Martindale-Hubbell

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Martindale-Hubbell
Parent company Martindale, LLC
Founded 1868
Founder James B. Martindale
Country of origin United States
Headquarters location New Providence, New Jersey
Nonfiction topics law
Official website www.martindale.com

Martindale-Hubbell is an information services company to the legal profession[1] that was founded in 1868. The company publishes the Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory, which provides background information on lawyers and law firms in the United States and other countries. It also published the Martindale Hubbell Law Digest, a concise and convenient summary of laws around the world. Martindale-Hubbell is currently owned by consumer website company Internet Brands.[2]

Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory volumes on the shelf at a law library

History[edit]

Martindale's Directory was first published in 1868 by James B. Martindale, a lawyer and businessman.[3] He wrote in the Preface:

"The object of the work is to furnish to Lawyers, Bankers, Wholesale Merchants, Manufacturers, Real Estate Agents, and all others who may have need of business correspondents away from home, the address of one reliable law firm, one reliable bank, and one reliable real estate agent in each city and town in the United States; also to give the laws of the several States on subjects of a commercial character that are of interest or importance to business men, or have a bearing on mercantile transactions and the collection of debts. The lines of business in which we have been for years engaged is one that has enabled us fully to anticipate the business want in this regard...
Numerous lists of what are termed "reliable lawyers" are published in the world every year, and the public are cooly asked to take the publisher's mere say so that such lawyers are responsible; the public well knowing, at the same time, that such lists are mere advertisements, and that whoever paid the highest price could have his name inserted. It is unsafe to trust such lists, so far as we know, nobody does trust them. We give such reports of our attorneys as will enable those needing their services to judge for themselves of their merit...
The DIGEST OF COMMERCIAL LAWS of the several States, we feel proud to say, are fuller and more comprehensive than any ever before published in a similar work. We wish, in this public manner, to express our thankfulness for, and appreciation of, the kind services rendered us by the distinguished and able Attorneys whose names appear in the captions of these Digests as compilers thereof.
In view of constant and rapid changes occurring among Law firms, by reason of death, retirement, election of office, dissolution, and an occasional degeneracy, making the best list of necessity short-lived, and in view of the continual changes being made in the commercial laws of the several States, we will thoroughly revise this work once a year, and publish it annually, on the first of every January."[3][4]

In 1870, the first edition of Hubbell's Legal Directory appeared, as stated in the Introduction:

"...The vast and extending relations of business, the immense territory over which this business must be transacted, and the difficulties that often occur in obtaining reliable correspondents and information respecting the collection of debts in the different States, seem to create a necessity for a work of this character..."[5]

By 1896, Martindale's Directory included basic information that still appears in the modern "Practice Profile" listings, ratings and a section on foreign lawyers and firms, the Law Digests of all the States and Provinces constituted a new and valuable feature, being the substance of the law adapted to the comprehension of business men, and not mere copies of statutes, as had been the case with most similar publications.[3][6] The same year, the twenty sixth volume of the Hubbell's Legal Directory appeared, containing 1,600 pages of finely printed information.[7]

In 1916, Martindale's American Law Directory contained the following: In Part I - tabulated laws, collection rates, lawyers of the U.S., of Canada, of Newfoundland, lawyers of fourteen largest cities, Canons of Professional Ethics. In Part II - foreign attorneys, diplomatic service of the U.S., Tariff of American Consular Fees, U.S. Consular Service. Part III - Law Digests of the U.S. and Canada, Law Digest of Newfoundland, Cuba Law Digest, English Law Digest, French Law Digest, German Law Digest, Mexico Law Digest, the Netherlands Law Digest, U.S. Bankruptcy Law Digest, U.S. Patent Law Digest, U.S. Trademark Law Digest, U.S. Court Calendar and Court Calendar of States.[8]

In 1930, the Martindale Company purchased the publishing rights to Hubbell's Legal Directory, which consisted of a digest of the collected laws of each state; court calendars; and a selective list of lawyers and firms.[3][9]

Through the combination of the Martindale's Directory and Hubbell's Legal Directory, the first edition of the Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory was produced in 1931 as a two-volume set.[3][10] Volume I consisted of, other than lawyers listings, lawyers in America (complete list of the Bar of the USA), lawyers of the Dominion of Canada and the Colony of Newfoundland (complete list of the Bar), selected list of foreign lawyers, list of patent attorneys and a biographical section. Volume II contained the Law Digests, which included a topical index, Digests of the Laws of the States, Territories and Possessions of the USA, Digests of the Laws of Canada, Digests of the Laws of 40 Foreign Countries, United States Patent, Tax and Trademark Law Digests, Court Calendars and Uniform Acts, approved and recommended for adoption by the National Conference on Uniform State Laws and Proceedings.[11][12] The Preface to the Law Digest commenced with the words:

"No feature of the modern directory is of more value to the law office than the section which is devoted to the synopses of laws of the several states and foreign jurisdictions."[13]

In 1951, a digest was added for the new country of Israel. Meanwhile, internal conditions as well as difficulties of communication with Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Rumania had made it necessary to withdraw publication of law digests for these countries. These law digests were revised and again published in the 1990s. Throughout the years Martindale Hubbell Law Digest, which was revised and published annually, has been considered as an incomplete encyclopaedia of comparative law in English.[14][15][16]

In 1963, Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory was published in four volumes. Volumes I, II and III contained in the geographical section a roster as complete as possible of the Bar of the U.S. and Canada with ratings and other information, listings of the U.S. Government lawyers located at Washington, D.C., grouped by Departments, Agencies etc. A special section contained names of lawyers registered before the United States Patent Office. A similar section for Canada was included; in another part of the Directory was presented a selected list of lawyers in other countries. Volume IV contained digests of the laws and court calendars for the fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and digests of the U.S. Copyright, Patent and Trademark laws, some of the Uniform and Model Acts were also included as well as were digests of the laws of the Dominion of Canada, of the Canadian Provinces and of 53 countries or jurisdictions, including Germany, the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, the Republic of China, England, Scotland and Northern Ireland, Yugoslavia.[17][18]

In 1990, Martindale-Hubbell was purchased by Reed International P.L.C.[19][20] Reed Elsevier came into being in 1992, following the merger of Reed International, a British trade book and magazine publisher, and Elsevier, the Netherlands-based scientific publisher.[21]

2007 Edition of Martindale-Hubbell Law Digest on CD-ROM. This was Martindale Hubbell's One Hundred Thirty Ninth Year, the complete Martindale-Hubbell Law Digest was compiled and updated each year by prominent law firms and legal scholars in each jurisdiction. It included up-to-date digests of the laws of the 50 states of the USA, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, useful information on the United States Federal, Copyright and Trademark laws, the United States Uniform and Model Acts as well as American Bar Association's Codes. The International Digest included summaries of the laws of 82 countries, a separate digest setting forth European Union Law, in deference to the laws of many European countries and selected international conventions.

The 2006 printed edition of the Martindale-Hubbell International Law Directory presented in-depth profiles on more than 8,000 law firms and 100,000 lawyers from 165 countries, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe.[22] The 2006 edition of the Martindale Hubbell Law Digest appeared in a two-volume set, the first volume of this described and advertised as “the single most useful legal compendium available in the world” contained comprehensive digests of the laws of each of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands[23], digests of the U.S. Federal, Copyright, Patent and Trademark laws of the United States, the Model Rules for Professional Conduct of the American Bar Association, the Code of Judicial Conduct and the composition, jurisdiction and rules of procedure of the American Bar Association Standing Committee on Ethics and Professional Responsibility,[24] the second volume contained digests of the laws of 82 major trading countries as well as brief descriptions of their government and legal systems.[25] In case of Australia and Canada, digests of the states and provinces of these countries were included along with the digest of their federal laws, and a separate digest of the European Union law, because of its significance for a number of European countries, the aim of the digests was: "to present the points of law most likely to be of assistance to a lawyer with a matter at hand, some facet of which is controlled by the law of that country".[26] The digests were compiled and revised by distinguished lawyers and legal scholars of the respective states and countries,[27] the second volume contained also the texts of ten international conventions, to which the United States of America was a party, the complete texts of many Uniform Acts including the Uniform Commercial Code and the Uniform Probate Code and four Model Acts including the Revised Model Business Corporation Act.[28]

In 2007, Martindale Hubbell Law Digest ceased to be printed in the standard bound two volumes and became available via CD-ROM and via subscription On-line. Individual digests became available for purchase via amazon.com. In 2009, all the 150 Law Digests could be consulted free of charge on martindale.com.[29][30]

In October 2013, Reed Elsevier entered into a joint venture with Internet Brands, LLC;[31] in March 2014, the joint venture was completed resulting in the combination of Martindale-Hubbell, Lawyers.com and Internet Brand's Nolo legal division creating the largest online legal network. The joint venture operates under the name of Martindale-Hubbell.[2]

Products and services[edit]

  • Martindale-Hubbell Ratings provides reviews of lawyers and law firms for consumers and professionals.[32] Martindale.com contains the profiles of over one million lawyers and firms globally.[3]

