Northern Pacific Railway
The Northern Pacific Railway was a transcontinental railroad that operated across the northern tier of the western United States, from Minnesota to the Pacific Northwest. It was approved by Congress in 1864 and given nearly forty million acres of land grants, which it used to raise money in Europe for construction. Construction began in 1870 and the main line opened all the way from the Great Lakes to the Pacific when former President Ulysses S. Grant drove in the final "golden spike" in western Montana on September 8, 1883; the railroad had about 6,800 miles of track and served a large area, including extensive trackage in the states of Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, Oregon and Wisconsin. In addition, the NP had an international branch to Winnipeg, Canada; the main activities were shipping wheat and other farm products, cattle and minerals. The Northern Pacific was headquartered in Minnesota, first in Brainerd in Saint Paul, it had a tumultuous financial history. Congress chartered the Northern Pacific Railway Company on July 2, 1864 with the goals of connecting the Great Lakes with Puget Sound on the Pacific, opening vast new lands for farming, ranching and mining, linking Washington and Oregon to the rest of the country.
Congress granted the railroad a potential 60 million acres of land in exchange for building rail transportation to an undeveloped territory. Josiah Perham was elected its first president on December 7, 1864, it could not use all the land and in the end took just under 40 million acres. For the next six years, backers of the road struggled to find financing. Though John Gregory Smith succeeded Perham as president on January 5, 1865, groundbreaking did not take place until February 15, 1870, at Carlton, Minnesota, 25 miles west of Duluth, Minnesota; the backing and promotions of famed financier Jay Cooke in the summer of 1870 brought the first real momentum to the company. Over the course of 1871, the Northern Pacific pushed westward from Minnesota into present-day North Dakota. Surveyors and construction crews had to maneuver through swamps and tamarack forests; the difficult terrain and insufficient funding delayed by six months the construction phase in Minnesota. The NP began building its line north from Kalama, Washington Territory, on the Columbia River outside of Portland, towards Puget Sound.
Four small construction engines were purchased, the Minnetonka, Ottertail and St. Cloud, the first of, shipped to Kalama by ship around Cape Horn. In Minnesota, the Lake Superior and Mississippi Railroad completed construction of its 155-mile line stretching from Saint Paul to Lake Superior at Duluth in 1870, it was leased to the Northern Pacific in 1876, was absorbed by the Northern Pacific. The Northern Pacific Railroad reached Fargo, Dakota Territory, early in June 1872; the following year, in June 1873, the N. P. reached the shores of the Missouri River, at Edwinton D. T. In the west, the track extended 25 miles north from Kalama. Surveys were carried out in North Dakota protected by 600 troops under General Winfield Scott Hancock. Headquarters and shops were established in Brainerd, Minnesota, a town named for the President John Gregory Smith's wife Anna Elizabeth Brainerd. A severe stock market crash and financial collapse after 1873, led by the Credit Mobilier Scandal and the Union Pacific Railroad fraud, stopped further railroad building for twelve years.
In 1886, the company put down 164 miles of main line across North Dakota, with an additional 45 miles in Washington. On November 1, General George Washington Cass became the third president of the company. Cass had been a vice-president and director of the Pennsylvania Railroad, would lead the Northern Pacific through some of its most difficult times. Attacks on survey parties and construction crews by Sioux, Cheyenne and Kiowa warriors in North Dakota and Minnesota became so prevalent that the company received protection from units of the U. S. Army. In 1886 the Northern Pacific opened colonization offices in Germany and Scandinavia, attracting farmers with cheap package transportation and purchase deals; the success of the NP was based on the abundant crops of wheat and other grains and the attraction to settlers of the Red River Valley along the Minnesota-North Dakota border between 1881 and 1890. The Northern Pacific reached Dakota Territory at Fargo in 1872, began its career as one of the central factors in the economic growth of North Dakota.
