George Michael was an English singer, record producer, philanthropist who rose to fame as a member of the music duo Wham! and embarked on a solo career. He was known for his work in the 1980s and 1990s, including Wham! singles such as "Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go" and "Last Christmas" and solo albums such as Faith and Listen Without Prejudice Vol. 1. Michael achieved seven number one singles in the UK and eight number one songs on the Billboard Hot 100 in the US, including "Careless Whisper", "Praying for Time" and "Don't Let the Sun Go Down on Me". In 2004, the Radio Academy named Michael the most played artist on British radio during the period 1984–2004. Michael ranks among the best-selling British musical acts. In 2008, he was ranked 40th on Billboard's list of the Greatest Hot 100 Artists of All Time. Michael won various music awards throughout his 30-year career, including three Brit Awards, four MTV Video Music Awards, six Ivor Novello Awards, three American Music Awards, two Grammy Awards from eight nominations.
Michael's first tour in 15 years, the 25 Live tour, spanned three tours over the course of three years. He performed his final concert at London's Earls Court on 17 October 2012. Michael, who came out as gay in 1998, was an active LGBT rights campaigner and HIV/AIDS charity fundraiser. Michael's personal life and legal troubles made headlines during the late 1990s and 2000s, as he was arrested for public lewdness in 1998 and was arrested for multiple drug-related offenses after that time; the 2005 documentary A Different Story covered his career and personal life. In the early hours of 25 December 2016, aged 53, was found dead at his home in Goring-on-Thames, Oxfordshire. A coroner's report attributed his death to natural causes. George Michael was born Georgios Kyriacos Panayiotou on 25 June 1963 in London, his father, Kyriacos Panayiotou, was a Greek Cypriot restaurateur who emigrated to England in the 1950s. His mother, Lesley Angold, was an English dancer. In June 2008, Michael told the Los Angeles Times that his maternal grandmother was Jewish, but she married a non-Jewish man and raised her children with no knowledge of their Jewish background due to her fear during World War II.
Michael spent most of his childhood in Kingsbury, London, in the home his parents bought soon after his birth. His older sisters are Melanie. While he was in his early teens, the family moved to Radlett. There, Michael attended Bushey Meads School in Bushey, where he befriended his future Wham! partner Andrew Ridgeley. The two had the same career ambition of being musicians. Michael busked on the London Underground, his involvement in the music business began with his working as a DJ, playing at clubs and local schools around Bushey and Watford. This was followed by the formation of a short-lived ska band called The Executive, with Ridgeley, Ridgeley's brother Paul, Andrew Leaver, David Mortimer. Michael formed the duo Wham! with Andrew Ridgeley in 1981. The band's first album Fantastic reached No. 1 in the UK in 1983 and produced a series of top 10 singles including "Young Guns", "Wham Rap!" and "Club Tropicana". Their second album, Make It Big, reached No. 1 on the charts in the US. Singles from that album included "Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go", "Freedom", "Everything She Wants", "Careless Whisper" which reached No. 1 in nearly 25 countries, including the UK and US, was Michael's first solo effort as a single.
In 1985 Michael received the first of his three Ivor Novello Awards for Songwriter of the Year from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors. Michael sang on the original Band Aid recording of "Do They Know It's Christmas?" and donated the profits from "Last Christmas" and "Everything She Wants" to charity. Michael sang "Don't Let the Sun Go Down on Me" with Elton John at Live Aid at Wembley Stadium in London on 13 July 1985, he contributed background vocals to David Cassidy's 1985 hit "The Last Kiss", as well as Elton John's 1985 successes "Nikita" and "Wrap Her Up". Michael cited Cassidy as a major career influence and interviewed Cassidy for David Litchfield's Ritz Newspaper. Wham!'s tour of China in April 1985, the first visit to China by a Western popular music act, generated worldwide media coverage, much of it centred on Michael. Before Wham!'s appearance in China, many kinds of music in the country were forbidden. The band's manager, Simon Napier-Bell, had spent 18 months trying to convince Chinese officials to let the duo play.
The audience included members of the Chinese government, Chinese television presenter, Kan Lijun, the on stage host, spoke of Wham!'s historic performance. All the young people were amazed and everybody was tapping their feet. Of course the police weren't happy and they were scared there would be riots." The tour was documented by film director Lindsay Anderson and producer Martin Lewis in their film Foreign Skies: Wham! In China. With the success of Michael's solo singles, "Careless Whisper" and "A Different Corner", rumours of an impending break up of Wham! intensified. The duo separated in 1986, after releasing a farewell single, "The Edge of Heaven" and a singles compilation, The Final, plus a sell-out concert at Wembley Stadium that included the world premiere of the China film; the Wham! partnership ended with the commercially successful single "The Edge of Heaven", which reached No. 1 on the UK chart in J
Primal Scream are a Scottish rock band formed in 1982 in Glasgow by Bobby Gillespie and Jim Beattie. The band's current lineup consists of Gillespie, Andrew Innes, Martin Duffy, Simone Butler, Darrin Mooney. Barrie Cadogan has toured and recorded with the band since 2006 as a replacement after the departure of guitarist Robert "Throb" Young. Primal Scream had been performing live from 1982 to 1984, but their career did not take off until Gillespie left his position as drummer of The Jesus and Mary Chain; the band were a key part of the mid-1980s indie pop scene, but moved away from their jangly sound, taking on more psychedelic and garage rock influences, before incorporating a dance music element to their sound with their 1991 album Screamadelica, which broke them into the mainstream. Their latest album Chaosmosis was released on 18 March 2016. Bobby Gillespie moved to Mount Florida in southeastern Glasgow, where he attended Kings Park Secondary School, where he first met Robert Young. Another schoolfriend was Alan McGee, who took Gillespie to a Thin Lizzy concert.
McGee and Gillespie were influenced by punk rock, they joined a local punk band, The Drains, in 1978. The Drains' guitarist was a 15-year-old Andrew Innes; the band was short-lived, Innes and McGee moved to London while Gillespie chose to remain in Glasgow. After the punk movement ended, Gillespie became disenchanted with mainstream new wave music, he met another schoolfriend who shared his outlook, Jim Beattie, they recorded "elemental noise tapes", in which Gillespie would bang two dustbin lids together and Beattie played fuzz-guitar. They soon moved on to The Velvet Underground and The Byrds cover songs before starting to write their own songs, based on Jah Wobble and Peter Hook basslines. Gillespie said that the band "didn't exist, but we did it every night for something to do." They named themselves a term for a type of cry heard in primal therapy. Still a partnership, Primal Scream first played live in 1982, their first recording session, for McGee's independent label Essential Records, produced a single track entitled "The Orchard", with Judith Boyle on vocals.
Beattie claimed that they burned the master tape. After the aborted recording, Gillespie joined The Jesus and Mary Chain as their drummer, alternated between the two bands. While The Jesus and Mary Chain became notorious for their chaotic gigs and Beattie expanded Primal Scream's lineup to include schoolfriend Young on bass, rhythm guitarist Stuart May, drummer Tom McGurk, tambourine player Martin St. John; this lineup was signed to Creation Records, an independent record label founded by Alan McGee, recorded the group's debut single, "All Fall Down", which received positive reviews. After the release of the single, Gillespie was told by The Jesus and Mary Chain leaders William and Jim Reid that he was to either dissolve Primal Scream to join their band full-time or resign. Gillespie chose to remain with Primal Scream. Stuart May was replaced by Paul Harte, the group released a new single, "Crystal Crescent", its B-side, "Velocity Girl", was released on the C86 compilation, which led to their being associated with the scene of the same name.
The band disliked this, Gillespie saying that other groups in that scene "can't play their instruments and they can't write songs."The band toured throughout 1986, Gillespie became disenchanted with the quality of their performances. He said that there "was always something missing, musically or in attitude." They switched to McGee's newly set-up Warner Bros. subsidiary Elevation Records. Before the band entered Rockfield Studios in Wales to record their debut album, McGurk was asked to leave; the group subsequently began recording using session players. They spent four weeks recording with producer Stephen Street before deciding to halt the sessions. May was subsequently dismissed. With their new lineup, the band re-entered the studio, this time in London with producer Mayo Thompson. By the time Sonic Flower Groove was completed, it had cost £100,000; the album reached number 62 on the British charts and received poor reviews, with AllMusic calling it "pristine but dull." The backlash from the album caused internal strife within the band.
Beattie and Skinner subsequently resigned. The band, now consisting of Gillespie and Young, relocated to Brighton to regroup. Young switched to guitar, they recruited bassist Henry Olsen and drummer Phillip "Toby" Tomanov, who had both been in Nico's backing band, The Faction, they traded in their jangle pop sound for a harder rock edge, or as Gillespie said, "e had found rock'n' roll." The band re-signed to Creation Records and released their first single in two years, "Ivy, Ivy". This was followed by Primal Scream; the band's new sound was met with poor reviews, NME called it "confused and lacking in cohesion". Fans responded as unfavourably as the critics, with many of the old fans being disappointed or confused by the new sound; the album featured Felt keyboardist Martin Duffy guesting. The band were first introduced to the acid house scene by McGee in 1988, they were at first sceptical. The band began attending raves; the band met up with DJ Andrew Weatherall at a rave, he was given a copy of "I'm Losing More Than I'll Ever Have", a track from Primal Scream, to remix for one of his shows.
Weatherall added a drum loop from an Italian bootleg mix of Edie Brickell's "What I Am", a sample of Gillespie singing a line from Robe
World music is a musical category encompassing many different styles of music from around the globe, which includes many genres including some forms of Western music represented by folk music, Jazz, as well as selected forms of ethnic music, indigenous music, neotraditional music, music where more than one cultural tradition, such as ethnic music and Western popular music, intermingle. World music's inclusive nature and elasticity as a musical category may pose for some obstacles to a universal definition, but its ethic of interest in the culturally exotic is encapsulated in Roots magazine's description of the genre as "local music from out there"; the term was popularized in the 1980s as a marketing category for non-Western traditional music. Globalization has facilitated the expansion of scope, it has grown to include hybrid subgenres such as world fusion, global fusion, ethnic fusion, worldbeat. The term has been credited to ethnomusicologist Robert E. Brown, who coined it in the early 1960s at Wesleyan University in Connecticut, where he developed undergraduate through the doctoral programs in the discipline.
To enhance the process of learning, he invited more than a dozen visiting performers from Africa and Asia and began a world music concert series. The term became current in the 1980s as a marketing/classificatory device in the media and the music industry. There are several conflicting definitions for world music. One is that it consists of "all the music in the world", though such a broad definition renders the term meaningless; the term is taken as a classification of music that combines Western popular music styles with one of many genres of non-Western music that are described as folk music or ethnic music. However, world music is not traditional folk music, it may include cutting edge pop music styles as well. Succinctly, it can be described as "local music from out there", or "someone else's local music", it is a nebulous term with an increasing number of genres that fall under the umbrella of world music to capture musical trends of combined ethnic style and texture, including Western elements.
World music may incorporate distinctive non-Western scales, modes and/or musical inflections, features distinctive traditional ethnic instruments, such as the kora, the steel drum, the sitar or the didgeridoo. Music from around the world exerts wide cross-cultural influence as styles influence one another, in recent years world music has been marketed as a successful genre in itself. Academic study of world music, as well as the musical genres and individual artists associated with it appear in such disciplines as anthropology, performance studies and ethnomusicology. In the age of digital music production the increased availability of high-quality, ethnic music samples, sound bites and loops from every known region are used in commercial music production, which has exposed a vast spectrum of indigenous music texture to developing, independent artists; these influences proliferate in a web-based music industry, now percolating as a much larger, predominantly self-promoted menu, via an increasing number of indie-artist-friendly, streaming Internet options, such as Last.fm, Live365, Jango Artist Airplay and ReverbNation.
An amalgamation of roots music in the global, contemporary listening palette has become apparent, which weakens the role major entertainment labels can play in the cultural perception of genre boundaries. As a result, definitions of the genre have become varied, determined by wide-ranging and varied opinions. Similar terminology between distinctly different sub-categories under primary music genres, such as world and pop can be as ambiguous and confusing to industry moguls as it is to consumers; this is true in the context of world music, where branches of ethnically influenced pop trends are as genre-defined by consumer perception as they are by the music industry forums that govern the basis for categorical distinction. Academic scholars tend to agree that, in today's world of consumer music reviews and blogging, global music culture's public perception is what distils a prevailing basis for definition from genre ambiguity, regardless of how a category has been outlined by corporate marketing forums and music journalism.
The world music genre's gradual migration from a clear spectrum of roots music traditions to an extended list of hybrid subgenres is a good example of the motion genre boundaries can exhibit in a globalizing pop culture. The classic, original definition of world music was in part created to instill a perceived authenticity and distinction between indigenous music traditions and those that become diluted by pop culture, the modern debate over how possible it is to maintain that perception in the richly diverse genre of world music is ongoing. In a report on the 2014 globalFEST National Public Radio's Anastasia Tsioulcas said "Even within the "world music" community, nobody likes the term "world music." It smacks of all kinds of loaded issues, from cultural colonialism to questions about what's "authentic" and what isn't, forces an incredible array of styles that don't have anything in common under the label of "exotic Other." What's more: I believe that in many people's imaginations, "world music" means a kind of awful, hippy-ish, worldbeat fusion.
It's a problematic, horrible term that satisfies no one." Examples of popular forms of world music include the various forms of non-European classical music (e.g. Japanese koto and Chinese guzheng music, In
Ghana the Republic of Ghana, is a country located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Spanning a land mass of 238,535 km2, Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in the south. Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language; the first permanent state in the territory of present-day Ghana dates back to the 11th century. Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Ashanti. Beginning in the 15th century, numerous European powers contested the area for trading rights, with the British establishing control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders were established by the 1900s as the British Gold Coast, it became independent of the United Kingdom on 6 March 1957. Ghana's population of 30 million spans a variety of ethnic and religious groups.
According to the 2010 census, 71.2% of the population was Christian, 17.6% was Muslim, 5.2% practised traditional faiths. Its diverse geography and ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical rain forests. Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president, both head of state and head of the government. Ghana's growing economic prosperity and democratic political system have made it a regional power in West Africa, it is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, Group of 24 and the Commonwealth of Nations. The etymology of the word Ghana means "warrior king" and was the title accorded to the kings of the medieval Ghana Empire in West Africa, but the empire was further north than the modern country of Ghana, in the region of Guinea. Ghana was recognized as one of the great kingdoms in Bilad el-Sudan by the ninth century. Ghana was inhabited in the Middle Ages and the Age of Discovery by a number of ancient predominantly Akan kingdoms in the Southern and Central territories.
This included the Ashanti Empire, the Akwamu, the Bonoman, the Denkyira, the Mankessim Kingdom. Although the area of present-day Ghana in West Africa has experienced many population movements, the Akans were settled by the 5th century BC. By the early 11th century, the Akans were established in the Akan state called Bonoman, for which the Brong-Ahafo Region is named. From the 13th century, Akans emerged from what is believed to have been the Bonoman area, to create several Akan states of Ghana based on gold trading; these states included Bonoman, Denkyira, Mankessim Kingdom, Akwamu Eastern region. By the 19th century, the territory of the southern part of Ghana was included in the Kingdom of Ashanti, one of the most influential states in sub-saharan Africa prior to the onset of colonialism; the Kingdom of Ashanti government operated first as a loose network, as a centralised kingdom with an advanced specialised bureaucracy centred in the capital city of Kumasi. Prior to Akan contact with Europeans, the Akan people created an advanced economy based on principally gold and gold bar commodities traded with the states of Africa.
The earliest known kingdoms to emerge in modern Ghana were the Mole-Dagbani states. The Mole-Dagomba came on horseback from present-day Burkina Faso under Naa Gbewaa. With their advanced weapons and based on a central authority, they invaded and occupied the lands of the local people ruled by the Tendamba, established themselves as the rulers over the locals, made Gambaga their capital; the death of Naa Gbewaa caused civil war among his children, some of whom broke off and founded separate states including Dagbon, Mossi and Wala. Akan trade with European states began after contact with Portuguese in the 15th century. Early European contact by the Portuguese people, who came to the Gold Coast region in the 15th century to trade and established the Portuguese Gold Coast, focused on the extensive availability of gold; the Portuguese built a trading lodge at a coastal settlement called Anomansah which they renamed São Jorge da Mina. In 1481, King John II of Portugal commissioned Diogo d'Azambuja to build the Elmina Castle, completed in three years.
By 1598, the Dutch had joined the Portuguese in the gold trade, establishing the Dutch Gold Coast and building forts at Fort Komenda and Kormantsi. In 1617, the Dutch captured the Olnini Castle from the Portuguese, Axim in 1642. Other European traders had joined in gold trading by the mid-17th century, most notably the Swedes, establishing the Swedish Gold Coast, Denmark-Norway, establishing the Danish Gold Coast. Portuguese merchants, impressed with the gold resources in the area, named it Costa do Ouro or Gold Coast. Beginning in the 17th century — in addition to the gold trade — Portuguese, Dutch and French traders participated in the Atlantic slave trade in this area. More than thirty forts and castles were built by the Portuguese, Dano-Norwegians and German merchants. In 1874 Great Britain established control over some parts of the country, assigning these areas the status of British Gold Coast. Many military engagements occurred between the British colonial powers and the various Akan nation-states.
The Akan Kingdom of Ashanti defeated the British a few times i
The Tiger Lillies
The Tiger Lillies are a cult British musical trio formed in 1989 by singer-songwriter Martyn Jacques. Described as the forefathers of Brechtian Punk Cabaret, the Tiger Lillies are well known for their unique sound and style which merges "the macabre magic of pre-war Berlin with the savage edge of punk"; the band's name is rumoured to have been inspired by a murdered Soho prostitute called Lillie who used to dress up in animal print. Jacques, has stated that he named the band after a painting he had on his wall; the band formed in 1989 when Martyn Jacques placed an ad on Loot looking for a drummer and a bass player for a new band. Adrian Huge and Phil Butcher were the only musicians that got in touch with him and therefore became the original Tiger Lillies' drummer and bassist respectively. In Spring 2012 Adrian Huge decided to take a leave of absence and was replaced by drummer Mike Pickering who toured with the Tiger Lillies from 2012. In early 2015 Pickering was in turn replaced by Jonas Golland.
The Independent has described The Tiger Lillies as "a provocative and avant-garde three-piece band that combines cabaret, music-hall and street theatre", while Tim Arthur of Time Out has given a more imaginative description: "Imagine Kurt Weill conjuring up images of prewar Berlin while a falsetto vocalist screams and squawks his way through every number like some rambling madman, you've got the picture". Notorious for singing controversial songs involving bestiality, prostitution and all other vice imaginable, The Tiger Lillies are undoubtedly not for the offended, their musical style is influenced by Bertolt Brecht and Kurt Weill's masterpiece The Threepenny Opera and pre-war Berlin cabaret but other influences such as gypsy and circus music, French chanson and British music hall tunes are evident. In 2002 their cult hit; the show won the Olivier for Best Entertainment and Martyn Jacques won the Olivier for Best Supporting Performance in a Musical or Entertainment. In 2003 their album The Gorey End was nominated for Dominique de Rivaz's Luftbusiness a Grammy Award for Best Classical Crossover Album.
In 2012 their show The Tiger Lillies Perform Hamlet, produced by Copenhagen's Republique Theatre and directed by acclaimed Danish director Martin Tulinius, was nominated for a Reumert Award in the category Music Theatre/Show of the Year 2012. CurrentMartyn Jacques – accordion, lead vocals, guitar, ukulele, banjolele Adrian Stout – double bass, backing vocals, jaw harp, musical saw, theremin Jonas Golland – drums, backing vocals, percussion PastPhil Butcher – bass Adrian Huge – drums Mike Pickering – drums Bouquet of Vegetables Spit Bucket Little Death Variete Goosebumps Live in Russia 2000–2001 Live on WFMU Live in Soho Urine Palace Live at the New Players Theatre – London 2009 Bouquet of Vegetables - The Early Years The Tiger Lillies Shockheaded Peter and Other Songs – Live in Concert in New York Mountains of Madness The Tiger Lillies – The Early Years The Tiger Lillies Live in Prague The Gorey End Huinya Sinderella - The Twisted Tale of a Christmas Crack-Whore The Ballad of Sexual Dependency Goodbye Great Nation Special Edition Misfits - "Heroin And Cocaine" Torture Garden "Roll Up" Mixx On The Fly - Live From Studio A - WCBE Vol. 7 - "Flying Robert" Fly On The Wall: Lost Tracks From Studio A - "Snip Snip" Дед Мороз Против Анти Деда Мороза Bad Taste Новый Год "Drunken Sailor" WFMU Gone Wild!
- "Banging In The Nails" Kosmos 93.6FM - Ethnic Collection Vol.3 - "Weeping Chandelier" Dimitris Papaspyropoulos presents Once Upon a Time - "Russians" Plague Songs - "Hailstones" A Sepiachord Passport - "Roll Up" The Devil In Love: A Soundtrack To The 1772 Occult Novel - "I'm In Love With The Devil" Un-Herd Volume 62 - "You Wouldn't Know" 1998 – The Ultimate Shockheaded Peter Book – ISBN 3-932909-99-2 2003 – Farmyard Fantasy Book – made by b7UE 2007 – "The Tiger Lillies Book" – b7UE 02 2007 – "The Tiger Lillies – Selected illustrations of songs" – by Anne Sophie Malmberg 2008 – "The Inquisitorial Skeleton Shooting" – limited edition shot by b7UE ShowsThe Tiger Lillies have appeared in numerous shows, the following are listed according to their premiere date: FilmsJake Scott's Plunkett & Macleane Sergei Bodrov's The Quickie – a music band in celebrations. Sergei Bodrov's Drunken Sailor – a documentary on The Tiger Lillies by the director of Oscar-nominated epic Mongol Penny Woolcock's The Margate Exodus – a contemporary re-telling of the Book of Exodus.
Martyn Jacques appears in the film as Shebeen Singer performing "Hailstones". Dominique de Rivaz's Luftbusiness Valdís Óskarsdóttir's Country Wedding Troma's Lloyd Kaufman's Return To Nuke'Em High Andrey Proshkin's Orlean – soundtrack. E. A. Dupont's Variete – sound
Istanbul known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea, its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city; the city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is viewed as a bridge between the West. Founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city grew in size and influence, becoming one of the most important cities in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for 16 centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine, Palaiologos Byzantine and Ottoman empires.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 CE and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate. The city's strategic position on the historic Silk Road, rail networks to Europe and the Middle East, the only sea route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean have produced a cosmopolitan populace. While Ankara was chosen instead as the new Turkish capital after the Turkish War of Independence, the city's name was changed to Istanbul, the city has maintained its prominence in geopolitical and cultural affairs; the population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in and city limits have expanded to accommodate them. Arts, music and cultural festivals were established towards the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network in the city.
12.56 million foreign visitors arrived in Istanbul in 2015, five years after it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world's fifth most popular tourist destination. The city's biggest attraction is its historic center listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, its cultural and entertainment hub is across the city's natural harbor, the Golden Horn, in the Beyoğlu district. Considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world, it hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years; the first known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from Byzas. Ancient Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists.
Modern scholars have hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin and hence predated the Megarean settlement. After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became known as Constantinople, which, as the Latinized form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις", means the "City of Constantine", he attempted to promote the name "Nova Roma" and its Greek version "Νέα Ῥώμη" Nea Romē, but this did not enter widespread usage. Constantinople remained the most common name for the city in the West until the establishment of the Turkish Republic, which urged other countries to use Istanbul. Kostantiniyye and Be Makam-e Qonstantiniyyah al-Mahmiyyah and İstanbul were the names used alternatively by the Ottomans during their rule; the use of Constantinople to refer to the city during the Ottoman period is now considered politically incorrect if not inaccurate, by Turks. By the 19th century, the city had acquired other names used by Turks. Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, but used the name Stamboul—as the Turks did—to describe the walled peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara.
Pera was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks used the name Beyoğlu. The name İstanbul is held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν", which means "to the city" and is how Constantinople was referred to by the local Greeks; this reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was reflected by its Ottoman name'Der Saadet' meaning the'gate to Prosperity' in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved directly from the name Constantinople, with the first and third syllables dropped. A Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol "plenty of Islam" because the city was called Islambol or Islambul as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire, it is first attested shortly after the conquest
Sound recording and reproduction
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog digital recording. Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that senses changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and records them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record. In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current, converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet, which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it. Analog sound reproduction is the reverse process, with a bigger loudspeaker diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound waves. Digital recording and reproduction converts the analog sound signal picked up by the microphone to a digital form by the process of sampling.
This lets the audio data be transmitted by a wider variety of media. Digital recording stores audio as a series of binary numbers representing samples of the amplitude of the audio signal at equal time intervals, at a sample rate high enough to convey all sounds capable of being heard. A digital audio signal must be reconverted to analog form during playback before it is amplified and connected to a loudspeaker to produce sound. Prior to the development of sound recording, there were mechanical systems, such as wind-up music boxes and player pianos, for encoding and reproducing instrumental music. Long before sound was first recorded, music was recorded—first by written music notation also by mechanical devices. Automatic music reproduction traces back as far as the 9th century, when the Banū Mūsā brothers invented the earliest known mechanical musical instrument, in this case, a hydropowered organ that played interchangeable cylinders. According to Charles B. Fowler, this "...cylinder with raised pins on the surface remained the basic device to produce and reproduce music mechanically until the second half of the nineteenth century."
The Banū Mūsā brothers invented an automatic flute player, which appears to have been the first programmable machine. Carvings in the Rosslyn Chapel from the 1560s may represent an early attempt to record the Chladni patterns produced by sound in stone representations, although this theory has not been conclusively proved. In the 14th century, a mechanical bell-ringer controlled by a rotating cylinder was introduced in Flanders. Similar designs appeared in barrel organs, musical clocks, barrel pianos, music boxes. A music box is an automatic musical instrument that produces sounds by the use of a set of pins placed on a revolving cylinder or disc so as to pluck the tuned teeth of a steel comb; the fairground organ, developed in 1892, used a system of accordion-folded punched cardboard books. The player piano, first demonstrated in 1876, used a punched paper scroll that could store a long piece of music; the most sophisticated of the piano rolls were hand-played, meaning that the roll represented the actual performance of an individual, not just a transcription of the sheet music.
This technology to record a live performance onto a piano roll was not developed until 1904. Piano rolls were in continuous mass production from 1896 to 2008. A 1908 U. S. Supreme Court copyright case noted that, in 1902 alone, there were between 70,000 and 75,000 player pianos manufactured, between 1,000,000 and 1,500,000 piano rolls produced; the first device that could record actual sounds as they passed through the air was the phonautograph, patented in 1857 by Parisian inventor Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville. The earliest known recordings of the human voice are phonautograph recordings, called phonautograms, made in 1857, they consist of sheets of paper with sound-wave-modulated white lines created by a vibrating stylus that cut through a coating of soot as the paper was passed under it. An 1860 phonautogram of Au Clair de la Lune, a French folk song, was played back as sound for the first time in 2008 by scanning it and using software to convert the undulating line, which graphically encoded the sound, into a corresponding digital audio file.
On April 30, 1877, French poet, humorous writer and inventor Charles Cros submitted a sealed envelope containing a letter to the Academy of Sciences in Paris explaining his proposed method, called the paleophone. Though no trace of a working paleophone was found, Cros is remembered as the earliest inventor of a sound recording and reproduction machine; the first practical sound recording and reproduction device was the mechanical phonograph cylinder, invented by Thomas Edison in 1877 and patented in 1878. The invention soon spread across the globe and over the next two decades the commercial recording and sale of sound recordings became a growing new international industry, with the most popular titles selling millions of units by the early 1900s; the development of mass-production techniques enabled cylinder recordings to become a major new consumer item in industrial countries and the cylinder was the main consumer format from the late 1880s until around 1910. The next major technical development was the invention of the gramophone record credited to Emile Berliner and patented in 1887, though others had demonstrated simi