  • Lawyers.com[33] and martindale.com [34] began offering free, online legal assistance to the public in June 1998, and has more than one million lawyers and law firms worldwide in its database.[35][36][37] The site contains the most comprehensive database of lawyers in the United States and allows users to search for lawyers using factors like geography, specialty, language and law school.[36] Lawyers in the database are assigned an ISLN (International Standard Lawyer Number).
  • The Law Blog includes posts from lawyers on issues, trends and news in the legal profession such as immigration, personal injury, estate planning, etc. In November 2011 the Lawyers.com blog launched a New Jury Roundup weekly news feature entitled, "Editor's Choice: Jury Awards Edition." The news feature reports on some of the largest jury awards won by individuals in recent personal injury cases.[38]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Artley, Meredith (2004-10-23). "Finding legal information online". The New York Times. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2012-11-21. 
  2. ^ a b "Internet Brands® and LexisNexis Announce Completion of Joint Venture Combining Professional and Consumer Legal Brands" (PDF) (Press release). Internet Brands. 2014-03-03. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "About Martindale-Hubbell". Martindale.com. Retrieved 2012-11-21. 
  4. ^ Martindale, James B. (1874). Revised Annually, Martindale's United States Law Directory for 1874: Containing the Names of One or More of the Most Reliable Law Firms, Banks, and Real Estate Agents in Each of the Principal Cities and Towns of the United States and Canada; And Also, An Extensive Digest of the Commercial Laws of Each of the States and Territories and Canada, with the Times for Holding Courts; the Bankrupt Law in Full, With All the Forms and Rules of Court; Also, A Complete List of All the Money Order Post Offices in the United States. Indianopolis, Ind: J.B. Martindale & Co., Managers of the Western Law and Collection Association. p. iii. 
  5. ^ The National Legal Directory, Embracing the Names of One or More of the Leading and Most Reliable Attorneys In Over Three Thousand Cities and Towns in the United States and Territories. Also, A Synopsis of the Collection of the Laws of Each State; With Rules and Instructions For Taking Depositions, The Execution and Acknowledgement of Deeds, Etc. St. Louis, Mo.: Prepared and Published by HUBBELL & CRAVEN. 1870. 
  6. ^ Martindale, James B. (1896). Twenty-Eight Year, Martindale's American Law Directory (Annual) 1896. Containing All the Lawyers in the United States and Canada-about 85,000 in all-with Date of Birth, Date of Admission, and Ratings (except in very large cities) for Legal Ability, Reliability, Financial Worth and Promptness in Paying Bills; Also Foreign Attorneys in Every Civilized Country in the World. United States Consular Service, Banks in the United States and Canada. Law Digests of all the States and Provinces, Court Calendars of all the States and Territories. All of which have been thoroughly revised and brought up to date. Indispensable in Every Line of Business where credits are given or collections made. Honesty, Capability and Promptness are the best Guarantees. If a lawyer possess these, you want no guarantee bond. If not, a bond will prove only a delusion and a snare. Chicago, 324 Dearborn Street: J.B.Martindale. p. 4. 
  7. ^ Hubbell, J.H., ed. (1896). 1896, Twenty-sixth Year, Hubbell's Legal Directory for Lawyers and Business Men, Containing the Names of One or More of the Leading and Most Reliable Attorneys in Over Four Thousand Cities and Towns in the United States and Canada, A Synopsis of the Collection of Laws of each State, and Canada, with Instructions for Taking Depositions, the Execution and Acknowledgement of Deeds, Wills; A Synopsis of Patent Laws, etc., and Times for Holding Courts throughout the United States and Territories for the Year 1896 (Revised to October 1st, 1895.); Also a List of U.S. Consuls, With the Officers and Committees of the American Bar Association; To Which is Added a List of Prominent Banks and Bankers Throughout the U.S. New York: The Mutual Reserve Building, 309 Broadway; Chicago: 184 Dearborn Street: The Hubbell Publishing Company. p. 5. 
  8. ^ Forty-Eight Year, Martindale's American Law Directory (Annual), January 1916; Established by J.B. Martindale in 1868. New York, General Offices: Woolworth Building: G.B. Martindale, Publisher. 1916. 
  9. ^ Sixtieth Year, Hubbbell's Legal Directory, 1930; for the Service of the Lawyer and Business Execituve; The Oldest Publication of Its Kind. 75 West Street, New York, NY, USA: The Hubbell Publishing Company. 1930. 
  10. ^ Sixty-Third Year, The Martindale-Hubbbell Law Directory (Annual); Martindale's American Law Directory 1868-1930; Hubbell's Legal Directory 1870-1930; The Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory 1931; January 1931 (In Two Volumes). 9-15 Park Place, New York: Martindale Hubbell Law Directory Inc., Publishers. 1931. 
  11. ^ The law digests included in the edition of 1931 were as follows: Alabama: Revised by Bradley, Baldwin All & White, of Birmingham; Alaska: Revised by R.E. Robertson, of Juneau; Arizona: Revised by Chalmers, Fennemore & Nairn, of Phoenix; Arkansas: Revised by Cockrill & Armistead, of Little Rock; California: Revised by O’Melveny, Tuller & Myers, of Los Angeles; Canal Zone: Compiled by John O. Collins, of Ancon; Colorado: Revised by Pershing, Nye, Tallmadge, Bosworth & Dick, of Denver; Connecticut: Revised by Perkins, Wells, Davis & Schaefer , of Hartford; Delaware: Revised by Richards, Layton & Finger, P.A. of Wilmington; District of Columbia: Revised by Peelle, Ogilby & Lesh, of Washington; Florida: Revised by Knight, Adair, Cooper & Osborne, of Jacksonville; Georgia: Revised by Alston, Alston, Foster & Moise, of Atlanta ; Hawaii: Revised by Wade Warren Thayer, of Honolulu; Idaho: Revised by Richards & Haga, of Boise; Illinois: Revised by Defrees, Buckingham, Jones & Hoffman, of Chicago; Indiana: Revised by Matson, Ross, McCord & Clifford, of Indianapolis; Iowa: Revised by Carr, Cox, Evans & Riley, of Des Moines; Kansas: Revised by Vermilion, Evans, Carey & Lilleston, of Wichita; Kentucky: Revised by Trabue, Doolan, Helm & Helm, of Louisville; Louisiana: Revised by Spencer, Gidiere, Phelps & Dunbar of New Orleans; Maine: Revised by Cook, Hutchinson, Pierce & Connell, of Portland; Maryland: Revised by Cook, Chestnut & Markell, of Baltimore; Massachusetts: Revised by Nutter, McClennen & Fish, of Boston; Michigan: Revised by Stevenson, Butzel, Eaman & Long, of Detroit; Minnesota: Revised by Cobb, Hoke, Benson, Krause & Faegre of Minneapolis; Mississippi: Revised by Brunini & Hirsch, of Vicksburg; Missouri: Revised by Meservey, Michaels, Blackmar, Newkirk & Eager, of Kansas City; Montana: Revised by Johnston, Coleman & Jameson, of Billings; Nebraska: Revised by Rose, Wells, Martin & Lane, of Omaha; Nevada: Revised by Ayres, Gardiner & Pike, of Reno; New Hampshire: Revised by Tuttle, Wyman & Starr, of Manchester; New Jersey: Revised by Pitney, Hardin & Skinner, of Newark; New Mexico: Revised by Reid, Hervey & Iden, of Albuquerque; New York: Revised by Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett, of New York City; North Carolina: Revised by Manly, Hendren & Womble, of Winston –Salem; North Dakota: Revised by Holt, Frame & Nilles, of Fargo; Ohio: Revised by Cannon, Spieth, Taggard, Spring & Annat, of Cleveland; Oklahoma: Revised by Biddison, Campbell, Biddison & Cantrell, of Tulsa; Oregon: Revised by Platt, Platt, Fales, Smith & Black, of Portland; Pennsylvania: Ballard Spahr Andrews & Ingersoll, of Philadelphia; Philippine Islands: Revised by Geo. R. Harvey, of Harvey & O’Brien, of Manila; Porto Rico: Revised by Rounds, Dillingham, Mead & Neagle, of San Juan; Rhode Island: Revised by Gardner, Moss & Haslam of Providence; South Carolina: Revised by Benet, Shand & McGowan, of Columbia; South Dakota: Revised by Bailey & Voorhees, of Sioux Falls; Tennessee: Revised by Canada, Williams & Russell, of Memphis; Texas: Revised by Templeton, Brooks, Napier & Brown, of San Antonio; Utah: Revised by Dickson, Ellis, Parsons & McCrea, of Salt Lake City; Vermont: Revised by Lawrence, Strafford & O’Brien, of Rutland; Virginia: Revised by McGuire, Riely & Eggleston, of Richmond; Washington: Revised by Preston, Thorgrimson & Turner, of Seattle; West Virginia: Revised by Brown, Jackson & Knight, of Charleston; Wisconsin: Revised by Quarles, Spence & Quarles, of Milwaukee; Wyoming: Revised by Matson & Swainson, of Cheyenne; Canada: Revised by Brown, Montgomery & McMichael, of Montreal ; Alberta: Revised by Bennett, Hannah & Sanford , of Calgary; British Columbia: Revised by Reid, Wallbridge, Gibson & Sutton, of Vancouver; Manitoba: Revised by Machray, Sharpe, Parker, Crawley & Richardson, of Winnipeg; New Brunswick: Revised by Robinson & Palmer, of Moncton; Nova Scotia: Revised by Henry, Stewart, Smith & McCleave, of Halifax; Ontario: Revised by Tilley, Johnston, Thomson & Parmenter, of Toronto; Prince Edward Island: Revised by Gauder & Haszard, of Charlottetown; Quebec: Revised by Brown, Montgomery & McMichael, of Montreal; Saskatchewan: Revised by Sampson & Sneath, of Regina; Newfoundland: Revised by Gibbs & Gibbs, of St. Johns; Argentina: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP of New York City; Brazil: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP of New York City; Bulgaria: Revised by Dr. Konstantin Katzaroff , of Sofia; Chile: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; Cuba: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; Czech—Slovakia: Revised by Dr. Frantisek Jirsa, of Prague; Denmark: Revised by V. Falbe-Hansen, of Copenhagen; England: Revised by Abbott & Hudson, of London; France: Revised by Coudert Bros., of New York City and Paris; Germany: Revised by Dr. Wilhelm Beutner of Berlin; Hungary: Compiled by Dr. Charles Havas, of Budapest; Italy: Revised by Francesco Ragno, of New York City; Japan: Revised by Dr. Rokuichiro Masujima, of Tokyo; Mexico: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; Netherlands: Revised by Dr. E.H. von Baumhauer, of Amsterdam; Norway: Revised by Hilditch, Bugge, Dahl-Hansen& Dahll, of Oslo; Panama: Compiled by Dr. Antenor Quinzada, of Panama; Rumania: Revised by Dr. S. Serbesco, of Bucharest; Russia: Revised by Dr. Heinrich Freund, of Berlin; Scotland: Revised by Digby Brown & Co., of Glasgow; Spain: Revised by Hipolito de Mozoncillo, of Madrid; Sweden: Compiled by G. Wennerholm, of Stockholm; Switzerland: Revised by Henry Escher, of New York City; Venezuela: Compiled by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; U.S. Patent Law: Revised by Roberts, Cushman & Woodberry, of Boston; U.S. Tax Law: Revised by Walter E. Barton, of Washington, D.C.; U.S. Trademark Law: Revised by Roberts, Cushman & Woodberry, of Boston.