The climate, although cold, was suitable for wheat, in high demand in the cities of the United States and Europe. Most of the settlers were German and Scandinavian immigrants who bought the land cheaply, raised large families, they shipped huge quantities of wheat to Minneapolis, while buying all sorts of equipment and home supplies to be shipped in by rail. The NP used its federal land grants as security to borrow money to build its system; the federal government kept every other section of land, gave it away free to homesteaders. At first the railroad sold much of its holdings at low prices to land speculators in order to realize quick cash profits, to eliminate sizable annual tax bills. By 1905 the railroad company's land policies changed, after it was judged a costly mistake to have sold much of the land at wholesale prices. With better railroad service and improved methods of farming the Northern Pacific sold what had been heretofore "worthless" land directly to farmers at good
Ramsey County, Minnesota
Ramsey County is a county located in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 508,640, making it the second-most populous county in Minnesota, its county seat is St. Paul, Minnesota's state capital; the county was founded in 1849 and is named for Alexander Ramsey, the first governor of the Minnesota Territory. Ramsey County is included in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is the smallest and most densely populated county in Minnesota, as well as one of the most densely populated counties in the United States. With the establishment of the Minnesota Territory in 1849, many new settlers were attracted to Ramsey County and established farms in the northern part of the county. One of these early settlers was Heman Gibbs, whose farm is now operated as the Gibbs Museum of Pioneer and Dakotah Life in Falcon Heights; this area remained farmland until small villages began to appear in the late 19th century with the incorporation of North St. Paul in 1887, New Brighton in 1891, White Bear Lake in 1921.
The Ramsey County Sheriff is the top law enforcement official in Ramsey County. The Ramsey County Sheriff is elected for a four-year term via an election running concurrent with the federal mid-term elections; the current sheriff is Bob Fletcher, who won the general election for Ramsey County Sheriff on November 6, 2018. Providing safety in Ramsey County is a collaborative effort across multiple agencies; the Ramsey County Sheriff's office provides a number of unique services across the county as mandated by law. This includes detention for court and other court services; this includes safety and law enforcement on the waterways. Proactively, the Sheriff's office provides multiple safety classes and coordinates community volunteer efforts; the sheriff's office provides patrol and investigation for communities without local police forces and is available as backup for all communities. An emergency 911 call will send the appropriate agency according to the caller's location and law enforcement availability.
The Ramsey County Attorney prosecutes felony crimes that occur within the jurisdiction of Ramsey County. The current County Attorney is John Choi, elected in 2010; the county commission elects a chair. Commissioners as of April 12, 2019: According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 170 square miles, of which 152 square miles is land and 18 square miles is water, it is the smallest county by area in Minnesota. It has been considered urbanized since the 1990 United States Census. Anoka County Washington County Dakota County Hennepin County Mississippi National River and Recreation Area Ramsey County is served by several interstate highways, including Interstate 35 and Interstate 94. I-35 has two routes through Ramsey County. I-35E enters the county from Dakota County to the south and proceeds north through Saint Paul, where it intersects I-94 continues north to Little Canada, where it runs east concurrently with I-694 for several miles before turning north through North Oaks to Washington County.
I-35W crosses from Minneapolis to the west through Saint Anthony before turning north through New Brighton, where it intersects I-694, to Anoka County where it goes on to rejoin I-35E in Washington County. Near the western edge of the county, I-94 enters from Minneapolis where it runs parallel to University Avenue until it meets I-35E in Saint Paul and continues east to Washington County. I-494 passes through the southeast corner of the county between Washington Counties. From Anoka County in the west, I-694 takes a path through New Brighton, where it meets I-35W, to the junction with I-35E in Little Canada and to Washington County in the east. Ramsey County is accessible by several U. S. Highways, in particular US 10, US 52, US 61. US 10 enters from Washington County in the south and continues north to meet I-94 just east of Saint Paul where it turns west to run concurrently with I-94, I-35E, I-694, I-35W before continuing northwest to Anoka County. US 52 runs from South Saint Paul in Dakota County north to downtown Saint Paul where it meets I-94 and turns west to run concurrently with it all the way to the North Dakota border.
From the south, US 61 runs concurrently with US 10 and I-94 until it continues northeast on surface streets through the East Side of Saint Paul. From Saint Paul, US 61 continues north through Maplewood and White Bear Lake before crossing the border into Washington County. In addition to these federal highways, Ramsey County is served by a number of Minnesota State Highways, including MN 36 and MN 51 which are divided highways for much of their length; the county has jurisdiction over 264,108 miles of County State Aid Highways as well as 21,031 miles of county roads and 59 bridges that are maintained and monitored by the Public Works Department of Ramsey County. Ramsey County is a major freight hub along BNSF's Northern Transcon route, as well as being served by Union Pacific and Canadian Pacific. Amtrak offers daily intercity passenger rail service on the Empire Builder from Union Depot in Saint Paul. Light rail service is provided by Metro, a light rail and bus rapid transit system operated by Metro Transit that connects several communities in Ramsey and Hennepin Counties.
