's Board of Governors consists of 18 board members, with Bruce Fowle as President and James Siena as Chairman of the Abbey Council. Maura Reilly serves as Executive Director since 2015. Among the teaching staff were numerous artists, including Will Hicok Low, who taught from 1889 to 1892; the famous American poet William Cullen Bryant gave lectures. Architect Alexander Jackson Davis taught at the academy. Painter Lemuel Wilmarth was the first full-time instructor. Silas Dustin was a curator; some of the Academy's better-known members include: American Watercolor Society Effects of the financial crisis of 2007–2009 on museums List of museums and cultural institutions in New York City Official website National Academy of Design at Google Cultural Institute
Arsenal (Central Park)
The Arsenal is a symmetrical brick building with modestly Gothic Revival details, located in Central Park, New York City, centered on 64th Street off Fifth Avenue. Built between 1847 and 1851 as a storehouse for arms and ammunition for the New York State Militia, the building predates the design and construction of Central Park, where only the Blockhouse is older; the Arsenal was designed by Martin E. Thompson trained as a carpenter, a partner of Ithiel Town and went on to become one of the founders of the National Academy of Design. Thompson's symmetrical structure of brick in English bond, with headers every fifth course, presents a central block in the manner of a fortified gatehouse flanked by half-octagonal towers; the carpentry doorframe speaks of its purpose with a Bald eagle displayed between stacks of cannonballs over the door, crossed sabers and stacked pikes represented in flanking panels. The lobby contains a series of floor-to-ceiling murals by Allen Saalburg from 1935-36, combining historical vignettes of New York life during the Civil War with ornamental scrolls and arabesques.
The building houses the offices of the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation and the Central Park Wildlife Conservation Center, but it has served as a zoo and housed a portion of the American Museum of Natural History's collections while its permanent structure was being erected. During the course of its lifetime it has housed a police precinct, a weather bureau, an art gallery. List of armories and arsenals in New York City and surrounding counties New York Times article Central Park Website article History of The Arsenal article from the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation
New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission
The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission is the New York City agency charged with administering the city's Landmarks Preservation Law. The Commission was created in April 1965 by Mayor Robert F. Wagner, Jr. following the destruction of Pennsylvania Station the previous year to make way for the construction of the current Madison Square Garden. The Commission is responsible for protecting New York City's architecturally and culturally significant buildings and sites by granting them landmark or historic district status, regulating them once they're designated, it is the largest municipal preservation agency in the nation. The Landmarks Preservation Commission consists of 11 commissioners, is required by law to include a minimum of three architects, a historian, a city planner or landscape architect, a realtor and at least one resident of each of the five New York City boroughs. According to the Landmarks Preservation Law, a building must be at least thirty years old before the Commission can declare it a landmark.
City law allows for the Commission's decision to be overturned if an appeal is filed within 90 days. The goal of New York City's landmarks law is to preserve the aesthetically and important buildings and other objects that make up the New York City vista; the Landmarks Preservation Commission is responsible for deciding which properties should be subject to landmark status and enacting regulations to protect the aesthetic and historic nature of these properties. These regulations are designed to allow property owners to continue to use and maintain their properties, while preserving the important architectural characteristics of the properties; the commission preserves not only architecturally significant buildings, but the overall historical sense of place of neighborhoods that are designated as historic districts. The commission is responsible for overseeing a range of designated landmarks in all five boroughs ranging from the Fonthill Castle in the North Bronx, built in 1852 for the actor Edwin Forrest, to the 1670s Conference House in Staten Island, where Benjamin Franklin and John Adams attended a conference aimed at ending the Revolutionary War.
The Commission helps preserve the City's landmark properties by regulating changes to their significant features. The role of the Commission has evolved over time with the changing real estate market in New York City; the Commission was created in 1965 through groundbreaking legislation signed by Mayor Robert F. Wagner in response to the mounting losses of significant buildings in New York City, most infamously Pennsylvania Station; the Landmarks Preservation Commission's first public hearing occurred in September, 1965 over the future of the Astor Library on Lafayette Street in Manhattan. The building was designated a New York City Landmark. Subsequently, the building was adaptively reused as The Public Theater. Twenty-five years the Commission was cited by David Dinkins as having preserved New York City's municipal identity and enhanced the market perception of a number of neighborhoods; this success is believed to be due, in part, to the general acceptance of the commission by the city's developers.
The Commission was headquartered in the Mutual Reserve Building from 1967 to 1980, the Old New York Evening Post Building from 1980 to 1987. In 1989, when the Commission and its process was under review following a panel created by Mayor Koch in 1985, a decision was made to change the process by which buildings are declared to be landmarks due to some perceived issues with the manner by which the Commission operates as well as the realization that the destruction feared when the Commission was formed was no longer imminent. In its first 25 years of existence, the Commission designated 856 buildings, 79 interiors and 9 parks or other outdoor places as landmarks, while declaring 52 neighborhoods with more than 15,000 buildings as historic districts; as of May 30, 2017, there are more than 36,000 landmark properties in New York City, most of which are located in 141 historic districts in all five boroughs. The total number of protected sites includes 1,398 individual landmarks, 119 interior landmarks and 10 scenic landmarks.
Some of these are National Historic Landmarks sites, many are National Registered Historic Places. One of the most prominent decisions in which the Commission was involved was the preservation of the Grand Central Terminal with the assistance of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. In 1978, the United States Supreme Court upheld the law in Penn Central Transportation Co. et al. v. New York City, et al. stopping the Penn Central Railroad from altering the structure and placing a large office tower above it. This success is cited as significant due to the Commission's origins following the destruction of Pennsylvania Station, referred to by some as architectural vandalism. In 1989, the Commission designated the Ladies' Mile Historic District; the next year marked the first time in the Commission's history that a proposed landmark, the Guggenheim Museum, received a unanimous vote by the Commission members. The vast majority of the Commission's actions are not unanimous by the Commission members or the community with a number of cases including: St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church, Bryant Park and a number of Broadway theatres resulting in challenges.
One of the most controversial properties was 2 Columbus Circle, which remained at the center of a discussion over its future for a number of years. Cultural landmarks, such as Greenwich Village's Stonewall Inn, are recognized as well not for their architecture, but rather for their location in a designated historic district. In a heatedly discussed decision on August 3, 2010, the Commission unanimo