  12. ^ The following classification of the law under titles and subheadings was followed in all law digests: Abandonment, see Divorce: Husband and Wife; Abatement, See Actions; Absconding debtors, see Arrest, Attachment; Absent defendants, See Process; ABSENTEES – See also Attachment, Corporations, Costs, Death, Executors and Administrators, Guardian and Ward, Limitation of Actions, Process, Venue; ACCORD AND SATISFACTION; Accounts, see Executors and Administrators, Guardian and Ward; ACKNOWLEDGMENTS – See also Affidavits, Assignments for Benefit of Creditors, Chattel Mortgages, Deeds, Mortgages, Sales; ACTIONS – See also Appeal and Error, Attachment, Certiorari, Death, Divorce, Executors and Administrators, Guardian and Ward, Infants, Judgments, Limitation of Actions, Marriage, Master and Servant, Pleading Practice, Process, Receivers, Venue; Adjudication, see Judgements; Administration, see Executors and Administrators, Admission to bar, see Attorney and Counselors; Admissions and dues tax, see United States Tax Law Digest; ADOPTION; Adultery, see Divorce; Advancement, see Descent and Distribution; ADVERSE POSSESSION – See also Limitation of Actions; Affidavit of defense, see Pleading; AFFIDAVITS – See also Acknowledgments, Depositions, Executors and Administrators, Pleading, Witnesses; Afterborn children, See Wills; Age, see Adoption, Infants, Marriage; Agency, see Principal and Agent, See also Brokers, Corporations, Factors, Master and Servant, Partnership; Agent for service of process, see Absentees, Corporations, Executors and Administrators; Aircraft, see Motor Vehicles; ALIENS; Alimony, see Divorce. See also Marriage; Allowances, see Executors and Administrators; Amendments, see Pleading; Ancestors, see Descent and Distribution; Ancillary administration, see Executors and Administrators; Annulment of marriage, see Marriage, see also Divorce; Answer, see Pleading; APPEAL AND ERROR – See also Certiorari, Taxation; Appearance, see Actions, Pleading, Process; ARBITRATION AND AWARD – See also Submission of Controversy; ARREST – See also Executions; Articles of association or incorporation, see Banks and Banking; Corporations, Insurance; ASSIGNMENTS – See also Assignments for Benefit of Creditors; Chattel Mortgages, Deeds, Judgments, Master and Servant, Mortgages, Sales; ASSIGNMENT FOR THE BENEFIT OF CREDITORS – See also Insolvency; ASSOCIATIONS – See also Corporations, Joint Stock Companies; ATTACHMENT – See also Executions, Exemptions, Garnishment; Attestation, See Wills; ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELORS – See also Costs, Witnesses; Attorneys in Facts, see Principal and Agent; AUCTIONS; Authentication, see Acknowledgments, Affidavits, Depositions; Automobiles, see Motor Vehicles; Award, see Arbitration and Award; Bail, see Arrest, Criminal Law; Bailments, see Carriers, Warehousemen; Bankruptcy, see the title “Bankruptcy” in foreign digests only; BANKS AND BANKING – See also Bills and Notes, Corporations; Bastards, See Adoption, Descent and Distribution; Beneficiaries, see Descent and Distribution; Executors and Administrators; Taxation (subhead Inheritance Tax), Trusts, Wills; Bequests, See Wills; BILLS AND NOTES; Bills of exchange, see Bills and Notes; Bills of lading, see Carriers, Bills of sale, see Sales; Blue Sky Laws, see Securities; BONDS – See also Appeal and Error, Arrest, Attachment, Attorneys and Counselors, Brokers, Costs, Executions, Executors and Administrators, Garnishment, Guardian and Ward, Injunctions, Mortgages, Notaries Public, Receivers, Replevin, Securities, Surety and Guaranty Companies, Warehousemen; BROKERS – See also Factors, Licenses, Principal and Agent, Securities; Bulk sales, see Fraudulent Sales and Conveyances; Business trusts, see Monopolies and Restraint of Trade; Calendar, see Court Calendars following Law Digests; Capital, see Banks and Banking, Corporations, Insurance, Surety and Guaranty Companies; CARRIERS – See also Motor Vehicles; Certificate, see Acknowledgements, Affidavits, Depositions; Certificate of incorporation, see Banks and Banking, Corporations, Insurance; Certificate of stock, see Corporations; CERTIORARI – See also Appeal and Error; Change of venue, see Venue; Charter, see Banks and Banking, Corporations, Insurance, Surety and Guaranty Companies; CHATTEL MORTGAGES – See also Fraudulent Sales and Conveyances, Pledges, Records, Sales; Checks, See Banks and Banking, Bills and Notes; Children, see Adoption, Descent and Distribution, Divorce, Guardian and Ward, Infants, Limitation of Actions, Marriage, Master and Servant, Process, Wills, Witnesses; Claim and delivery, see Replevin; Claims, see Executors and Administrators, Pleading; Codes, see Statutes. See also Practice; Collateral Inheritance tax, see Taxation; Collateral security, See Pledges; Color of title, see Adverse Possession; Combinations, see Monopolies and Restraint of Trade; Commercial travellers, See Licenses; Commission merchants, see Factors; Commissions, see Depositions. See also Executors and Administrators, Guardian and Ward, Trusts; Common carriers, see Carriers, Motor Vehicles; Common law marriage, see Marriage; Community property, see Husband and Wife; Companies, see Associations, Banks and Banking, Corporations, Insurance, Joint Stock Companies, Surety and Guaranty Companies; Compensation, see Attorneys and Counselors, Executors and Administrators, Guardian and Ward, Master and Servant, Trusts; Competency, see Executors and Administrators, Guardian and Ward, Husband and Wife, Infants, Limitation of Actions, Marriage, Wills, Witnesses; Compilations, see Statutes; Complaint, see Pleading; Compromise, see Accord and Satisfaction; Conditional sales, see Sales; Confession of judgment, see Judgments; Confidential relations, see Witnesses; Consanguinity, see Descent and Distribution, Marriage; Consent, see Adoption, Marriage; Consignments, see Factors; Constitutions, see the title “Constitution and Government” in foreign digests only; Controversies, see Submission of Controversy. See also Accord and Satisfaction, Arbitration and Award; Conveyances, see Deeds, See also Frauds, Statute of; Fraudulent Sales and Conveyances, Mortgages; Copartners, see Partnership; Copyright, see the title “Copyright” in foreign digests only; CORPORATIONS – See also Associations, Attachment, Banks and Banking, Carriers, Insurance, Joint Stock Companies, Process, Securities, Surety and Guaranty Companies, Taxation, Venue; COSTS; Counselors, see Attorneys and Counselors; Court Calendars, follow Digests; Courts, see Court Calendars following Digests. In foreign digests, see the title “Courts”; Coverture, see Husband Wife, Marriage; CREDITORS’ SUITS - See also Executions, Executors and Administrators, Fraudulent Sales and Conveyances; CRIMINAL LAW; Cumulative voting, see Corporations; Curators, see Guardian and Ward; CURTESY – See also Descent and Distribution, Dower, Wills; Days of Grace, see Bills and Notes; DEATH – See also Master and Servant; Debts of decedents, See Executors and Administrators; Decedents’ estates, see Curtesy, Descent and Distribution, Dower, Executors and Administrators, Homesteads, Husband and Wife, Wills; Declarations, see Pleading; Declaratory Judgments, see Judgments; DEEDS – See also Acknowledgements, Frauds, Statute of, Fraudulent Sales and Conveyances; Homesteads, Husband and Wife, Infants, Mortgages, Real Property, Records; Deeds of mortgage, see Mortgages; Deeds of trust, see Mortgages; Default, see Judgments; Defendants, see Actions, Process; Defense, affidavit of, see Pleading; Demurrers, see Pleading; DEPOSITIONS – See also Affidavits, Witnesses; DESCENT AND DISTRIBUTION – See also Adoption, Aliens, Curtesy, Dower, Executors and Administrators, Homesteads, Husband and Wife, Taxation, Wills; Desertion, See Divorce, Husband and Wife; Devisees, see Wills; Digests, see Reports; Directors, see Banks and Banking, Corporations, Insurance; Disabilities, see Aliens, Executors and Administrators, Guardian and Ward, Husband and Wife, Infants, Limitation of Actions, Wills, Witnesses; Disinheritance, See Wills; Dispossession, see Landlord and Tenant; Distress, see Landlord and Tenant; Distribution, see Descent and Distribution; DIVORCE - See also Curtesy, Dower, Marriage; DOWER – See also Acknowledgements, Curtesy, Deeds, Descent and Distribution, Executors and Administrators, Homesteads, Husband and Wife, Wills; Drafts, see Bills and Notes; Election, see Wills; Elevators, see Warehousemen; Employer and employee, see Master and Servant; Employers’ liability, see Master and Servant; Equity, see Actions; Pleading, Practice; Equity of redemption, see Mortgages. See also Chattel Mortgages, Taxation; Error, writ of, see Appeal and Error; Escheat, see Descent and Distribution. See also Absentees; Estate tax, see Taxation. For federal estate tax, see United States Tax Law Digest; Estates, see Curtesy, Descent and Distribution, Dower, Executors and Administrators, Homesteads, Real Property, Wills; Evidence, see Affidavits, Depositions, Witnesses; EXECUTIONS – See also Appeal and Error, Attachment, Exemptions, Garnishment, Judgments, Sequestration; EXECUTORS AND ADMINISTRATORS – See also Descent and Distribution, Wills; EXEMPTIONS – See also Arrest, Executor and Administrators, Homesteads, Taxation; Factorizing, see Garnishment; FACTORS – See also Brokers, Principal and Agent; Feme covert, see Husband and Wife; Feme sole traders, see Husband and Wife; Fiduciaries, see Executors and Administrators, Guardian and Ward, Principal and Agent, Trusts; Fieri facias, see Executions; Filing fees, see Chattel Mortgage, Corporations, Deeds, Mortgages; Forced heirs, see Wills; Foreclosure, see Chattel Mortgage, Liens, Mortgages; Foreign automobiles, see Motor Vehicles; Foreign corporations, see Corporations, Process, See also Banks and Banking, Insurance, Surety and Guaranty Companies; Foreign depositions, see Depositions; Foreign executors and administrators, see Executors and Administrators; Foreign guardians, see Guardian and Ward; Foreign judgments, see Judgments; Foreign marriages, see Marriage; Foreign Wills, see Wills; Foreigners, see Aliens; Forms, see Acknowledgments, Affidavits, Chattel Mortgages, Deeds, Depositions, Executors and Administrators, Judgments, Mortgages, Pleading, Wills; Forthcoming bonds, see Attachment, Executions, Garnishment; Franchise taxes, see Corporations; FRAUDS, STATUTE OF; FRAUDULENT SALES AND CONVEYANCES – See also Arrest, Assignment for Benefit of Creditors, Attachment, Creditors’ Suits; GARNISHMENT – See also Attachment, Executions; Gasoline tax, see Taxation; Government, see the title “Constitution and Government” in foreign digests only; Grace, see Bills and Notes; Guardian ad litem, see Infants; GUARDIAN AND WARD – See also Infants; Heirs , see Descent and Distribution; HOLIDAYS – See also Bills and Notes; Holographic wills, see Wills; HOMESTEADS – See also Exemptions; HUSBAND AND WIFE – See also Acknowledgements, Curtesy, Descent and Distribution, Divorce, Dower, Executors and Administrators, Guardian and Ward, Homesteads, Marriage, Real Property, Witnesses; Illegitimate children, see Adoption, Descent and Distribution; Income tax, see Taxation. For federal income tax, see United States Law Digest; Incompetency, see Executors and Administrators, Guardian and Ward, Husband and Wife, Infants, Limitation of Actions, Wills, Witnesses; Incorporation, see Banks and Banking, Corporations, Insurance, Surety and Guaranty Companies; INFANTS – See also Adoption, Executors and Administrators, Guardian and Ward, Limitation of Actions, Marriage, Master and Servant, Wills, Witnesses; Inheritance, see Adoption, Aliens, Curtesy, Descent and Distribution, Dower, Wills; Inheritance tax, see Taxation; INJUNCTIONS; Insolvency – See also the title “Bankruptcy” in foreign digests only; INSURANCE – See also Corporations; Surety and Guaranty Companies; INTEREST; Interrogatories, see Depositions; Intestacy, see Descent and Distribution; Jitneys, see Motor Vehicles; Joinder, see Actions. See also Pleading; JOINT STOCK COMPANIES – See also Associations, Corporations; Joint tenancy, see Real Property; Judges, see Court Calendars following Digests; Judgment notes, see Bills and Notes; JUDGMENTS – See also Executions; Jurat, see Affidavits; Jurisdiction, see Court Calendars following Digests; Justices of the Peace, see Court Calendars following Digests; Justification, see Bonds; Labels, see Trademarks and Tradenames; Labor, see Liens, Master and Servant; LANDLORD AND TENANT; Law reports, see Reports; Lawyers, see Attorneys and Counselors; Leases, see Landlord and Tenant, See also Frauds, Statute of; Legacies, see Wills; Legacy tax, see Taxation; LEGISLATURE – See also Statutes; Letters rogatory, see Depositions; Levy, see Attachment, Executions, Garnishment, Taxation; LICENSES – See also Attorneys and Counselors, Auctions, Brokers, Corporations, Marriage, Motor Vehicles, Securities, Taxation; LIENS –See also Attachment, Attorneys and Couselors, Banks and Banking, Brokers, Carriers, Chattel Mortgages, Executions, Factors, Fraudulent Sales and Conveyances, Garnishment, Homesteads, Judgments, Landlord and Tenant, Master and Servant, Mortgages, Motor Vehicles, Pledges, Taxation, Warehousemen; LIMITATION OF ACTIONS – See also Adverse Possession, Death, Liens; Limited partnership, see Partnership; Maintenance, see Divorce, Marriage; MARRIAGE – See also Curtesy, Descent and Distribution, Divorce, Dower, Homesteads, Husband and Wife, Wills, Witnesses; Married women, see Acknowledgments, Deeds, Descent and Distribution, Divorce, Dower, Executors and Administrators, Exemptions, Homesteads, Husband and Wife, Marriage, Wills, Witnesses; MASTER AND SERVANT – See also Principal and Agent; Mechanics’ Liens, see Liens; MINES AND MINERALS – See also Master and Servant; Minors, see Infants; Miscegenation, see Marriage; MONOPOLIES AND RESTRAINT OF TRADE; MORTGAGES – See also Acknowledgements, Chattel Mortgages, Deeds, Frauds, Statute of, Fraudulent Sales and Conveyances, Records; Motion of judgment, see Judgments; MOTOR VEHICLES; Names, see Corporations, Partnership, Trademarks and Tradenames; Negotiable instruments, see Bills and Notes; New promise; see Limitation of Actions; Nonresidents, see Absentees, Attachment, Costs, Corporations, Executors and Administrators, Guardian and Ward, Limitation of Actions, Motor Vehicles, Process, Venue; Nonsupport, see Divorce, Husband and Wife; NOTARIES PUBLIC – See also Acknowledgements, Affidavits, Depositions; Notes, see Bills and Notes; Notice of sale, see Attachment, Chattel Mortgages, Executions, Liens, Mortgages, Taxation; Notice to creditors, see Executors and Administrators, Fraudulent Sales and Conveyances; Noncupative wills, see Wills; Olographic wills, see Wills; Parent, see Adoption, Descent and Distribution, Divorce, Guardian and Ward; Part payment, see Limitation of Actions; Parties, see Actions; PARTITION; PARTNERSHIP – See also Associations, Joint Stock Companies, Trademarks and Tradenames; Patents, see United States Patent Law Digest and title “Patents” in foreign digests; Pawnbrokers, see Interest, Pledges; Perpetuities testimony, see Depositions; PERPETUITIES; Personal property, see Chattel Mortgages, Descent and Distribution, Exemption, Frauds, Statute of, Fraudulent Sales and Conveyances, Liens, Pledges, Sales, Taxation; PLEADING – See also Accord and Satisfaction, Actions, Limitation of Actions, Practice, Process; PLEADGES; Posthumous children, see Descent and Distribution; Practice, See also Actions, Pleading, Process; Preliminary injunction, see Injunctions; Prescription, see Adverse Possession, Limitation of Actions; Presumption of death or survivorship, see Death; Pretermitted children, see Wills; PRINCIPAL AND AGENT – See also Brokers, Factors, Master and Servant; Privileged communication, see Witnesses; Probate, see Wills; Probate courts, see Court Calendars following Digests; Procedure, see Actions, Pleading, Practice; PROCESS – See also Motor Vehicles; Promisory notes, see Bills and Notes; Proof of claims, see Executors and Administrators, Pleading; Proof of deeds, see Acknowledgements; Proxies, see Corporations; Public administrators, see Executors and Administrators; Publication, see Process; Qualification of foreign corporation, see Corporations; Quitclaim deeds, see Deeds; Railroads, see Carriers; Real estate brokers, see Brokers; REAL PROPERTY – see also Adverse Possession, Deeds, Descent and Distribution, Frauds, Statute of, Fraudulent Sales and Conveyances, Homesteads, Husband and Wife, Landlord and Tenant, Liens, Mortgages, Partition, Taxation; RECEIVERS – See also Corporations, Executions; RECORDS – See also Acknowledgments, Assignments, Assignments for Benefit of Creditors, Chattel Mortgages, Deeds, Judgments, Liens, Mortgages, Sales; Redemption, see Chattel Mortgages, Executions, Liens, Mortgages, Taxation; Referees in bankruptcy, see Court Calendars following Digests; Registration, see Records, Trademark and Tradenames; Release, see Attachment, Chattel Mortgages, Dower, Judgments, Liens, Mortgages; Rent, see Landlord and Tenant; REPLEVIN; Reply, see Pleading; REPORTS – See also Banks and Banking, Corporations, Insurance, Motor Vehicles; Reserve, see Banks and Banking; Restraint of Trade, see Monopolies and Restraint of Trade; Review, see Appeal and Error, Certiorari, Taxation; Revival, see Actions, Judgments, Limitation of Actions; Revocation of will , see Wills; Rule in Shelley’s case, see Real Property; SALES – See also Acknowledgements, Assignments, Assignments for Benefit of Creditors, Auctions, Chattel Mortgages, Deeds, Executions, Executors and Administrators, Frauds, Statute of, Fraudulent Sales and Conveyances, Guardian and Ward, Mortgages, Motor Vehicles, Pledges, Securities, Taxation; Satisfaction, see Accord and Satisfaction, Chattel Mortgages, Executions, Judgments, Liens, Mortgages; Savings banks, see Banks and Banking; Scroll, see Seals; SEALS – See also Acknowledgments, Affidavits, Chattel Mortgages, Deeds, Depositions, Mortgages, Notaries Public, Sales; SECURITIES – See also Bonds, Chattel Mortgages, Corporations, Mortgages, Pledges; Security for costs, See Costs; Separate estate – see Husband and Wife; Separate examination, see Acknowledgments; Separation, see Divorce, Husband and Wife; SEQUESTRATION – See also Attachment, Executions, Garnishment, Receivers; Servants, see Master and Servant; Service, see Process; Settlement, see Accord and Satisfaction; Severance, see Actions; Shipping, see the title “Shipping” in foreign law digests only; Societies, see Associations; Speed, see Motor Vehicles; Splitting of actions, see Actions; Stamp tax, see Taxation. For federal stamp tax, see United States Tax Law Digest; Statute of frauds, see Frauds, Statute of; Statute of limitations, see Limitation of Actions; STATUTES – See also Legislature; Stay, see Actions, Appeal and Error, Executions, Judgments; Stock, see Corporations, Securities; Stock transfer, see Corporations, Taxation; Storage, see Warehousemen; SUBMISSION OF CONTROVERSY – See also Actions, Arbitration and Award; Subpoenas, see Witnesses; Subscribing witnesses, see Acknowledgements, Deeds, Wills; Substituted service, see Process; Succession, see Descent and Distribution; Succession tax, see Taxation; Suits, see Actions; Summary proceedings, see Landlord and Tenant; Sunday, see Holidays; Supersedens, see Appeal and Error; Supplementary proceedings, see Executions; SURETY AND GUARANTY COMPANIES – See also Bonds, Corporations, Insurance; Surety bonds, see Bonds, Surety and Guaranty Companies; Surrogates’ courts, see Court Calendars following Digests; Survivorship, see Death; TAXATION – See also Corporations, Insurance Licenses. For federal taxes, see United States Tax Law Digest; Tax sales, see Taxation; Tenants, see Landlord and Tenant; Terms of Court, see Court Calendars following Digests; Testamentary capacity, see Wills; Testament, see Wills; Testimony, see Affidavits, Depositions, Witnesses; Third party claims, see Attachment, Executions, Title, see Adverse Possession, Real Property; Torrens Act, see Record; Trade, restraint of, see Monopolies and Restraint of Trade; TRADEMARKS AND TRADENAMES – For federal trademark law, see United States Trademark Law Digest; Traffic regulations, see Motor Vehicles; Transfer of stock, see Corporations, Taxation; Transfer tax, see Taxation; Trust companies, see Banks and Banking, Corporations; Trust deeds, see Mortgages; Trustee process, see Garnishment; TRUSTS – See also Executors and Administrators, Guardian and Ward, Monopolies and Restraint of Trade, Mortgages, Perpetuities; Tutors, see Guardian and Ward; Undertakings, see Bonds; Uniform laws – For list of Uniform Acts in force in each state, see Statutes. For text of Uniform Acts within the scope of Martindale Hubbell Law Digest, see Appendix to this volume; Usury, see Interest; Valuation, see Executions, Taxation; VENUE – See also Divorce, Executors and Administrators, Wills; Vital Statistics, see Records; Wages, see Assignments, Exemptions, Garnishment, Master and Servant; Wards, see Guardian and Ward; WAREHOUSEMEN; Warranty deed, see Deeds; Widow, see Descent and Distribution, Dower, Executors and Administrators, Homesteads, Wills; Wife, see Acknowledgments, Deeds, Descent and Distribution, Divorce, Dower, Executors and Administrators, Exemptions, Homesteads, Husband and Wife, Marriage, Wills, Witnesses; WILLS – See also Descent and Distribution, Executors and Administrators, Taxation; WITNESSES – See also Acknowledgements, Affidavits, Depositions, Wills; Workmen’s Compensation, see Master and Servant; Wrongful death, see Death.
  13. ^ Magrauth, Joseph Walker, ed. (1931). Sixty-Third Year, The Martindale-Hubbbell Law Directory (Annual); Martindale's American Law Directory 1868-1930; Hubbell's Legal Directory 1870-1930; The Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory 1931; January 1931. II. New York: Martindale Hubbell Law Directory. p. iv. 
  14. ^ David, Rene; Brieley, John E.C. (1968). Major Legal Systems in the World Today, An Introduction to the Comparative Study of Law (1 ed.). London: The Free Press, Collier-Macmillan Limited. p. 494. 
  15. ^ Stoffel, Walter A. (1987). "National Reports, Switzerland". In Knapp, Viktor. International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law. I. Tübingen and Dorderecht, Boston, Lancaster: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck) and Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. S-201. 
  16. ^ See also, e.g., Rheinstein, Max; Glendon, Mary Ann (2011). "Inheritance". Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  17. ^ Martindale-Hubbbell Law Directory in Four Volumes, Ninety-Fifth Annual Edition, 1963, Complete Legal Directory Service. Summit, New Jersey: Martindale Hubbell Inc., Publishers. 1963. 
  18. ^ The law digests included in the edition of 1963 were as follows: Part I: Digests of Laws of the States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Alabama: Revised by White, Bradley, Arant, All & Rose, of Birmingham; Alaska: Revised by Robertson, Monagle, Eastaugh & Annis of Juneau; Arizona: Revised by Fennemore, Craig, Allen & McClennen, of Phoenix; Arkansas: Revised by Rose, Meek, House, Barron, Nash & Williamson, of Little Rock; California: Revised by O’Melveny & Myers, of Los Angeles; Colorado: Revised by Dawson, Nagel, Sherman & Howard, of Denver; Connecticut: Revised by Gross, Hyde & Williams, of Hartford; Delaware: Revised by Richards, Layton & Finger, of Wilmington; District of Columbia: Revised by Hogan & Hartson, of Washington; Florida: Revised by Mershon, Sawyer, Johnston, Simmons & Dunwody of Miami; Georgia: Revised by Alston, Miller & Gaines, of Atlanta ; Hawaii: Revised by Pratt, Moore, Bortz & Vitousek , of Honolulu; Idaho: Revised by Merrill & Merril, of Pocatello; Illinois: Revised by Thomson, Raymond, Mayer & Jenner, of Chicago; Indiana: Revised by Ross McCord Ice & Miller, of Indianapolis; Iowa: Revised by Duncan, Jones, Hughes, Riley & Davis of Des Moines; Kansas: Revised by Lilleston, Spradling, Gott, Stallwitz & Hope, of Wichita; Kentucky: Revised by Stites, Peabody & Helm, of Louisville; Louisiana: Revised by Phelps, Dunbar, Marks, Cleverie & Sims of New Orleans; Maine: Revised by Pierce, Atwood, Scribner, Allen & McKusick, of Portland; Maryland: Revised by Venable, Baetjer & Howard, of Baltimore; Massachusetts: Revised by Nutter, McClennen & Fish, of Boston; Michigan: Revised by Miller, Canfield, Paddock & Stone of Detroit; Minnesota: Revised by Faegre & Benson, of Minneapolis; Mississippi: Revised by Watkins & Eager, of Jackson; Missouri: Revised by Swanson, Midgley, Jones, Blackmar & Eager, of Kansas City; Montana: Revised by Lamey, Crowley, Kilbourne, Haughey & Hanson, of Billings; Nebraska: Revised by Fraser, Stryker, Marshall & Veach, of Omaha; Nevada: Revised by Woodburn, Forman, Wedge, Blakey & Folsom, of Reno; New Hampshire: Revised by Booth, Wadleigh, Langdell, Starr & Peters, of Manchester; New Jersey: Revised by Pitney, Hardin & Kipp, of Newark; New Mexico: Revised by Rodey, Dickason, Sloan, Akin & Robb, of Albuquerque; New York: Revised by Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett, of New York City; North Carolina: Revised by Womble, Carlyle, Sansridge & Rice, of Winston –Salem; North Dakota: Revised by Nilles, Oehlert & Nilles, of Fargo; Ohio: Revised by Arter, Hadden, Wyckoff & Van Duzer, of Cleveland; Oklahoma: Revised by Cochran, Dudley, Fowler, Rucks, Baker & Jopling, of Oklahoma City; Oregon: Revised by Hart, Rockwood, Davies, Biggs & Strayer of Portland; Pennsylvania: Ballard, Spahr Andrews & Ingersoll, of Philadelphia; Puerto Rico: Revised by Beverley, Castro & Rodriguez Lebron, of San Juan; Rhode Island: Revised by Edwards & Angell, of Providence; South Carolina: Revised by Haynsworth, Perry, Bryant, Marrion & Johnstone, of Greenville; South Dakota: Revised by Davenport, Evans, Hurwitz & Smith, of Sioux Falls; Tennessee: Revised by Armstrong McCadden Allen Braden & Goodman, of Memphis; Texas: Revised by Baker, Botts, Shepherd & Coates, of Houston; Utah: Revised by Parsons, Behle, Evans & Latimer, of Salt Lake City; Vermont: Revised by Ryan, Smith & Carbine, of Rutland; Virginia: Revised by McGuire, Woods, King, Gordon & Davis, of Richmond; Virgin Islands: Revised by Bailey and Wood, of Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas; Washington: Revised by Preston, Thorgrimson, Horowitz, Starin & Ellis, of Seattle; West Virginia: Revised by Jackson, Kelly, Holt & O’Farrell, of Charleston; Wisconsin: Revised by Quarles, Herriot & Clemons, of Milwaukee; Wyoming: Revised by Loomis, Lazear & Wilson, of Cheyenne; Part II: Digests of United States Laws: Copyright: Revised by Sargoy & Stein, of New York City; Patent : Revised by Roberts, Cushman & Grover, of Boston, Mass. ; Trademark : Revised by Roberts, Cushman & Woodberry, of Boston, Mass. Part III: Digests of Laws of Canada and of the Canadian Provinces: Dominion of Canada: Revised by Tilley, Carson, Fidlay & Wedd , of Toronto ; Alberta: Revised by Chambers, Might, Saucier, Peacock, Jones, Black & Gain, of Calgary; British Columbia: Revised by Sutton, Braidwood, Morris, Hall & Sutton, of Vancouver; Manitoba: Revised by Aikins, MacAulay, Moffat, Dickson, Hinch & McGavin , of Winnipeg; New Brunswick: Revised by Carter, Taylor & Ryan, of St. John’s; Newfoundland: Revised by Knight, Phelan & Hawkins, of St. Johns; Nova Scotia: Revised by McInnes, Cooper & Robertson, of Halifax; Ontario: Revised by Tilley, Carson, Findlay & Wedd, of Toronto; Prince Edward Island: Revised by Peeake and Nickolson, of Charlottetown; Quebec: Revised by Holden, Hutchinson, Cliff, McMaster, Meighen & Minnion of Montreal; Saskatchewan: Revised by MacPherson, Leslie & Tyerman, of Regina; Part IV: Digests of Laws of Foreign Countries: Argentina: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP of New York City; Australia: Revised by Arthur Robinson & Co., of Melbourne; Austria: Revised by Dr. Erich Zeiner, of Vienna; Bahama Islands: Revised by Harry B. Sands, of Nassau; Belgium: Revised by Georges van Hecke, of Brussels; Bermuda: Revised by Gray & Smith, of Hamilton; Bolivia: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP of New York City; Brazil: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP of New York City; Bulgaria: Conditions in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Rumania precluded publication of law digests for these countries; Chile: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; China: Revised by Allman, Kops & Lee (formerly of Shanghai), now of Taipei, Taiwan (Formosa); Columbia: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; Costa Rica: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; Cuba: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; Czechoslovakia: Conditions in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Rumania precluded publication of law digests for these countries; Denmark: Revised by V. Falbe-Hansen, Bruun & Bruun, of Copenhagen; Dominican Republic: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; Ecuador: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; El Salvador: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; England: Revised by Messrs. William Charles Crocker, of London; Finland: Revised by Castrén & Snellman of Helsinki; France: Revised by Coudert Brothers, of New York City and Coudert Frères, of Paris; Germany: Revised by Katz & Sommerich, of New York City; Greece: Revised by Dr. Constantine N. Goulimy, of Athens; Guatemala: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; Haiti: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; Honduras: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; Hungary: Conditions in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Rumania precluded publication of law digests for these countries; India: Revised by Mulla & Mulla & Craigie Blunt & Caroe, of Bombay; Ireland: Revised by Thomas Gerrard & Company, of Dublin; Israel: Revised by Yaakov Solomon, Lipschütz & Co., of Haifa; Italy: Revised by Dr. Ercole Graziadei, of Rome; Japan: Revised by Thomas L. Blakemore, of the Oklahoma Bar and the Japan Bar; Lebanon: Revised by Khairallah & Chaiban, of Beirut; Liechtenstein: Revised by Dr. Helmuth M. Merlin of Vaduz; Mexico: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; Netherlands: Revised by Houwink & Von Baumhauer Houwink , of Amsterdam; New Zealand: Revised by Bell Gully & Co., of Wellington; Nicaragua: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; Norway: Revised by Olaf Dahill and Knutt Askvig, of Oslo; Pakistan: Revised by Surridge & Beecheno, of Karachi; Panama: Revised by Icaza, Gonzalez-Ruiz & Aleman, of Panama; Peru: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; Philippine Republic: Revised by Ross, Selph & Carrascoso, of Manila; Poland: Conditions in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Rumania precluded publication of law digests for these countries; Portugal: Revised by Dr. Francisco Bahia dos Santos, with Guy A. Wainewright (Representative of Stoneham & Sons), both of Lisbon; Rumania: Conditions in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Rumania precluded publication of law digests for these countries; Scotland: Revised by Digby Brown & Co., of Glasgow; South Africa: Revised by Cliffe, Dekker & Todd, of Johannesburg; Spain: Revised by J & A. Garrigues, of Madrid; Sweden: Revised by Erik Berglunds Advokatbyrå, of Stockholm; Switzerland: Revised by Drs. Pestalozzi & Gmür, of Zurich ; Turkey: Revised by Hazim Atif Kuyucak, of Istanbul; Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Revised by John N. Hazard, of New York City; Uruguay: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; Venezuela: Revised by Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, of New York City; Yugoslavia: Revised by George Radin, of New York City and Zurich, Switzerland.
