Kitchener is a city in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, Ontario. Located 100 km west of Toronto, Kitchener is the regional seat, it was called the Town of Berlin from 1854 until 1912 and the City of Berlin from 1912 until 1916. The City of Kitchener covers an area of 136.86 square kilometres and had a population of 233,222 at the time of the 2016 Census. The Kitchener metropolitan area, which includes the smaller, neighbouring cities of Waterloo to the north and Cambridge to the south, has 523,894 people, making it the tenth largest Census Metropolitan Area in Canada and the fourth largest CMA in Ontario. Kitchener and Waterloo are considered "twin cities" which are referred to jointly as "Kitchener–Waterloo", although they have separate municipal governments. Including Cambridge, the three cities are known as "the Tri-Cities". All are part of the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, created in 1973, when it replaced Waterloo County, created in 1853. Kitchener is in the Saint Lawrence Lowlands.
This geological and climatic region has deciduous forests. Located in the Grand River Valley, the area is above 300m in elevation. Kitchener is the largest city within the Grand River watershed, the largest city on the Haldimand Tract. Just to the west of the city is Baden Hill, in Wilmot Township; this glacial kame remnant formation is the highest elevation for many miles. The other dominant glacial feature is the Waterloo Moraine, which snakes its way through the region and holds a significant quantity of artesian wells, from which the city derives most of its drinking water; the settlement's first name, Sandhills, is an accurate description of the higher points of the moraine. Kitchener has a humid continental climate of the warm summer subtype. Winter-like conditions last from the mid-December until mid-March, while summer temperatures occur between mid-May to close to the end of September. March 2012 went down in the history books for Kitchener – between 16 and 22 March, temperatures ranged from 21.4 °C to 27.0 °C —7 record highs in a row.
19 March high of 24 °C is one of the highest winter temperatures recorded, while 22 March high of 27 °C is the highest for March in this area. Temperatures during the year can exceed 30 °C in the summer and drop below −20 °C in the winter several times a year, but prolonged periods of extreme temperatures are rare; the frost-free period for Kitchener averages about 147 frost-free days a year, a much more limited number than cities on the Great Lakes due its inland location and higher elevation. Snowfall averages 160 centimetres per year, high but not nearly as areas more directly affected by lake effect snow; the highest temperature recorded in Kitchener was 38.3 °C on August 6 & 7, 1918 and July 27, 1941. The coldest temperature recorded was −34.1 °C on February 16, 2015. In 1784, the land Kitchener was built on was a 240,000 hectare area given to the Six Nations by the British as a gift for their allegiance during the American Revolution. Between 1796 and 1798, the Six Nations sold 38,000 hectares of this land to loyalist Colonel Richard Beasley.
The portion of land that Beasley purchased was remote but of great interest to German Mennonite farming families from Pennsylvania. They wanted to live in an area; the Mennonites purchased all of Beasley's unsold land creating 160 farm tracts. Many of the pioneers arriving from Pennsylvania, known as the Pennsylvania Dutch or Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsche, after November 1803 bought land in a 60,000-acre section of Block Two from the German Company, established by a group of Mennonites from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; the tract included most of Block 2 of the previous Grand River Indian Lands. Many of the first farms were least four hundred acres in size; the German Company, represented by Daniel Erb and Samuel Bricker, had acquired the land from previous owner Richard Beasley. The payment to Beasley, in cash, arrived from Pennsylvania in kegs, carried in a wagon surrounded by armed guards. By 1800, the first buildings had been built, over the next decade several families made the difficult trip north to what was known as the Sand Hills.