The primary airport serving Ramsey County is Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport located in neighboring Hennepin County. The only airport located in Ramsey County is Saint Paul Downtown Airport, a smaller commercial airport with three runways used for general aviation and military operations; as of the 2010 Census, there were 508,640 people, 202,691 households, 117,799 fami
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
The Norwegian University of Science and Technology is a public research university with campuses in the cities of Trondheim, Gjøvik, Ålesund in Norway, has become the largest university in Norway, following the university merger in 2016. NTNU has the main national responsibility for education and research in engineering and technology, originated from Norwegian Institute of Technology. In addition to engineering and natural sciences, the university offers higher education in other academic disciplines ranging from social sciences, the arts and life sciences, teacher education and fine art. NTNU is well known for its close collaboration with industry, with its R&D partner SINTEF, which provided it with the biggest industrial link among all the technical universities in the world. NTNU is a young institution with a long history; the university, in its current form, was established in 1996 by the merger of six research and higher education institutions in Trondheim, as follows: Norwegian Institute of Technology, established in 1910 Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, established in 1767 Norwegian College of General Sciences, established in 1922 Faculty of Medicine, established in 1975 Trondheim Academy of Fine Art, established in 1987 Trondheim Conservatory of Music, established in 1973Prior to the merger, NTH, NLHT, DMF, VM together constituted the University of Trondheim, a much looser organization.
However, the university's root goes back to 1760, with the foundation of Det Trondhiemske Selskab, which in 1767 became the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters. The engineering education in Trondheim began with Trondhjems Tekniske Læreanstalt in 1870, in 1910, Norwegian Institute of Technology opened officially. In 2010, NTNU celebrated the 250th anniversary of Trondheim Academy. NTNU celebrated the 100th anniversary of NTH in the same year; the centennial was celebrated by the publication of several books, among them a history of the university, entitled "Turbulens og tankekraft. Historien om NTNU" which translates as "Turbulence and mindpower: The history of NTNU". Det Trondhiemske Selskab, Norway's first academic society, was founded in 1760. In 1767, it changed its name to the Royal Norwegian Society of Science and Letters upon receiving recognition from the Danish Crown. DKNVS library – today known as NTNU Gunnerus Library – was founded in 1768, is Norway's oldest library. First proposal for a Norwegian Polytechnical Institute was made in 1833.
Trondhjems Tekniske Læreanstalt or TTL was founded in 1870. The newly formed school educated engineers of various fields. In 1898, TTL moved to a larger building in Munkegata. TTL was disbanded in 1900s. In 1900, the Norwegian Parliament passed a resolution supporting the establishment of Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim. NTH was opened on September 15, 1910. Five academical departments were present in the parliament's resolution of 31 May 1900, such as Architecture and Urban Planning, Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical engineering, Chemistry. In 1922, Norwegian College of Teaching in Trondheim opened at Lade gård. In 1950, Stiftelsen for industriell og teknisk forskning or SINTEF was founded as part of NTH and as its link to Norwegian industry. University of Trondheim was established in 1968, in Department of Medicine established as part of UNiT in 1974, it was designed by the architect Henning Larsen. In 1984, NLHT reformed into Norwegian College of General Sciences as part of UNiT.
On 1 January 1996, the University of Trondheim became the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. In 1989, NTH Rector Karsten Jakobsen had launched the idea of a Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim. On March 21, 1995, the Parliament, with a majority after a long debate, decided to establish NTNU in Trondheim. In 2014, the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research asked the country's universities and university colleges to provide suggestions and ideas for restructuring Norway's institutions of higher education; the context of the request was that the Norwegian government wanted to cut back on the number of institutions in the sector. The NTNU board decided on 28 January 2015 to merge NTNU with the University Colleges of Sør-Trøndelag, Ålesund and Gjøvik to form a new university that would retain the university's current name, Norwegian University of Science and Technology; the merger, which went into effect in January 2016, made NTNU Norway's largest single university.
NTNU has several campuses in Trondheim. Other campuses include Tyholt for marine technology, Øya for medicine, Kalvskinnet for archaeology, Midtbyen for the music conservatory and Nedre Elvehavn for the art academy. NTNU Gløshaugen is an artistic combination of modern buildings. In addition to NTNU, the following research institutes are located at Gløshaugen, cooperate with NTNU in several areas of research and development: SINTEF, since its establishment in 1950, has its main departments at Gløshaugen. SINTEF was founded by NTH, but since 1980 it has been an independent research institute. In 1998, the Paper and Fibe
Nord-Trøndelag was a county constituting the northern part of the present-day Trøndelag county in Norway. The county was established in 1804 when the old Trondhjems amt was divided into two: Nordre Trondhjems amt and Søndre Trondhjems amt. In 2016, the two county councils voted to merge into a single county on 1 January 2018; as of 1 January 2014, the county had 135,142 inhabitants, making it the country's fourth-least populated county. The largest municipalities are Stjørdal, Steinkjer—the county seat, Levanger and Verdal, all with between 24,000 and 12,000 inhabitants; the economy is centered on services, although there are significant industries in agriculture, fisheries and forestry. It has the lowest gross domestic product per capita of any county in the country. Nord-Trøndelag covered 22,412 square kilometres, making it the sixth-largest county, it consisted of 23 municipalities; the district of Innherred runs along the east side of the Trondheimsfjord, is the most populated area, with much farming.
To the south lies the district of Stjørdalen, while in the north, the larger district of Namdalen stretches from the Norwegian Sea to the mountains bordering Sweden. West of the Trondheimsfjord lays Fosen. Nord-Trøndelag bordered Sør-Trøndelag county to the Nordland county to the north; the western part of the county has several large valleys and consists of unpopulated wilderness, including four national parks. Snåsavatnet is the largest lake, while major rivers include Namsen and Stjørdalselva. Innherred featured the Battle of Stiklestad; the county was created in 1804 and was known as "Nordre Trondhjems amt" until 1919. Since the 1950s, the county has experienced a population growth below national levels; the axis north–south through the country past Grong and along the west side of Trondheim Fjord is a main transport artery, including the European Route E6 and the Nordland Line. Nord-Trøndelag bordered Nordland to the north, Sør-Trøndelag to the south, Sweden to the east and the Norwegian Sea to the west.
The county seat was the town of Steinkjer, with 20,527 inhabitants. The largest lake is Snåsavatnet and the largest river is Namsen, one of the best salmon rivers in Europe. Other well known salmon rivers are as Stjørdalselva. Salsvatnet is the second-deepest lake in Europe, with a maximum depth of 482 metres. Another lake in the area is Byavatnet. Stjørdal is the biggest town in the county. There are local hospitals in Namsos. A large part of the population lives near the large Trondheimsfjord, a central feature of the southern part of this county. In the north are other fjords the Namsenfjord and Foldafjord. Areas on the eastern and northeastern shore of Trondheimsfjord are fertile agricultural lowland, with grain fields and vegetables. Together with the grain fields in the Namdalen lowland, this forms the most northern grain cultivation area in Norway today. However, the spruce dominated forest covers a much larger area, Nord-Trøndelag is the second largest timber producing county in Norway; the forest and highland in Nord-Trøndelag is one of few places in Norway with four species of deer.
There are mountains near the border with Sweden, coastal mountains with bare rock at the northern coast. The spruce forests occurs at the coast, where some areas are classified as temperate rainforest. There are several national parks in the county, among them Blåfjella–Skjækerfjella National Park, Børgefjell National Park, Lierne National Park and Skarvan and Roltdalen National Park; the first people in Nord-Trøndelag settled in Flatanger and Leka between 7500 and 6000 BCE, were migrating northwards along the coast. In about the same time, people moved upwards along the Trondheimsfjord; the first farmers migrated to Stjørdal before 2000 BCE in the Stone Age. Early agriculture was based on animals, which allowed people to remain nomads and combine stockbreeding with gathering. Around 2300 to 2000 BCE, the spruce spread into the county, by 1300 CE, the landscape was dominated by spruce like today. During the early Bronze Age, from 1800 to 1000 BCE, the first large graves were built in the Trondheimsfjord area.
The earliest species of cereals grown was barley around 500 BCE, supplemented with other cereals. In the first century CE, iron mining in swamps started in the easternmost parts of the country. Several small communities with blast furnaces were established, located several days walk from the good agricultural land, generating trade and occupational specialization. However, the mining industry stopped in the fifth century. In the following centuries, as part of the increased immigration due to the Migration Period a Germanic judicial system was introduced, a further development of the system launched during the mining era. In the fifth century, the first organizing of military took place, with constructions of small forts. Around this time, the area was split into counties, with the current Nord-Trøndleag consisting of parts of Stjørdølafylke, Skøynafylke, Øynafylke, Verdølafylke and Naumdølafylke. From the tenth century, the Frostating was established as a thing for all of the Trondheimsfjord area.
The largest hof for worshiping Nordic mythology was at Mære and was a common site for animal sacrifice. In 997, Olaf Tryggvason established Nidaros, in Sør-Trøndelag, started a
Saint Paul, Minnesota
Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of 2017, the city's estimated population was 309,180. Saint Paul is the county seat of Ramsey County, the smallest and most densely populated county in Minnesota; the city lies on the east bank of the Mississippi River in the area surrounding its point of confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Minneapolis, the state's largest city. Known as the "Twin Cities", the two form the core of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with about 3.6 million residents. Founded near historic Native American settlements as a trading and transportation center, the city rose to prominence when it was named the capital of the Minnesota Territory in 1849; the Dakota name for Saint Paul is "Imnizaska". Though Minneapolis is better-known nationally, Saint Paul contains the state government and other important institutions. Regionally, the city is known for the Xcel Energy Center, home of the Minnesota Wild, for the Science Museum of Minnesota.
As a business hub of the Upper Midwest, it is the headquarters of companies such as Ecolab. Saint Paul, along with its twin city, Minneapolis, is known for its high literacy rate; the settlement began at present-day Lambert's Landing, but was known as Pig's Eye after Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant established a popular tavern there. When Lucien Galtier, the first Catholic pastor of the region, established the Log Chapel of Saint Paul, he made it known that the settlement was now to be called by that name, as "Saint Paul as applied to a town or city was well appropriated, this monosyllable is short, sounds good, it is understood by all Christian denominations". Burial mounds in present-day Indian Mounds Park suggest that the area was inhabited by the Hopewell Native Americans about two thousand years ago. From the early 17th century until 1837, the Mdewakanton Dakota, a tribe of the Sioux, lived near the mounds after fleeing their ancestral home of Mille Lacs Lake from advancing Ojibwe, they called the area I-mni-za ska dan for its exposed white sandstone cliffs.
In the Menominee language it is called Sāēnepān-Menīkān, which means "ribbon, silk or satin village", suggesting its role in trade throughout the region after the introduction of European goods. Following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, US Army officer Zebulon Pike negotiated 100,000 acres of land from the local Dakota tribes in 1805 to establish a fort; the negotiated territory was located on both banks of the Mississippi River, starting from Saint Anthony Falls in present-day Minneapolis, to its confluence with the Saint Croix River. Fort Snelling was built on the territory in 1819 at the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, which formed a natural barrier to both Native American nations; the 1837 Treaty with the Sioux ceded all local tribal land east of the Mississippi to the U. S. Government. Taoyateduta moved his band at Kaposia across the river to the south. Fur traders and missionaries came to the area for the fort's protection. Many of the settlers were French-Canadians. However, as a whiskey trade flourished, military officers banned settlers from the fort-controlled lands.
Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant, a retired fur trader-turned-bootlegger who irritated officials, set up his tavern, the Pig's Eye, near present-day Lambert's Landing. By the early 1840s, the community had become important as a trading center and a destination for settlers heading west. Locals called Pig's Eye Landing after Parrant's popular tavern. In 1841, Father Lucien Galtier was sent to minister to the Catholic French Canadians and established a chapel, named for his favorite saint, Paul the Apostle, on the bluffs above Lambert's Landing. Galtier intended for the settlement to adopt the name Saint Paul in honor of the new chapel. In 1847, a New York educator named Harriet Bishop moved to the area and opened the city's first school; the Minnesota Territory was formalized in Saint Paul named as its capital. In 1857, the territorial legislature voted to move the capital to Saint Peter. However, Joe Rolette, a territorial legislator, stole the physical text of the approved bill and went into hiding, thus preventing the move.
On May 11, 1858, Minnesota was admitted to the union as the thirty-second state, with Saint Paul as the capital. That year, more than 1,000 steamboats were in service at Saint Paul, making the city a gateway for settlers to the Minnesota frontier or Dakota Territory. Natural geography was a primary reason; the area was the last accessible point to unload boats coming upriver due to the Mississippi River Valley's stone bluffs. During this period, Saint Paul was called "The Last City of the East." Industrialist James J. Hill constructed and expanded his network of railways into the Great Northern Railway and Northern Pacific Railway, which were headquartered in Saint Paul. Today they are collectively part of the BNSF Railway. On August 20, 1904, severe thunderstorms and tornadoes damaged hundreds of downtown buildings, causing USD $1.78 million in damages to the city and ripping spans from the High Bridge. In the 1960s, during urban renewal, Saint Paul razed western neighborhoods close to downtown.
The city contended with the creation of the interstate freeway system in a built landscape. From 1959 to 1961, the western Rondo Neighborhood was demolished by the construction of Interstate 94, which brought attention to racial segregation and unequal housing in northern cities; the annual
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are professionals who invent, analyze and test machines, systems and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation and cost. The word engineer is derived from the Latin words ingenium; the foundational qualifications of an engineer include a four-year bachelor's degree in an engineering discipline, or in some jurisdictions, a master's degree in an engineering discipline plus four to six years of peer-reviewed professional practice and passage of engineering board examinations. The work of engineers forms the link between scientific discoveries and their subsequent applications to human and business needs and quality of life. In 1961, the Conference of Engineering Societies of Western Europe and the United States of America defined "professional engineer" as follows: A professional engineer is competent by virtue of his/her fundamental education and training to apply the scientific method and outlook to the analysis and solution of engineering problems.
He/she is able to assume personal responsibility for the development and application of engineering science and knowledge, notably in research, construction, superintending, managing and in the education of the engineer. His/her work is predominantly intellectual and varied and not of a routine mental or physical character, it requires the exercise of original thought and judgement and the ability to supervise the technical and administrative work of others. His/her education will have been such as to make him/her capable of and continuously following progress in his/her branch of engineering science by consulting newly published works on a worldwide basis, assimilating such information and applying it independently. He/she is thus placed in a position to make contributions to the development of engineering science or its applications. His/her education and training will have been such that he/she will have acquired a broad and general appreciation of the engineering sciences as well as thorough insight into the special features of his/her own branch.
In due time he/she will be able to give authoritative technical advice and to assume responsibility for the direction of important tasks in his/her branch. Engineers develop new technological solutions. During the engineering design process, the responsibilities of the engineer may include defining problems and narrowing research, analyzing criteria and analyzing solutions, making decisions. Much of an engineer's time is spent on researching, locating and transferring information. Indeed, research suggests engineers spend 56% of their time engaged in various information behaviours, including 14% searching for information. Engineers must weigh different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best matches the requirements and needs, their crucial and unique task is to identify and interpret the constraints on a design in order to produce a successful result. Engineers apply techniques of engineering analysis in production, or maintenance. Analytical engineers may supervise production in factories and elsewhere, determine the causes of a process failure, test output to maintain quality.
They estimate the time and cost required to complete projects. Supervisory engineers are responsible for entire projects. Engineering analysis involves the application of scientific analytic principles and processes to reveal the properties and state of the system, device or mechanism under study. Engineering analysis proceeds by separating the engineering design into the mechanisms of operation or failure, analyzing or estimating each component of the operation or failure mechanism in isolation, recombining the components, they may analyze risk. Many engineers use computers to produce and analyze designs, to simulate and test how a machine, structure, or system operates, to generate specifications for parts, to monitor the quality of products, to control the efficiency of processes. Most engineers specialize in one or more engineering disciplines. Numerous specialties are recognized by professional societies, each of the major branches of engineering has numerous subdivisions. Civil engineering, for example, includes structural and transportation engineering and materials engineering include ceramic and polymer engineering.
Mechanical engineering cuts across just about every discipline since its core essence is applied physics. Engineers may specialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in one type of technology, such as turbines or semiconductor materials. Several recent studies have investigated. Research suggests that there are several key themes present in engineers' work: technical work, social work, computer-based work and information behaviours. Among other more detailed findings, a recent work sampling study found that engineers spend 62.92% of their time engaged in technical work, 40.37% in social work, 49.66% in computer-based work. Furthermore, there was considerable overlap between these different types of work, with engineers spending 24.96% of their time engaged in technical and social work, 37.97% in technical and non-social, 15.42% in non-technical and social, 21.66% in non-technical and non-social. Engineering is an information-intensive field, with research finding that engineers spend 55
The Hell–Sunnan Line is a 105-kilometer-long railway line between Hell, Stjørdal and Sunnan, Steinkjer in Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. The name is no longer in official use and the line is now considered part of the Nordland Line; the Hell–Sunnan Line branches from the Meråker Line at Hell and runs on the east shore of the Trondheimsfjord passing through the municipalities of Stjørdal, Verdal, Inderøy and Steinkjer. The Norwegian State Railways started construction in 1899 and the first part of the line, from Hell to Stjørdalshalsen, opened on 1 February 1902; the railway opened to Levanger on 29 October 1902, to Verdalsøra on 1 November 1904 and to Sunnan on 15 November 1905. Sunnan was chosen as terminus because of its location on the southern end of the lake of Snåsavatnet; the line was further extended to Snåsa in 1926, after which it has been classified as part of the Nordland Line. The railway is the most trafficked non-electrified line in Norway, with the Trøndelag Commuter Rail running south of Steinkjer.