  19. ^ Prokesch, Steven (1992-02-09). "Britain's Low-Profile Publishing Giant". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-21. 
  20. ^ "The Media Business; Martindale Sold to British Publisher". The New York Times. 1989-11-23. 
  21. ^ Edward A. Gargan (6 October 1994). "Reed-Elsevier Building Big Presence in the U.S". New York Times. Retrieved February 18, 2008. 
  22. ^ Martindale-Hubbell International Law Directory; - I - ; Europe, Asia, Austalasia, Middle East, Africa; Professional Biographies; Law Firms Associations; Expert Services; One Hundred Thirty Eighth Year. World Headquarters; 121 Chanlon Road, New Providence, NJ; Phone: +1-908-771-7777; Fax: +1 908 771 7792; International Office; Procter House 1 Procter Street; London WC1V 6EU United Kingdom; Phone: + 44 (0)20 7911 1920; Fax: + 44 (0) 20 7911 1921; Email: info@martindale.com; www.martindale .com; www.lawyers.com. 2006. p. IV. ISBN 1-56160-720-7. ; Martindale-Hubbell International Law Directory; - II - ; North America, The Caribbean, Central America, South America ; Professional Biographies; Law Firms Associations; Expert Services; One Hundred Thirty Eighth Year. World Headquarters; 121 Chanlon Road, New Providence, NJ; Phone: +1-908-771-7777; Fax: +1 908 771 7792; International Office; Procter House 1 Procter Street; London WC1V 6EU United Kingdom; Phone: + 44 (0)20 7911 1920; Fax: + 44 (0) 20 7911 1921; Email: info@martindale.com; www.martindale .com; www.lawyers.com. 2006. p. IV. ISBN 1-56160-721-5. 
  23. ^ The following detailed list of categories and topics were included: INTRODUCTION; GOVERNMENT AND LEGAL SYSTEM: Common Law; Holidays (Holiday Falling on Sunday; Holiday Falling on Saturday; Legality of Transactions on Saturday, Sunday or Holiday); Office Hours and Time Zone; BUSINESS ORGANIZATION: Agency; Associations (Formation; Rights and Powers; Liabilities; Actions; Dissolution; Professional Associations); Corporations (General Supervision, Purposes, Name, Term of Corporate Existence, Incorporators, Certificate or Articles of Incorporation, Filing of Certificate or Articles, Incorporation Tax or Fee, Filing Fees, License to Do Business, Organization, Paid in Capital Requirements, Amendment of Certificate or Articles, Increase or Decrease of Authorized Capital Stock, By-laws, Stock, Stock Certificates, Issuance of Stock, Transfer of Stock, Uniform Simplification of Fiduciary Security Transfers Act[adopted], Stock Transfer Tax, Stockholders Actions, Stockholders’ Liabilities, Stockholders’ Meetings, Voting Trusts, Directors, Directors’ Meetings, Powers and Duties of Directors, Liabilities of Directors, Liabilities of Directors, Officers, Liabilities of Officers, Indemnification of Directors and Officers, Principal Office, Resident Agent, General Powers of Corporations, Dividends, Unclaimed Dividends, Sale or Transfer of Corporate Assets, Books and Records, Reports, Corporate Bonds or Mortgages, Merger and Consolidation, Share Exchange or Acquisitions, Tender Offers, Dissolution, Insolvency and Receivers, Close Corporations, Appraisal, Foreign Corporations, Taxation of Corporate Property, Taxation of Corporate Stock, Franchise Tax, Professional Corporations, Deeds, Model Non-Profit Corporation Act [adopted]); Foreign Corporations; Joint Stock Companies (Purposes, Formation, Rights, Powers and Liabilities, Actions, Dissolution, Massachusetts Trusts, Professional Associations (or Corporations)); Limited Liability Companies (General Supervision, Formation, Purposes, Powers, Name, Articles of Organization, Registered Office and Registered Agent, Management, Dissolution, Filing Fees); Limited Partnership; Partnerships (Formation, Name, Rights and Liabilities of Partners Inter Se, Rights and Liabilities of Partners as to Third Persons, Dissolution, Administration of Partnership Property, Limited Partnership, Out-of-State Partnerships); BUSINESS REGULATION AND COMMERCE: Banks and Banking (Regulated by, Stockholders, Deposits, Unclaimed Deposits, Collections, Trust Companies, Uniform Common Trust Fund Act, Foreign Banks); Bills and Notes (Special Requirements, Judgment Notes, Attorney Fees, Special Defenses); Bills of Lading; Bills of Sale; Blue Sky Law; Brokers (Licenses, Bond, Real Estate Brokers); Bulk Sales; Carriers (Licenses, Rates, Discrimination, Limited Liability, Bills of Lading, Liens); Commercial Code (Filing Fees); Conditional Sales; Consignments, Consumer Protection (Plain Language); Contracts; Factors (License Requirements, Liens, Consignment Agreements); Franchises; Frauds, Statute Of (Contracts of Sale; Part Performance); Interest (Maximum Rate; Judgements, Open Accounts, Small Loans, Usury); Licenses, Business and Professional (Commercial Travelers, Collection Agencies); Monopolies, Restraint of Trade and Competition (Unfair Trade Practices); Negotiable Instruments; Restraint of Trade; Sales (Contracts of Sale, Bills of Sale, Product Liability, Retail Credit Sales, Consumer Protection, Bulk Sales, Sales of Motor Vehicles, International Sale of Goods); Securities (Supervision, Regulatory Powers of Supervising Authority, Prerequisites to Sales or Offerings, Securities to Which Act Applicable, Exempt Securities, Exempt Transactions, Registration of Offerers, Registration of Securities, Registration of Dealers, Brokers and Agents, Licenses, Bonds, Advertisements, Liabilities, Tender Offers, Subdivision Offerings, Franchising, Pyramid Sales, Etc., Uniform Simplification of Fiduciary Security Transfer Act [adopted]); Statute of Frauds; Trust Receipt Security; Warehousemen (Bonds, Licenses); Citizenship; Aliens (Property); CIVIL ACTION AND PROCEDURE: Accord and Satisfaction (Compromise, Pleading); Actions (Equity, Forms of Action, Conditions Precedent, Commencement, Parties, Class Action, Intervention, Interpleader, Third Party Practice, Joinder of Causes of Action, Splitting Causes of Action, Consolidation of Actions, Severance of Actions, Stay of Proceedings, Abatement and Revival, Limitation of, Small Claims, Termination of Actions, Prohibited Actions, Administration, Direct Actions Against Insurer); Appeal and Error (Appeal Bond, Stay of Proceedings, Extent of Review, Character of Review, Character of Hearing, Judgment or Order on Appeal); Bonds (Sureties, Enforcement); Certiorari (Jurisdiction, Grounds, Proceedings, Review); Charitable Immunity; Commissions to Take Testimony; Costs (Security for Costs, Liability of Attorney); Damages (Comparaive Negligence Rule, Charitable Immunity, Sovereign Immunity, No-Fault Insurance, Uniform Contribution Among Tortfeasors Act (Revised)); Declaratory Damages; Deposition and Discovery (Within State for Use within State; Within State for Use Elsewhere, Outside of State for Use within State, De Bene Esse, Perpetuating Testimony, Before Whom Taken, Commissions, Compelling Attendance of Witnesses, Examination of Witnesses, Return, Form, Discovery, Demand for Admission of Facts, Interrogatories); Equity; Evidence (Witnesses: Privileged Communication, Husband and Wife, Communications or Transactions with Persons Since Deceased or Incompetent, Self-Incrimination, Compelling Attendance); Injunctions (Jurisdiction, Prerequisites, Procedure, Bond, Temporary Injunction); Judgments (Judgments by Confession, Judgments by Consent, Judgments on Pleadings, Summary Judgments, Declaratory Judgments, Default Judgments, Offer of Judgment, Docketing, Vacation or Modification, Lien, Revival, Assignment, Satisfaction, Actions, Foreign Judgments, Revised Uniform Enforcement of Foreign Judgments Act [adopted] ); Limitation of Actions (Actions Not Specifically Provided For, New Actions, Foreign Causes of Action, Disabilities of Plaintiff, Absence of Concealment of Defendant, Interruption of Statutory Period, Revival of Barred Claims, Contractual Limitations, Pleading); Negligence; Pleading (Pleadings Permitted, Complaint, Answer, Counterclaim or Set-Off, Reply, Demurrer, Amended or Supplemental Pleadings, Affidavits of Merits, Affidavits of Defense, Bills of Particulars, Verification, Service, Filing, Time, Proof of Claims, Small Claims); Practice (Small Claims); Process (General Requisites, By Whom Issued, Who May Serve, Personal Service on Individual, Personal Service on Infant, Personal Service on Incompetent Person, Personal Service on Partnership, Personal Service on Domestic Corporation, Personal Service on Association, Personal Service on Joint Stock Company, Personal Service on Foreign Corporation, Personal Service Outside the State, Service by Mail, Substituted Service, Service by Publication, Long Arm Statute, Proof of Service, Nonresident Motorist); Replevin (Proceedings, Repossession, Claims of Third Persons, Judgment or Order); Sequestration; Service, Stay of Execution; Submission of Controversy; Venue (Change of Venue, Contract Provisions); Witnesses; COURTS AND LEGISLATURE: Courts (Small Claims Courts); Legislature (Special or Extraordinary Sessions, Initiative and Referendum, Lobbyists); Reports (Unofficial Reports, Digests); Statutes (Uniform Acts); Uniform Laws; CRIMINAL LAW: Criminal Law (Indictment or Information; Bail; Interstate Compact for Supervision of Parolees and Probationers, Amended Uniform Criminal Extradition Act); DEBTOR AND CREDITOR: Assignments (Instrument Transferring Title, Filing, Recording, Notice, Effect, Assignment of Wages) Attachment (Actions to Which Allowed, Courts Which May Issue Writ, In Whose Favor Writ May Issue, Against Whom Writ May Issue, Claims on Which Writ May Issue, Grounds, Proceedings to Obtain, Attachment Bond, Levy, Indemnity, Lien, Priorities, Release of Property, Sale, Third Party Claims, Vacation or Modification) Consumer Credit; Creditors’ Suits; Executions (Kinds of Execution, Exemptions, Time of Issuance, Stay, Lien, Levy, Return, Priorities, Claims of Third Persons, Satisfaction, Sale, Redemption, Supplementary Proceedings, Body Execution); Exemptions (Substitution, Debts against Which Exemptions Not Allowed, Waiver of Exemption, Necessity of Claiming Exemption, Earnings); Foreclosure; Fraudulent Sales and Conveyances (Uniform Fraudulent Conveyances Act [adopted], Remedies, Bulk Sales); Garnishment (Property Which May Ne Reached, Jurisdiction, Proceedings to Obtain, Answer of Garnishee, Practice, Adverse Claims, Judgment, Earnings); Homesteads (Limitation of Value, Limitation of Area, Debts or Liabilities against Which Exemption Not Available, Designation of Homestead, Claim of Exemption, Waiver of Exemption, Loss of Exemption, Alienation or Encumbrance, Proceeds of Sale, Rights of Surviving Spouse and Family); Judgment Notes; Levy; Liens (Waiver, Loss or Extinguishment; Enforcement, Mechanics’ Lien, Attachment Lien, Attorney’s Lien, Collateral Security, Execution Lien, Judgment Lien, Landlord’s Lien, Liens on