One of these Mennonite families, arriving in 1807, were the Schneiders, whose restored 1816 home is now a museum in the heart of Kitchener. Other families whose names can still be found in local place names were the Bechtels, the Ebys, the Erbs, the Weavers, the Cressmans and the Brubachers. In 1816 the Government of Upper Canada designated the settlement the Township of Waterloo. Much of the land, made up of moraines and swampland interspersed with rivers and streams, was converted to farmland and roads. Wild pigeons, which once swarmed by the tens of thousands, were driven from the area. Apple trees were introduced to the region by John Eby in the 1830s, several grist- and sawmills were erected throughout the area. Schneider built the town's first road, from his home to the corner of Queen Street. $1000 was raised by the settlers to extend the road from Walper corner to Huether corner, where th
William Daum Euler
William Daum Euler, was a Canadian parliamentarian. Born in Conestogo, the son of Henry Euler and Catherine Daum, he attended Berlin High School between the years of 1891 and 1893, he taught in Suddaby Public School and founded the Euler Business College. Euler married Jean Howd, he was mayor of Berlin, Ontario from 1914 to 1917. He was first elected to the House of Commons of Canada in 1917 representing the riding of Waterloo North, Ontario. A Liberal, he held three cabinet positions: Minister of Customs and Excise, Minister of National Revenue, Minister of Trade and Commerce, he served until 1940, when he was appointed to the Senate representing the senatorial division of Waterloo, Ontario. He died in office in 1961 in Kitchener, he is buried in the Mount Hope Cemetery in Ontario. As Senator, he waged the campaign to eliminate the ban on margarine in Canada. In 1961 he became the first Chancellor of Waterloo Lutheran University. Brown, H. W. B. A.. "The Kitchener and Waterloo Collegiate and Vocational School: Its History".
Fifteenth Annual Report of the Waterloo Historical Society 15: 268-284. William Daum Euler – Parliament of Canada biography
University of Waterloo
The University of Waterloo is a public research university with a main campus in Waterloo, Canada. The main campus is on 404 hectares of land adjacent to Waterloo Park; the university offers academic programs administered by ten faculty-based schools. The university operates three satellite campuses and four affiliated university colleges. Waterloo is a member of a group of research-intensive universities in Canada; the University of Waterloo is most famous for its cooperative education programs, which allow the students to integrate their education with applicable work experiences. The university operates the largest post-secondary co-operative education program in the world, with over 20, 000 undergraduate students in over 140 co-operative education programs; the institution was established on 1 July 1957 as the Waterloo College Associate Faculties, a semi-autonomous entity of Waterloo College an affiliate of the University of Western Ontario. This entity formally separated from Waterloo College and was incorporated as a university with the passage of the University of Waterloo Act by the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1959.
It was established to fill the need to train engineers and technicians for Canada's growing postwar economy. It grew over the next decade, adding a faculty of arts in 1960, the College of Optometry of Ontario, which moved from Toronto in 1967; the university is co-educational, as of 2016 had 30,600 undergraduate and 5,300 postgraduate students. Alumni and former students of the university can be found in over 140 countries. Waterloo's varsity teams, known as the Waterloo Warriors, compete in the Ontario University Athletics conference of the U Sports; the University of Waterloo traces its origins to Waterloo College, the academic outgrowth of Waterloo Lutheran Seminary, affiliated with the University of Western Ontario since 1925. When Gerald Hagey assumed the presidency of Waterloo College in 1953, he made it his priority to procure the funds necessary to expand the institution. While the main source of income for higher education in Ontario at the time was the provincial government, the Ontario government made it clear that it would not contribute to denominational colleges and universities.
Hagey soon became aware of the steps undertaken by McMaster University to make itself eligible for some provincial funding by establishing Hamilton College as a separate, non-denominational college affiliated with the university. Following that method, Waterloo College established the Waterloo College Associate Faculties on 4 April 1956, as a non-denominational board affiliated with the college; the academic structure of the Associated Faculties was focused on co-operative education in the applied sciences—largely built around the proposals of Ira Needles. Needles proposed a different approach towards education, including both studies in the classroom and training in industry that would become the basis of the university's cooperative education program. While the plan was opposed by the Engineering Institute of Canada and other Canadian universities, notably the University of Western Ontario, the Associated Faculties admitted its first students in July 1957. On 25 January 1958, the Associated Faculties announced the purchase of over 74 hectares of land west of Waterloo College.