It is used by intercity passenger and freight trains. The Hell–Sunnan Line constitutes the section of the Nordland Line between Hell, Stjørdal and Sunnan, Steinkjer. At the time of the line's opening, it was 105.2 kilometers long. The railway is single track, standard gauge, non-electrified, equipped with centralized traffic control, partial automatic train control, GSM-R; the railway line is maintained by the Norwegian National Rail Administration. Starting in the south at Hell Station, located 31.54 kilometers from Trondheim Central Station, the Meråker Line branches from the Nordland Line. The latter crosses the river of Stjørdalselva on a 149-meter-long truss bridge, it passes the closed Sandferhus Station before reaching Trondheim Airport Station, which serves as an airport rail link and is situated below the terminal of Trondheim Airport, Værnes. There was a 3-kilometer-long spur from Sandferhus to Værnes and Øyanmoen; the mainline continues under the airport's taxiway and runway in the two Værnes Tunnels, the latter, 150 meters long, after which the line reaches Stjørdal Station.
The line continues past the closed Vold Station, built to serve a mill, to Skatval, through which the line makes a semi-circular detour. Here it serves the closed Alstad Station. Alstad was an important station as it was conveniently placed for boat access from Frosta. Located at 89.6 meters above mean sea level, it was the highest elevated station on the line. The line enters the municipality of Levanger, where it first reaches the closed Langstein Station and the closed Vudu Station. After Vudu, the line reaches its highest elevation of 99 meters when it crosses over European Road 6; the line reaches Åsen Station before continuing past the closed Hammerberg Station to Ronglan Station. Before reaching Skogn Station, a 2.8-kilometer-long spur branches off to Fiborgtangen, serving Norske Skog Skogn. It mainline continues past Eggen Station and over the E6, past the closed Sykehuset Levanger Station, which served Levanger Hospital, before reaching Levanger Station, it crosses the river Levangselva on a 27.4-meter-long bridge.
It passes the closed Elberg Station and to reach HiNT Station, which serves the Levanger campus of Nord-Trøndelag University College. The line continues past the closed Østborg Station and Rinnan Station before entering the municipality of Verdal. After Bergsgrav Station, which serves the neighborhood of Vinne, a spur branches off to Verdal's industrial area; the mainline crosses the river of Verdalselva on a 210-meter-long truss bridge before reaching Verdal Station. It is followed by the closed Fleskhus Station and Bjørga Station before entering the municipality of Inderøy at the 103-meter-long Koabjørgen Tunnel; the only station in Inderøy is Røra Station. After passing the closed Vollan Station, the line reaches Sparbu Station, it passes the closed Mære Station and Vist Station and crosses over the 46-meter bridge over Figgja to reach Steinkjer Station. The line runs over the river of Steinkjerelva on a 96-meter-long truss bridge. Come two spurs, to Eggebogen and Byafossen; the line continues past the closed Byafossen Station and Fossemvatnet Station and terminates at the closed Sunnan Station.
The Nordland Line continues over a bridge across Snåsavatnet. Planning of a railway to connect Trøndelag and Jämtland, started in 1869, with one of the proposals being to build a line from Trondheim via Verdal to Sweden. However, surveys along the Verdal alternative deemed it unsuitable, instead the line was built via Stjørdalen and Meråker. To conform with Swedish standards, the line was built with standard gauge instead of the more common narrow gauge; the Meråker Line opened on 22 July 1882. In Stjørdal, controversy arose over the route; the river of Stjørdalselva creates a barrier just north of Hell, which made it cheaper to build the line on the south shore of the river to Hegra. However, the major population center was located at Stjørdalshalsen, on the north shore of the river. Locally, there were many protests against the line bypassing such a large town, but the cost of the bridge made Parliament choos