Exempt Property, Liens on Homestead, Real Estate Mortgage Lien, Tax Lien); Mechanics’ Liens; Pledges (Remedies of Pledgee); Receivers (Jurisdiction, Proceedings, Eligibility and Competency, Qualifications, Powers and Duties, Compensation, Discharge); Redemption; Supplementary Proceedings, Trustee Process, Usury; DISPUTE RESOLUTION: Alternative Dispute Resolution; Arbitration and Award (Form and Requisites of Submission, Contracts to Arbitrate Future Disputes, Rescission, Powers of Arbitrators, Award and Enforcement Thereof, Judgment on Award, Mandatory Arbitration); DOCUMENTS AND RECORDS: Acknowledgements (Within State, Outside State but within Unites States, Outside United States, Persons in or with U.S. Armed Forces, General Requirements as to Taking, General Requirements of Certificate, Married Women, Attorneys in Fact, Corporations, Foreign Acknowledgements, Effect of Acknowledgement, Proof by Subscribing Witness, Authentication, Forms, Validating Acts, Alternative to Acknowledgment or Proof); Affidavits (General Requirements as to Administration, General Requirement of Jurat, Use of Affidavit, Form, Alternative to Affidavit); Notaries Public (Qualification, Authentication, Seal, Powers and Duties, Territorial Extent of Powers, Expiration of Commission, Fees, Commissioners of Deeds, Officers of U.S. Armed Forces); Records (Recordable Instruments, Place of Recording, Requisites for Recording, Recording Fees, Recording Taxes, Foreign Conveyances or Encumbrances, Effect or Record, Torrens Act, Transfer of Decedent’s Title, Filing Under Commercial Code, Vital Statistics, Lis Pendens); Seals (Corporate Seals, Effect of Seal); Torrens Act; Vital Statistics; EMPLOYMENT: Employer and Employee; Labor Relations (Hours of Labor, Wages, Child Labor, Female Labor, Discrimination, Labor Unions, Labor Disputes, Workers’ Compensation Law, Occupational Deceases, Employers’ Liability Act, Unemployment Compensation); Workers’ Compensation Law ENVIRONMENT: Environmental Regulations (General Supervision, Prohibited Acts of Pollution, Enforcement, Penalties, Permits); ESTATES AND TRUSTS: Administration; Advancement; Allowances, Claims, Death (Survivorship, Actions for Death, Death Certificate, Uniform Anatomical Gift Act, Living Wills); Decedents’ Estates; Descent and Distribution (Surviving Spouse, Half Blood, Posthumous Children or Other Issue, Illegitimates, Adopted Children, Determination of Heirship, Advancements, Election, Renunciation, Escheat); Election; Estates (in property); Executors and Administrators (Preferences in Right to Administer, Eligibility and Competency, Qualification, Exemption from Bond, Issuance of Letters, Removal, Special Kinds of Administration, Public Administrators, Inventory and Appraisal, General Powers and Duties, Notice to Creditors, Presentation of Claims, Proof of Claims, Form, Approval or Rejection of Claims, Payment of Claims, Priorities, Sales, Actions by Representative, Actions against Representative, Allowances, Widow’s Quarantine, Intermediate Accountings, Final Accounting and Settlement, Consent Settlement, Distribution, Distribution If Abroad, Liabilities, Compensation of Representatives, When Administration Unnecessary, Small Estates, Foreign Executors or Administrators, Uniform Fiduciaries Act [adopted], Revised Uniform Principal and Income Act [adopted], Revised Uniform Principal and Income Act [adopted], Uniform Simplification of Fiduciary Security Transfers Act [adopted], Uniform Anatomical Gift Act); Fiduciaries; Intestacy; Living Wills; Proof of Claim; Trusts (Kinds, Creation, Appointment of Trustees, Eligibility and Competency, Qualification, Removal of Trustee, General Powers and Duties of Trustees, Sales, Investments, Securities in Name of Nominee, Bequests and Devises to Inter Vivos Trusts, Accounting, Compensation, Discharge, Uniform Common Trust Fund Act, Revised Uniform Principal and Income Act [adopted], Gifts to Minors, Uniform Fiduciaries Act [adopted], Uniform Simplification of Fiduciary Security Transfers Act [adopted], Accumulation, Perpetuities, Pour Over Trusts, Renunciation); Wills (Testamentary Disposition, Execution, Attestation Clause, Holographic Wills, Nuncupative Wills, Revocation, Revival, Testamentary Gifts by Subscribing Witnesses, Bequests and Devises to Inter Vivos Trusts, Testamentary Guardians, Probate, Self-Proved Wills, Living Wills, Contest, Legacies, Unclaimed Legacies, Lapse, Children, Election, Contribution, Renunciation, Foreign Executed Wills, Foreign Probated Wills, Simultaneous Death, Testamentary Trusts, Uniform Anatomical Gift Act [adopted]); FAMILY: Adoption (Consent Required, Conditions Precedent, Jurisdiction, Venue, Petition, Proceedings, Decree, Name, Effect of Adoption, Setting Aside Adoption); Alimony; Community Property; Desertion; Dissolution of Marriage; Divorce (Grounds for Absolute Divorce, Grounds for Legal Separation, Citizenship Requirements, Residence Requirements, Jurisdiction, Venue, Process, Pleading, Practice, Judgment or Decree, Temporary Alimony, Allowance for Prosecution of Suit, Permanent Alimony, Division of Property of Spouses, Change of Wife’s Name, Custody of Children, Allowance for Support of Children, Remarriage, Foreign Decrees, Separation Agreements, Antenuptial Contracts); Guardian and Ward (Selection of Guardian, Eligibility and Competency, Appointment of Guardian, Qualification, Inventory, Powers and Duties, Investments, Securities in Name of Nominee, Real Estate, Liabilities of Guardian, Accounts, Termination of Guardianship, Insane Persons, Foreign Guardians, Gifts to Minors, Uniform Fiduciaries Act [adopted], Uniform Simplification of Fiduciary Security Transfers Act [adopted]); Husband and Wife (Disabilities of Married Women, Separate Property, Contracts, Antenuptial Contracts, Actions, Agency, Conveyance or Encumbrance of Property, Desertion and Nonsupport, Revised Uniform Reciprocal Enforcement of Support Act [adopted], Community Property); Infants (Emancipation, Disabilities, Ratification of Contracts, Actions, Support of Minor, Parental Responsibility, Adoption, Uniform Transfers to Minors [adopted]); Marriage (Consent Required, Medical Examination, License, Waiting Period, Ceremonial Marriage, Reports of Marriages, Record, Common Law Marriages, Proxy Marriages, Marriages by Written Contract, Prohibited Marriages, Foreign Marriages, Annulment, Antenuptial Contracts); Married Women; HEALTH; INSURANCE: Insurance Companies (Regulated by, Supervision by, Rates, Annual statements must be filed with, Policies, Discrimination, Rebates, Liens, Agents and Brokers, Process Agent, Investments, Foreign Insurance Companies, Retaliatory Laws, Premium Tax, Privilege Tax, Uniform Insurers Liquidation Act [adopted], No-Fault Insurance, Plain Language); Surety and Guaranty Companies; INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: Trademarks and Tradenames (What May Be Used, Registration, Assignment, Protection Afforded, Infringement, Tradenames); Trade Secrets (Uniform Trade Secrets Act [adopted]); LEGAL PROFESSION: Attorneys and Counselors (Jurisdiction over admissions, Eligibility, Registration As Law Student, Educational Requirements, Petition for Admission, Examination, Clerkship, Admission without Examination, Admission Pro Hac Vice, Licenses, Privileges, Disabilities, Liabilities, Compensation, Lien, Disbarment or Suspension, Unauthorized Practice, Mandatory Continuing Legal Education, Specialty Certification Requirements, Professional Association (or Corporation) ); MINERAL, WATER AND FISHING RIGHTS: Mines and Minerals (Operation of Mines, Safeguarding of Employees, Inspection of Mines, Oil and Gas, Taxes); MORTGAGES: Chattel Mortgage (Filing, Taxation, Forms); Collateral Security, Mortgages of Personal Property, Mortgages of Real Property (Execution, Recording, Recording Fees, Taxes, Trust Deeds, Future Advances, Priorities, Subordination Agreements, Assignment, Release, Satisfaction, Discharge, Foreclosure, Sales, Deficiency Judgments, Moratorium, Redemption, Forms); PROPERTY: Absentees (Care of Property, Process Agent, Escheat); Adverse Possession (Character of Possession, Duration of Possession, Easements, Disabilities); Condominiums; Conveyances; Curtesy; Deeds (Execution, Recording, Recording Fees, Operation and Effect, Taxes, Forms); Deeds of Trust, Dower (Release, Bar, Election); Escheat; Landlord and Tenant (Uniform Commercial Code Art.2 [adopted], Kinds of Tenancy, Leases, Security Deposits, Recording, Rent, Lien, Termination of Tenancy, Holding Over, Dispossession, Distress, Uniform Residential Landlord and Tenant Act [adopted]); Leases; Partition (Jurisdiction and Venue, Proceedings, Partition in Kind or Sale); Perpetuities (Accumulation); Personal Property; Powers of Attorney (Attorney in Fact, Formalities, Revocation, Uniform Durable Power of Attorney Act, Members of Armed Forces); Real Property (Rule in Shelley’s Case, Foreign Conveyances or Encumbrances, Condominiums); Trust Deeds; TAXATION: Taxes (Administration, Real and Personal Property Taxable, Exemptions, Assessment, Review of Assessment, Payment, Collection, Lien, Sale, Redemption, Income Tax, Inheritance Tax, Estate Tax, Apportionment Against Inter Vivos Dispositions, Interstate Cooperation, Gift Tax, Sales Tax, Use Tax, Stamp Tax, Real Estate Conveyance Tax, Mortgage Tax, Gasoline Tax, Unemployment Compensation Tax, Penalties, Uniform Federal Lien Registration Act Amended [adopted]); TRANSPORTATION: Motor Vehicles (Vehicle License, Operation License, Titles, Sales, Liens, Identification Marks, Odometer, Operation Prohibited, Size and Weight Limits, Equipment Required, Inspection, Traffic Regulation, Accidents, Liability of Owner, Guests, Proof of Financial Responsibility, Insurance, No-Fault Insurance, Foreign Vehicles, Nonresident Operators, Actions against Nonresidents, Direct Actions, Motor Vehicle Carriers, Motor Vehicle Taxes, Gasoline Tax, Lemon Law); Railroads; UNIFORM COMMERCIAL LAW FORMS.
  24. ^ Martindale-Hubbell Law Digest; U.S. States, U.S. Federal, U.S. Copyright, Patent, Trademark Law Digests; A.B.A. Codes. 121 Chanlon Road, New Providence, NJ; Phone: 1-800-526-4902; Email: info@martindale.com; www.martindale .com; www.lawyers.com: LexisNexis Martindale Hubbell; One Hundred Thirty Eighth Year. 2006. ISBN 1-56160-718-5. 
  25. ^ The digests were of: Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Belgium, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Dominion of Canada, Cayman Islands, Channel Islands (Jersey), Chile, People's Republic of China, Columbia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico, Mongolia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Northern Ireland, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippine Republic, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Scotland, Singapore, Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam.
  26. ^ The following list of categories and topics were included: INTRODUCTION: Administrative Law; Currency; Government and Legal System; Holidays; Office Hours and Time Zone; BUSINESS ORGANIZATION: Agency; Associations; Corporations; Foreign Corporations; Joint Stock Companies; Limited Liability Companies; Partnerships; BUSINESS REGULATION AND COMMERCE: Banks and Banking; Bills and Notes; Bills of Lading; Bills of Sale; Blue Sky Law; Bond; Brokers; Bulk Sales; Carriers; Commercial Code; Commercial Law; Commercial Register; Conditional Sales; Consignments; Consumer Protection; Contracts; Factors; Franchises; Frauds, Statute of; Interest; Licences, Business and Professional; Monopolies, Restraint of Trade and Competition; Negotiable Instruments; Sales; Securities; Statute of Frauds; Warehousemen; CITIZENSHIP: Aliens; Immigration; CIVIL ACTION AND PROCEDURE: Accord and Satisfaction; Actions; Appeal and Error; Certiorari; Charitable Immunity; Costs; Damages; Declaratory Judgments; Depositions and Discovery; Equity; Evidence; Injunctions; Judgments; Limitation of Actions; Partition; Pleading; Practice; Prescription; Process; Replevin; Sequestration; Service; Submission of Controversy; Venue; COURTS AND LEGISLATURE: Courts; Justices of the Peace; Law Reports; Law Reports, Codes; Legislature; Reports; Statutes; CRIMINAL LAW: Bail; DEBTOR AND CREDITOR: Assignments; Assignment for the Benefit of Creditors; Attachment; Bankruptcy; Bankruptcy and Insolvency; Creditors’ Suits; Executions; Exemptions; Foreclosure; Fraudulent Sales and Conveyances; Garnishment; Homesteads; Insolvency; Levy; Liens; Mechanics’ Liens; Pledges; Receivers; Redemption; Stay of Execution; Supplementary Proceedings; Trustee Process; Usury; DISPUTE RESOLUTION: Alternative Dispute Resolution; Arbitration and Award; DOCUMENTS AND RECORDS: Acknowledgments; Affidavits; Commissions to Take Testimony; Notaries Public; Public Instruments; Records; Seals; Vital Statistics; EMPLOYMENT: Employer and Employee; Labor Relations; ENVIRONMENT: Environmental Regulation; ESTATES AND TRUSTS: Administration; Advancements; Allowances; Claims; Death; Decedents’ Estates; Descent and Distribution; Executors and Administrators; Fiduciaries; Intestacy; Trusts; Wills; FAMILY: Adoption; Alimony; Community Property; Desertion; Dissolution of Marriage and Legal Separation; Divorce; Guardian and Ward; Husband and Wife; Infants; Marriage; Married Women; FOREIGN TRADE AND COMMERCE: Customs Duties; Exchange Control; Foreign Exchange; Foreign Investment; Foreign Trade Regulations; INSURANCE: Insurance Companies; Surety and Guaranty Companies; INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: Copyright; Industrial Property Rights; Patents; Trademarks and Tradenames; LEGAL PROFESSION: Attorneys and Counselors; MINERAL, WATER AND FISHING RIGHTS: Mines and Minerals; MORTGAGES: Chattel Mortgages; Collateral Security; Mortgages of Personal Property; Mortgages of Real Property; Personal Property Security; PROPERTY: Absentees; Adverse Possession; Conveyances; Curtesy; Deeds; Dower; Escheat; Landlord and Tenant; Perpetuities; Real Property; TAXATION: Taxes; TRANSPORTATION: Aircraft; Automobiles; Motor Vehicles; Shipping; TREATIES AND CONVENTIONS: Treaties.
  27. ^ U.S. SECTION: Alabama: Bradley, Arant Rose & White LLP of Birmingham; Alaska: Robertson, Monagle & Eastaugh of Alaska; Arizona: Fennemore Craig, P.C., Tucson and Nogales; Arkansas: Rose Law Firm of Little Rock; California: Professor Carol A. Wilson and Professor Sharon Meadows, University of San Francisco School of Law; Colorado: Holme Roberts & Owen, LLP of Denver, Boulder and Colorado Springs; Connecticut: Pullman & Comley, LLC of Hartford and Bridgeport; Delaware: Richards, Layton & Finger, P.A. of Wilmington; District of Columbia: Venable LLP of District of Columbia; Florida: Professor Jarret C. Oeltjen of College of Law, Florida State University of Tallahassee; Georgia: Professor Harold S. Lewis, Jr. Of Mercer University School of Law and Macon and Robert J. Hulsey, Esq. Of Roswell; Hawaii: Carlsmith Ball LLP of Honolulu; Idaho: Merrill & Merrill, Chartered of Pocatello; Illinois: Professor Celeste M. Hammond of John Marshall Law School of Chicago; Indiana: Ice Miller of Indiana; Iowa: Finley, Alt, Smith, Scharnberg, Craig, Hilmes & Gaffney, P.C. of Polk County; Kansas: Young, Bogle, McCausland of Wells & Blanchard, P.A. of Wichita; Kentucky: Stites & Harbison, PLLC of Louisville, Frankfort and Lexington; Louisiana: Phelps, Dunbar LLP of New Orleans and Baton Rouge; Maine: Pierce Atwood of Portland; Maryland: Venable LLP of Baltimore; Massachusetts: Professor Richard M. Perlmutter, assisted by Herbert N. Ramy and Ann McGonigle Santos, Suffolk University School of Law of Boston; Michigan: Miller, Canfield, Paddock and Stone, P.L.C. of Detroit, Ann Arbor, Grand Rapids, Howell, Kalamazoo, Lansing, Monroe, Troy, Michigan, New York, New York, Pensacola, Florida, Washington, D.C., Windsor, Ontario, Canada and Gdynia, Katowice and Warsaw, Poland; Minnesota: Faegre & Benson LLP of Minneapolis; Mississippi: Watkins & Eager PLLC of Jackson; Missouri: Swanson Midgley , LLC of Kansas City; Montana: Crowley, Haughey, Hanson, Toole & Dietrich P.L.L.P. of Billings, Helena, Kalispell, Bozeman and Missoula; Nebraska: Fraser Stryker Meusey Olson Boyer & Bloch, PC, of Omaha; Nevada: Woodburn and Wedge of Reno; New Hampshire: Wadleigh, Starr & Peters, P.L.L.C. of Manchester; New Jersey: Sills Cummis Epstein & Gross P.C. of Newark and New York; New Mexico: Rodey, Dickason, Sloan, Akin & Robb, P.A. of Albuquerque and Santa Fe; New York: Coudert Brothers, LLP of New York City; North Carolina: Womble Carlyle Sandridge & Rice, A Professional Limited Liability Company of Charlotte, Durham, Greensboro, Raleigh and Winston –Salem; North Dakota: Nilles, Ilvedson, Stroup, Plambeck & Selbo, Ltd. of Fargo; Ohio: Squire, Sanders, & Dempsey L.L.P. of Cleveland, Cincinnati and Columbus; Oklahoma: McAfee & Taft A Professional Corporation, of Oklahoma City; Oregon: Miller, Nash LLP of Portland; Pennsylvania: Ballard Spahr Andrews & Ingersoll, LLP, of Philadelphia; Puerto Rico: McConnell Valdes of San Juan; Rhode Island: Edwards & Angell, LLP of Providence; South Carolina: University of South Carolina School of Law of Columbia; South Dakota: Davenport, Evans, Hurwitz & Smith L.L.P. of Sioux Falls; Tennessee: Armstrong Allen, PLLC of Memphis; Texas: Squire, Sanders & Dempsey L.L.P. of Houston; Utah: Van Cott, Bagley, Cornwall & McCarthy of Salt Lake City; Vermont: Ryan Smith & Carbine Ltd. of Rutland; Virgin Islands: Tom Bolt & Associates P.C. of the Virgin Islands; Virginia: McGuire Woods LLP of Almaty, Atlanta, Baltimore, Brussels, Charlotte, Charlottesville, Chicago, Jacksonville, New York, Norfolk, Pittsburgh, Richmond, Tysons Corner and Washington D.C.; Washington: Perkins Coie LLP of Seattle; West Virginia: Jackson Kelly PLLC of Charleston; Wisconsin: Quarles & Brady LLP of Milwaukee and Madison; Wyoming: Brown, Drew & Massey LLP of Casper; U.S. Federal: Professor Richard M. Perlmutter, assisted by Herbert N. Ramy and Ann McGonigle Santos, Suffolk University School of Law of Boston; U.S. Copyright: Baker Botts L.L.P. of New York City; U.S. Patent: Finnegan, Henderson, Farabow, Garrett & Dunner, L.L.P. of Washington, D.C., Reston, VA, Atlanta, GA, Palo Alto, CA, Cambridge, MA, Brussels, Belgium, Tokyo, Japan, Taipei, Taiwan; U.S. Trademark: Finnegan, Henderson, Farabow, Garrett & Dunner, L.L.P. of Washington, D.C., Reston, VA, Atlanta, GA, Palo Alto, CA, Cambridge, MA, Brussels, Belgium, Tokyo, Japan, Taipei, Taiwan; INTERNATIONAL SECTION: Argentina: Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP of New York City; Australia: Allens Arthur Robinson; Austria: Zeiner & Zeiner of Vienna; Bahamas: Harry B. Sands, Lobosky and Company; Belgium: Université Libre de Bruxelles; Bermuda: Appleby, Spurling, Hunter; Bolivia and Brazil: Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP of New York City; Bulgaria: Dr. Vassil Breskovski, LL.M. of Sofia, Bulgaria and La Coruña, Spain; Dominion of Canada: Borden Ladner Gervals LLP of Toronto; Alberta: Bennett Jones LLP of Calgary; British Columbia: Davis & Company LLP of Vancouver; Manitoba: Aikins, MacAulay & Thorvaldson of Winnipeg; New Brunswick: Clark Drummie of St. John, Moncton, St. Andrews and St. Stephen; New Foundland and Labrador: Lewis, Day of St. John’s New Foundland and Labrador; Nova Scotia: McInnes Cooper of Halifax; Ontario: Borden Ladner Gervals LLP of Toronto; Prince Edward Island: Campbell Lea of Charlottetown; Quebec: Borden Ladner Gervais LLP of Montreal; Saskatchewan: MacPherson Leslie & Tyerman LLP of Regina and Saskatoon; Cayman Island: Walkers, Attorney-at-Law in the Cayman Islands; Channel Islands (Jersey): Ogier & Le Masurier of Jersey; Chile: Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP of New York City; China, People Republic of: Anderson & Anderson LLP of Mongolia and Macao; Columbia and Costa Rica: Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP of New York City; Cuba: Holland & Knight LLP of Miami, Florida; Cyprus: Andreas Neocleous & Co. Of Limasol; Czech Republic: Zeiner & Zeiner, Prague, Czech Republic; Denmark: Gorrissen Federspiel Kierkegaard, Law Firm, of Copenhagen. Jan Erlund and Søren Fogh, attorneys; Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador: Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP of New York City; England: Faculty of Law, Cambridge University, Cambridge; Estonia: The Law Office of Tark & Co of Tallinn; European Union: Université Libre de Bruxelles (IEE), Brussells; Finland: Castrén & Snellman of Helsinki; France: Coudert Brothers of New York City and Coudert Frère of Paris; Germany: Waldeck Rechtanwälte of Frankfurt/Main; Gibraltar: Marrache & Co. of Gibraltar; Greece: Dr. Tryfon J. Koutalidis of Athens; Guatemala and Honduras: Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP of New York City; Hong Kong: Robert Wang Solicitors of Hong Kong; Hungary: Nagy & Trócsányi of Budapest and New York; India: Mulla & Mulla & Craigie Blunt & Caroe of Mumbai, Bangalore and New Delhi; Indonesia: Andrew I. Sriro, Esq. in affiliation with Dyah Ersita & Partners of Jakarta; Ireland: School of Law, University College Dublin, National University of Ireland; Israel: Yaakov Salomon, Lipschütz & Co. of Haifa and Tel-Aviv; Italy: Studio Legale Beltramo of Rome; Japan: Blakemore & Mitsuki of Tokyo; Korea: Kim & Chang of Seoul; Latvia: Klavins & Slaidins of the Republic of Latvia, New York, Connecticut, California and England; Lebanon: Khairallah & