Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his assassination in 1968. Born in Atlanta, King is best known for advancing civil rights through nonviolence and civil disobedience, tactics his Christian beliefs and the nonviolent activism of Mahatma Gandhi helped inspire. King led the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott and in 1957 became the first president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. With the SCLC, he led an unsuccessful 1962 struggle against segregation in Albany and helped organize the nonviolent 1963 protests in Birmingham, Alabama, he helped organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. On October 14, 1964, King won the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolent resistance. In 1965, he helped organize the Selma to Montgomery marches; the following year, he and the SCLC took the movement north to Chicago to work on segregated housing.
In his final years, he expanded his focus to include opposition towards the Vietnam War. He alienated many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled "Beyond Vietnam". J. Edgar Hoover considered him a radical and made him an object of the FBI's COINTELPRO from 1963 on. FBI agents investigated him for possible communist ties, recorded his extramarital liaisons and reported on them to government officials, on one occasion mailed King a threatening anonymous letter, which he interpreted as an attempt to make him commit suicide. In 1968, King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D. C. to be called the Poor People's Campaign, when he was assassinated on April 4 in Memphis, Tennessee. His death was followed by riots in many U. S. cities. Allegations that James Earl Ray, the man convicted of killing King, had been framed or acted in concert with government agents persisted for decades after the shooting. Sentenced to 99 years in prison for King's murder a life sentence as Ray was 41 at the time of conviction, Ray served 29 years of his sentence and died from hepatitis in 1998 while in prison.
King was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of the Congressional Gold Medal. Martin Luther King Jr. Day was established as a holiday in numerous cities and states beginning in 1971. Hundreds of streets in the U. S. have been renamed in his honor, a county in Washington State was rededicated for him. The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. was dedicated in 2011. King was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia, to the Reverend Martin Luther King Sr. and Alberta Williams King. King's given name at birth was Michael King, his father was born Michael King, after a period of gradual transition on the elder King's part, he changed both his and his son's names in 1934; the senior King was inspired during a trip to Germany for that year's meeting of the Baptist World Alliance. While visiting sites associated with reformation leader, Martin Luther, attendees witnessed the rise of Nazism; the BWA conference issued a resolution condemning anti-Semitism, the senior King gained deepened appreciation for the power of Luther's protest.
The elder King would state that "Michael" was a mistake by the attending physician to his son's birth, the younger King's birth certificate was altered to read "Martin Luther King Jr." in 1957. King's parents were both African-American, he had Irish ancestry through his paternal great-grandfather. King was a middle child, between older sister Christine King Farris and younger brother A. D. King. King sang with his church choir at the 1939 Atlanta premiere of the movie Gone with the Wind, he enjoyed singing and music, his mother was an accomplished organist and choir leader who took him to various churches to sing, he received attention for singing "I Want to Be More and More Like Jesus". King became a member of the junior choir in his church. King said that his father whipped him until he was 15. King saw his father's proud and fearless protests against segregation, such as King Sr. refusing to listen to a traffic policeman after being referred to as "boy," or stalking out of a store with his son when being told by a shoe clerk that they would have to "move to the rear" of the store to be served.
When King was a child, he befriended a white boy whose father owned a business near his family's home. When the boys were six, they started school: King had to attend a school for African Americans, the other boy went to one for whites. King lost his friend. King suffered from depression through much of his life. In his adolescent years, he felt resentment against whites due to the "racial humiliation" that he, his family, his neighbors had to endure in the segregated South. At the age of 12, shortly after his maternal grandmother died, King blamed himself and jumped out of a second-story window, but survived. King was skeptical of many of Christianity's claims. At the age of 13, he denied the bodily resurrection of Jesus during Sunday school. From this point, he stated, "doubts began to spring forth unrelentingly." However, he concluded that the Bible has "many profound truths which one cannot escape" and decided to enter the seminary. Growing up in Atlanta, King attended Booker T. Washington High School.
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Martin Luther King Sr.
Martin Luther King Sr. was an African American Baptist pastor, an early figure in the Civil Rights Movement. He was the father of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Sr. was born Michael King in Stockbridge, the son of Delia and James Albert King. He led the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta and became a leader of the Civil Rights Movement, as the head of the NAACP chapter in Atlanta and of the Civic and Political League, he encouraged his son to become active in the movement. King was a member of the Baptist Church and decided to become a preacher after being inspired by ministers who were prepared to stand up for racial equality, he left Stockbridge for Atlanta, where his sister Woodie was boarding with Reverend A. D. Williams pastor of the Ebenezer Baptist Church, he attended Dillard University for a two-year degree. After King started courting Williams' daughter, her family encouraged him to finish his education and to become a preacher. King completed his high school education at Bryant Preparatory School, began to preach in several black churches in Atlanta.