By the end of the same year, the Associated Faculties opened its first building on the site, the Chemical Engineering Building. In 1959, the Legislative Assembly of Ontario passed an act which formally split the Associated Faculties from Waterloo College, re-established it as the University of Waterloo; the governance was modelled on the University of Toronto Act of 1906, which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters. The president, appointed by the board, was to act as the institution's chief executive officer and act as a liaison between the two groups; the legislative act was the result of a great deal of negotiation between Waterloo College, Waterloo College Associated Faculties, St. Jerome's College, another denominational college in the City of Waterloo. While the agreements sought to safeguard the existence of the two denominational colleges, they aimed at federating them with the newly established University of Waterloo.
Due to disagreements with Waterloo College, the College was not formally federated with the new university. The dispute centred on a controversially worded section of the University of Waterloo Act, 1959, in which the College interpreted certain sections as a guarantee that it would become the Faculty of Art for the new university; this was something. As a result of the controversy, Waterloo College's entire Department of Mathematics broke away from the College to join the newly established University of Waterloo joined by professors from the Economic, Modern Languages, Russian departments. Despite this controversy, until 1960 Hagey hoped that a last-minute compromise between Waterloo College and the university could be achieved. However, the university created its own Faculty of Arts in 1960, it established the first Faculty of Mathematics in North America on 1 January 1967. In 1967, the world's first department of kinesiology was created; the present legislative act which defines how the university should be governed, the University of Waterloo Act, 1972 was passed on 10 May 1972.
A coat of arms ha
University of Western Ontario
The University of Western Ontario, corporately branded as Western University as of 2012 and shortened to Western, is a public research university in London, Canada. The main campus is located on 455 hectares of land, surrounded by residential neighbourhoods and the Thames River bisecting the campus' eastern portion; the university operates twelve academic schools. It is a member of a group of research-intensive universities in Canada; the university was founded on 7 March 1878 by Bishop Isaac Hellmuth of the Anglican Diocese of Huron as "The Western University of London Ontario". It incorporated Huron University College, founded in 1863; the first four faculties were Arts, Divinity and Medicine. The Western University of London became non-denominational in 1908. Beginning in 1919, the university has affiliated with several denominational colleges; the university grew in the post-World War II era, as a number of faculties and schools were added to university. Western is a co-educational university, with more than 24,000 students, with over 306,000 living alumni worldwide.
Notable alumni include government officials, business leaders, Nobel Laureates, Rhodes Scholars, distinguished fellows. Western's varsity teams, known as the Western Mustangs, compete in the Ontario University Athletics conference of U Sports; the university was founded on 7 March 1878 by Bishop Isaac Hellmuth of the Anglican Diocese of Huron as The Western University of London Ontario, its first chancellor was Chief Justice Richard Martin Meredith. It incorporated Huron College, founded in 1863; the first four faculties were Arts, Divinity and Medicine. There were only 15 students when classes began in 1881. Although the university was incorporated in 1878, it was not until 20 June 1881 that it received the right to confer degrees in Arts and Medicine. In 1882, the name of the university was revised to The Western University and College of London, Ontario; the first convocation of graduates was held on 27 April 1883. Affiliated with the Church of England, Western became non-denominational in 1908.
In 1916, the university's current site was purchased from the Kingsmill family. There are two World War I memorial plaques in University College; the first lists the 19 students and graduates of the University of Western Ontario who lost their lives. A third plaque lists those who served with the No. 10 Canadian General hospital during WWII, the unit raised and equipped by UWO. In 1923, the university was renamed The University of Western Ontario; the first two buildings constructed by architect John Moore and Co. at the new site were the Arts Building and the Natural Science Building. Classes on the university's present site began in 1924; the University College tower, one of the university's most distinctive features, was named the Middlesex Memorial Tower in honour of the men from Middlesex County who fought in World War I. In 1919, the Ursuline Sisters had established Brescia College as a Roman Catholic affiliate, in the same year Assumption College in Windsor affiliated with the university.
Before the end of the affiliation, Assumption College was one of the largest colleges associated with the university. Waterloo College of Arts became affiliated with Western in 1925. St. Peter's College seminary of London, Ontario was became affiliated with Western in 1939, it became King's College, an arts college. Today, King's, Brescia colleges are all still affiliates of Western. Two World War II memorial honour rolls are hung on the Physics and Astronomy Building: the first lists the UWO students and graduates who served in the Second World War, the second lists those who served with the No. 10 Canadian General hospital during WWII, the unit raised and equipped by UWO. Although enrollment was small for many years, the university began to grow after World War II, it added a number of faculties in the post-war period, such as the Faculty of Graduate Studies, the School of Business Administration, the Faculty of Engineering Science, the Faculty of Law, Althouse College for education students and the Faculty of Music.
In 2012, the university rebranded itself as "Western University" to give the school less of a regional or national identity. "We want to be international," president Dr. Amit Chakma told The Globe and Mail; the university's legal name, remains "The University of Western Ontario" and is used on transcripts and diplomas. The University of Western Ontario is in the city of London, Ontario, in the southwestern end of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor; the majority of the campus is surrounded by residential neighbourhoods, with the Thames River bisecting the campus' eastern portion. Western Road is the university's major transportation artery, going north to south; the central campus of Western, which includes most of the University's student residences and teaching facilities is 170.8 hectares. Student residences make up the largest portion of Western's building area, with 31 percent of all building space allocated for residential use. Teaching and research facilities take up the second largest portion of building space, with 28 percent of all buildin
The Cord is a student newspaper at Wilfrid Laurier University. Founded in 1926, it features stories about current events on campus and the community as well as student life, sports and opinion; the paper's website compiles all the content from the print edition as well as web-exclusive content. The Cord publishes monthly over the summer; the Cord is a member of the Canadian University Press. It is one of several publications produced by Wilfrid Laurier University Student Publications; the Cord features the following sections in print: News, Arts & Life, Opinion and letters to the editor. The paper's local content has expanded in recent years to cover regional news including elections and other events in the Waterloo community; the Cord publishes online videos and multimedia sequences for the student community. Additionally, the website is updated on a frequent basis with news happening between the weekly print issue. In 2011, The Cord made the decision to remove its World section from print due to a lack of student reader interest.
In 2014, The Cord began removing the National section from print, only writing about national stories when relevant. In 2015, In-Depth was merged with Features to get rid of the stigma associated with "light-hearted" feature pieces. Changes continued. Campus and Local merged to create one strong news section and the online content grew two-fold while the print product decreased to a maximum of 16 pages; the Cord has been applauded by many in the news industry for its commitment to professionalism as well as its clean and modern design. In 2010 and 2011, The Cord received second place honours by the Canadian Community News Association awards for Best Campus Newspaper; the Cord won the award for Best Campus Photography. At the 2011 Canadian University Press national conference, Sports Editor Justin Fauteux received a John H. MacDonald award for excellence in sports writing for his piece, "The psychology of sport injury." The win marked. In 2012, The Cord received third place honours by the Canadian Community News Association awards for Best Campus News Story.
The Cord won the award for Best Campus Photography. At the 2013 Canadian University Press national conference, The Cord won two awards. Kevin Campbell won the Johnny Award for Best Sports Writing, Taylor Gayowsky won the Johnny Award for Best Graphic; that year, The Cord received recognition in three categories by the Canadian Community News Association awards. They received second place honours for Best Campus Newspaper, third place honours for Best Campus Photography and Best Campus Feature Story. In 2014, The Cord won the award for Best Campus Photography from the Canadian Community News Association awards. At the 2015 Canadian University Press national conference, Campus News Editor Shelby Blackley won the Johnny award for Best Sports Writing. At the 2016 Canadian University Press national conference, Photo Editor Will Huang won the Johnny for Student Photojournalist of the Year, he and Lena Yang, the Creative Director of The Cord won Flash File 2, a three-hour design competition where they were required to make a compelling cover with a story written in Flash File 1.
In 2016, The Cord won Outstanding Campus Newspaper and Best Website from the Canadian Community News Association awards. Alanna Fairey, former Features Editor came third for Best Campus Feature. In 2017, Senior News Editor Kaitlyn Severin won the Johnny for Student Journalist of the Year. Wilfrid Laurier University Student Publications is a volunteer-based organization that collects fees from undergraduate students and publishes various media, it became a non-profit corporation in 1970. WLUSP is governed by an elected President and Board of Directors along with a hired long-term Executive Director. Volunteers for management-level positions are all hired, but only a few positions, such as The Cord Editor-in-Chief, "Radio Laurier" Station Manager, "The Community Edition" Editor-in-Chief and the WLUSP President, are salaried; the organization publishes the university's newspaper. It produces: "The Community Edition," Waterloo Region's community monthly. 1926 - The Cord Weekly is founded as Laurier's official student newspaper.
1991 - The Cord Weekly gains national media attention after the Wilfrid Laurier University Students’ Union locks WLUSP's office doors because of an article discussing the details of homosexual sex. As a result, WLUSP campaigns to gain administrative control over its student fees. 2009 - The Cord Weekly changes its name to The Cord to better represent its publication. 2014- The Cord went through another print design to be more modern and accessible to students 2015- The Cord lowered its overall print distribution to put more resources toward thecord.ca List of student newspapers in Canada List of newspapers in Canada The Cord online The Cord Archives
Paul Martin Sr.
Joseph James Guillaume Paul Martin referred to as Paul Martin, Sr, was a noted Canadian politician and diplomat. He was the father of Paul Martin, who served as 21st Prime Minister of Canada from 2003 to 2006. Martin was born in Ottawa, the son of Lumina and Joseph Philippe Ernest Martin, his Irish Catholic paternal grandfather's family immigrated from County Mayo, his mother and paternal grandmother were French Canadian with deep roots in the country. Martin contracted polio in 1907. Martin was raised in Pembroke, Ontario, in the Ottawa River Valley, although he attended high school at Collège Saint-Alexandre in Gatineau, Quebec, he completed his university education at the University of Toronto, earned his law degree from Osgoode Hall Law School. Martin studied at the Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva, on a scholarship. Martin opened a law practice in Windsor, Ontario. A member of the Liberal Party of Canada, he was first elected to the House of Commons in 1935 and entered the cabinet in 1945.
He went on to serve as a noted member of the cabinets of four Prime Ministers: William Lyon Mackenzie King, Louis St. Laurent, Lester B. Pearson and Pierre Trudeau. Martin was viewed as one of the most left-wing members of the Liberal cabinet, as Minister of National Health and Welfare from 1946 to 1957 he played an important role in the fight against polio and overseeing the creation of hospital insurance in Canada, is sometimes recognized as a father of medicare. Martin served as Secretary of State for External Affairs in the Pearson government, was instrumental in the acquisition of U. S. nuclear weapons for Canadian Forces. He ran for the Liberal leadership three times, in 1948, in 1958 and 1968, but was defeated at all three Liberal leadership conventions, first by Louis St. Laurent by Lester B. Pearson by Pierre Trudeau. Trudeau appointed him to the Senate in 1968, he served as Leader of the Government in the Senate until 1974 when he was appointed High Commissioner to the United Kingdom.
He served as Chancellor of Wilfrid Laurier University from 1972–1977, as a result of which the university named the Paul Martin Centre in his honour. Until his death Paul Martin was an Adjunct Professor of Political Science at the University of Windsor, his two volume memoirs, A Very Public Life, was published in 1983 and 1986. In 1976 he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada. In recognition of his accomplishments, Martin was granted the right to use the honorific Right Honourable in 1992, a rare honour for one who has never been Prime Minister, Governor-General or Chief Justice of Canada; the University of Windsor has a Paul Martin Chair in law and political science held by former Manitoba Premier Howard Pawley, the Paul Martin Law Library. The City of Windsor had renamed their "Post Office Building" the Paul Martin Sr. Building in his honour on November 18, 1994. Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1950 University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia on June 2, 1966 Algonquin College in Pembroke, Ontario on June 16, 2017 Essex East Vive le Québec libre speech Paul Martin Donaghy, Greg.
Grit: The Life and Politics of Paul Martin Sr.. Pp. 480 Paul Martin Sr. – Parliament of Canada biography Order of Canada citation A retiring Paul Martin gives a CBC Interview
In a number of countries, a university college is a college institution that provides tertiary education but does not have full or independent university status. A university college is part of a larger university; the precise usage varies from country to country. In Australia, the term University College was used to refer to educational institutions that were like universities, but lacked full autonomy; the Latrobe University College of Northern Victoria was one such college. University colleges existing today cater for specific subjects. UNSW@ADFA was known as the University College, ADFA, it provides the tertiary education component of officer cadet training at the Australian Defence Force Academy, it is a branch of the University of New South Wales. Additionally, some residential colleges associated with universities are named "University College"; these halls of residence are common in Australian universities and provide accommodation to students. They may provide academic support and social activities for residents.
University College, Melbourne University Women's College, is one such residential college. It is affiliated with the University of Melbourne. In Belgium, the term University college is used to refer to state-funded institutions of higher education belonging to one of the three Communities of Belgium, that are not universities, they can issue academic or non-academic Bachelor's degrees or academic Master's degrees, but have no permission to conduct research. If they are at the same level, academic degrees issued from University colleges are different to University degrees. In the Dutch-speaking Flemish community, University colleges are called'Hogescholen' while in the French community, they are called'Hautes écoles'. However, the French community makes a difference between'Hautes écoles' and'Écoles supérieures des arts' which are specialised art schools authorized to select incoming students. Both count as University colleges. In Canada, "University College" has three meanings: a degree-granting institution.
The title "University College" is extensively used by institutions that do not have full university status, but which do extensive teaching at degree level. The title "university" is protected by regulations of the Canada Corporations Act, but the title "college" is only regulated in some Canadian provinces; some Canadian university colleges are public institutions, some are private. The Council of Ministers of Education maintains a list of accredited institutions through the Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. Institutions that are members of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada are full universities. "University College" is the name of a Canadian educational institution. University College is the name of a constituent college of the University of Toronto; the Ontario College of Art & Design University is sometimes referred to as a university college due to its history as a college prior to 2002 when it was designated as a university under the Ontario College of Art and Design University Act.
A classical university with several colleges is called yliopisto in Finnish. However, some specialized universities are called korkeakoulu, because unlike classical universities, they focus only on one discipline though they have the same status as an yliopisto; the vocational universities, are called ammattikorkeakoulu. The potential for confusion has led some korkeakoulus to change their name to yliopisto, abandoning the distinction between the terms yliopisto and korkeakoulu. Additionally three Greater Helsinki-based korkeakoulus, Helsinki University of Technology, University of Art and Design Helsinki and Helsinki School of Economics, have opted to merge to form the Aalto University, Aalto-yliopisto; the National University of Ireland and Queen's University Belfast were based on the UK university college system, were both set up in 1908 before the establishment of the Republic of Ireland and having roots in the earlier Queen's University of Ireland, a university college-type system. The university colleges of the National University have since been raised to the status of universities—as they were considered for many years before statute recognition—but the system still maintains its overall federal status.
Queen's University Belfast had no university colleges and the first university college was created in 1985 and second in 1999, these two institutions were associated with the university, offering its degrees since 1968. The term "University College" in Malaysia denotes institutions that are granted the authority to issue degrees in their own names within specialised fields and disciplines. In contrast, an institution granted the status of "University" provides courses of training in multiple disciplines; the empowering legislations governing the establishment and governance of university colleges in Malaysia include the University and University Colleges Act 1971, Universiti Teknologi MARA Act 1976, the Education Act 1995, the Private Higher Education Act 1996, the National Council of Higher Education Act 1996. In the Netherlands, the term "university college" refers to special programmes at several universities which are similar to United States liberal arts colleges in providing a broad tertiary education.