In 1926, King started his ministerial degree at the Morehouse School of Religion. On Thanksgiving Day in 1926, after eight years of courtship, he married Alberta in the Ebenezer Church; the couple had three children in four years: a daughter, Willie Christine King, Martin Luther King Jr. and a second son, Alfred Daniel Williams King. King became leader of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in March 1931 after the death of Williams. With the country in the midst of the Great Depression, church finances were struggling, but King organized membership and fundraising drives that restored these to health. By 1934, King had become a respected leader of the local church; that year, he changed his name from Michael King to Martin Luther King after a period of gradual transition on his own part. He was inspired during a trip to Germany for that year's meeting of the Baptist World Alliance. While visiting sites associated with reformation leader Martin Luther, attendees witnessed the rise of Nazism; the BWA conference issued a resolution condemning anti-Semitism, the senior King gained deepened appreciation for the power of Luther's protest.
King was the pastor of the Ebenezer Baptist Church for four decades, wielding great influence in the black community and earning some degree of respect from the white community. He broadcast on WAEC, a religious radio station in Atlanta. In his 1950 essay An Autobiography of Religious Development, King Jr. wrote that his father was a major influence on his entering the ministry. He said, "I guess the influence of my father had a great deal to do with my going in the ministry; this is not to say that he spoke to me in terms of being a minister, but that my admiration for him was the great moving factor. King Jr. recounted that his father sent him to work in the fields. He said. In his autobiography, King Jr. remembered his father leaving a shoe shop because he and his son were asked to change seats. He said, "This was the first time; that experience revealed to me at a early age that my father had not adjusted to the system, he played a great part in shaping my conscience. I still remember walking down the street beside him as he muttered,'I don't care how long I have to live with this system, I will never accept it.'"Another story related by King Jr. was that once the car his father was driving was stopped by a police officer, the officer addressed the senior King as "boy".
King pointed to his son, saying, "This is a boy, I'm a man. King Jr. became an associate pastor at Ebenezer in 1948, his father wrote a letter of recommendation for him to attend the Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania. King Sr. made arrangement for King Jr. to work with J. Pius Barbour, a family friend who pastored at Calvary Baptist Church in Chester. Despite theological differences and son would serve together as joint pastors at the church. King was a major figure in the Civil Rights Movement in Georgia, where he rose to become the head of the NAACP in Atlanta and the Civic and Political League, he led the fight for equal teachers' salaries in Atlanta. He played an instrumental role in ending Jim Crow laws in the state. King had refused to ride on Atlanta's bus system since the 1920s after a vicious attack on black passengers with no action against those responsible. King stressed the need for an educated, politically active black ministry. In October 1960, when King Jr. was arrested at a peaceful sit-in in Atlanta, Robert Kennedy telephoned the judge and helped secure his release.
Although King Sr. had opposed Kennedy because he was a Catholic, he expressed his appreciation for these calls and switched his support to Kennedy. At this time, King had been a lifelong registered Republican, had endorsed Republican Richard Nixon. King Jr. soon became a popular civil rights activist. Taking inspiration from Mohandas Gandhi of India, he led nonviolent protests in order to win greater rights for African Americans. King Jr. was shot and killed in 1968. King Sr.'s youngest son, Alfred Daniel Williams King, died of an accidental drowning on July 21, 1969, nine days before his 39th birthday. In 1969, King was one of several members of the Morehouse College board of trustees held hostage on the campus by a group of students dema
Martin Luther King III
Martin Luther King III is an American human rights advocate and community activist. He is the oldest son and oldest living child of civil rights leaders Martin Luther King Jr. and Coretta Scott King. Martin Luther King III was born on October 23, 1957, to civil rights advocates Martin Luther King Jr. and Coretta Scott King. His mother had reservations about naming him after his famous father, "realizing the burdens it can create for the child," but King Jr. always wanted to name his son Martin Luther III. King's birth occurred as his father was speaking to members of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, he announced his son's name after being told of the birth. King's birth caused much of his mother's time to be taken away from her artistry and she spent the remainder of his birth year caring for him and his older sister Yolanda. Martin Luther King III has three siblings, they were raised in an urban neighborhood in Atlanta, Georgia. When he was eight years old and only in the third grade, he began to endure racial comments and insults from a Caucasian boy in his class, who happened to like to draw.
When he approached the boy and complimented him on a drawing of his, the harassment ceased. He was ten years old. Years prior to Harry Belafonte set up a trust fund for King and his siblings. After he attended The Galloway School, he attended Morehouse College, the same school his father, his grandfather, his great-grandfather attended Martin Luther King III is a member of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, as was his father, he received his B. A. degree in political science from Morehouse in 1979. King lived with his mother in his childhood home until his adulthood. King has been described as a shy man who socialized, friends have claimed he tends to overwork, in part due to the pressure to live up to his father's name. One friend, Rev. E. Randel T. Osburn, said of King, "Watching him is like watching somebody trying to outrun themselves. It's like there's a ghost in front of him and he's always trying to catch it."On June 26, 1985, King was arrested, along with his mother and his sister Bernice, while taking part in an anti-apartheid protest at the Embassy of South Africa in Washington, D.
C. On January 7, 1986, Martin Luther King III and his sisters were arrested for "disorderly conduct" by officers deployed to a Winn Dixie supermarket, the subject of some protesting since September of the previous year. On June 9, 1986, he announced his candidacy for the Fulton County Commission, becoming the first of his father's immediate family to become directly involved in politics. Alongside Kerry Kennedy, King opposed the death penalty in 1989, stating "If we believed in an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth, most of us would be without eyes and without teeth." In 1990, he apologized to all homosexuals for mentioning that "something may be wrong" with them during a meeting with some middle school students, both meeting with some gay-rights leaders to hear their concerns and referring to his remarks as "uninformed and insensitive". King served as an elected county commission member in Fulton County, the county encompassing most of Atlanta, from 1987 to 1993, he was defeated for reelection after revealing that he owed the federal government more than $200,000 in back taxes and fines.
In 1993, King helped found the Estate of Martin Luther King Jr. Inc. the company that manages the license of Martin Luther King Jr.'s image and intellectual property. King remains a commissioner in the company as of 2008. During his service as a commissioner in Fulton County, King expressed appreciation to an officer who saved his mother from harm from a crazed man. In February 2009, King and his wife traveled to India, fifty years after his father and mother made the trip. During his stay in India, King led a delegation, which included Andrew Young. In New Delhi, King answered questions from students. King denounced the war in Iraq and the Mumbai attacks during a lecture at the Indian Council for Cultural Relations. In 1997, King was unanimously elected to head the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a civil rights organization his father founded. King was the fourth president of the group, which sought to fight police brutality and start new local chapters during the first years of his tenure.
Under King's leadership, the SCLC held hearings on police brutality, organized a rally for the 37th anniversary of the "I Have a Dream" speech and launched a successful campaign to change the Georgia state flag, which featured a large Confederate cross. Within only a few months of taking the position, King was criticized by the SCLC board for failing to answer their correspondence or to take up issues important to the organization; the board felt he failed to demonstrate against national issues the SCLC would have protested, including the disenfranchisement of black voters in the Florida election recount and time limits on welfare recipients implemented by then-President Bill Clinton. King was further criticized for failing to join the battle against AIDS because he feels uncomfortable talking about condoms, he hired Lamell J. McMorris, an executive director who, according to The New York Times, "rubbed board members the wrong way." In January 2000, King joined members of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in getting tested for prostate cancer during a program of the group aimed encouraging aging African-American men to do the same.
Comedian Dick Gregory participated in the program as well. On April 4, 2000, the thirty-second anniversary of his father's death, King jo
Martin Luther King Jr. East Busway
The Martin Luther King Jr. East Busway is a two-lane bus-only highway serving the city of Pittsburgh and many of its eastern neighborhoods and suburbs, it was named after Martin Luther King Jr. in recognition of the eastern portion of the route's serving many predominantly African-American neighborhoods, such as Wilkinsburg and East Liberty. It is maintained by the Port Authority of Allegheny County. Occupied by a railroad line, planning for the East Busway began shortly after the Port Authority of Allegheny County purchased the Pittsburgh Railways Company in 1964; the original segment of the busway opened in February 1983, running between Downtown Pittsburgh and Edgewood, a length of 6.8 miles. In 2003, the busway was extended into Swissvale by 2.3 miles. In July 2013, the East Busway was discussed in the context of the Mon Fayette Expressway. In order to provide a bypass for the congested Squirrel Hill Tunnel, civic planners have raised the possibility of opening the Busway to High Occupancy Vehicle traffic.
Following the naming convention of each busway being designated by a color, bus routes that use the East Busway begin with a "P" for purple. However, the P13 uses a "P" designation, but does not use the busway; the P1 is the main route, operating seven days a week and running the full length of the Busway between Swissvale and Downtown Pittsburgh, making all stops, before running a short loop through the central business district. It is the busiest Port Authority bus route by ridership; this route is supplemented by the P2, which terminates in Wilkinsburg. All busway routes travel to downtown Pittsburgh, making a loop around before returning via the busway; the one exception to this is the P3, which starts in Swissvale, but leaves the busway via the Neville Street Ramp, serving the business district of Oakland and terminating at Robinson Street. Many of the Port Authority's express and suburban Flyer routes use the busway during weekday rush hours; the busway enables these routes to bypass the congested Parkway East, making for faster trip times.
The East Busway is used by some Westmoreland Transit routes, which run further into the Pittsburgh suburbs, ending in the cities of Greensburg and Latrobe in Westmoreland County. As of October 2018, the Port Authority bus routes that use the East Busway are as follows: West Busway South Busway Pittsburgh Light Rail Port Authority of Allegheny County: East Busway information page East Busway Schedule - P1, P2, P3 East Busway Route Map - P1, P2, P3
Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Martin Luther King Jr. Day is an American federal holiday marking the birthday of Martin Luther King Jr, it is observed on the third Monday of January each year, around King's birthday, January 15. The holiday is similar to holidays set under the Uniform Monday Holiday Act; the earliest Monday for this holiday is January 15 and the latest is January 21. King was the chief spokesperson for nonviolent activism in the Civil Rights Movement, which protested racial discrimination in federal and state law; the campaign for a federal holiday in King's honor began soon after his assassination in 1968. President Ronald Reagan signed the holiday into law in 1983, it was first observed three years later. At first, some states resisted observing the holiday as such, giving it alternative names or combining it with other holidays, it was observed in all 50 states for the first time in 2000. The idea of Martin Luther King Jr. Day as a holiday was promoted by labor unions in contract negotiations. After King's death, U.
S. Representative John Conyers and U. S. Senator Edward Brooke introduced a bill in Congress to make King's birthday a national holiday; the bill first came to a vote in the U. S. House of Representatives in 1979. However, it fell five votes short of the number needed for passage. Two of the main arguments mentioned by opponents were that a paid holiday for federal employees would be too expensive, that a holiday to honor a private citizen would be contrary to longstanding tradition. Only two other figures have national holidays in the U. S. honoring them: George Washington and Christopher Columbus. Soon after, the King Center turned to support from the corporate community and the general public; the success of this strategy was cemented when musician Stevie Wonder released the single "Happy Birthday" to popularize the campaign in 1980 and hosted the Rally for Peace Press Conference in 1981. Six million signatures were collected for a petition to Congress to pass the law, termed by a 2006 article in The Nation as "the largest petition in favor of an issue in U.
S. history". Senators Jesse Helms and John Porter East led opposition to the holiday and questioned whether King was important enough to receive such an honor. Helms criticized King's opposition to the Vietnam War and accused him of espousing "action-oriented Marxism". Helms led a filibuster against the bill and on October 3, 1983, submitted a 300-page document to the Senate alleging that King had associations with communists. Democratic New York Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan declared the document a "packet of filth", threw it on the Senate floor and stomped on it. President Ronald Reagan opposed the holiday, citing cost concerns; when asked to comment on Helms' accusations that King was a communist, the president said "We'll know in thirty-five years, won't we?", in reference to the eventual release of FBI surveillance tapes, sealed. But on November 2, 1983, Reagan signed a bill, proposed by Representative Katie Hall of Indiana, to create a federal holiday honoring King; the bill had passed the Senate by a count of 78 to 22 and the House of Representatives by 338 to 90, veto-proof margins.
The holiday was observed for the first time on January 20, 1986. It is observed on the third Monday of January; the bill established the Martin Luther King Jr. Federal Holiday Commission to oversee observance of the holiday, Coretta Scott King, King's wife, was made a member of this commission for life by President George H. W. Bush in May 1989. Although the federal holiday honoring King was signed into law in 1983 and took effect three years not every U. S. state chose to observe the holiday at the state level until 1991, when the New Hampshire legislature created "Civil Rights Day" and abolished "Fast Day". In 2000, Utah became the last state to name a holiday after King when "Human Rights Day" was changed to "Martin Luther King Jr. Day". In 1986, Arizona Governor Bruce Babbitt, a Democrat, created a paid state MLK holiday in Arizona by executive order just before he left office, but in 1987, his Republican successor Evan Mecham, citing an attorney general's opinion that Babbitt's order was illegal, reversed Babbitt's decision days after taking office.
That year, Mecham proclaimed the third Sunday in January to be "Martin Luther King Jr./Civil Rights Day" in Arizona, albeit as an unpaid holiday. In 1990, Arizona voters were given the opportunity to vote on giving state employees a paid MLK holiday; that same year, the National Football League threatened to move Super Bowl XXVII, planned for Arizona in 1993, if the MLK holiday was voted down. In the November election, the voters were offered two King Day options: Proposition 301, which replaced Columbus Day on the list of paid state holidays, Proposition 302, which merged Lincoln's and Washington's birthdays into one paid holiday to make room for MLK Day. Both measures failed to pass, with only 49% of voters approving Prop 302, the more popular of the two options; the state lost the chance to host Super Bowl XXVII, subsequently held at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California. In a 1992 referendum, the voters, this time given only one option for a paid King Day, approved state-level recognition of the holiday.
On May 2, 2000, South Carolina governor Jim Hodges signed a bill to make King's birthday an official state holiday. South Carolina was the last state to recognize the day as a paid holiday for all state employees. Prior to this, employees could choose between celebrating Martin Lu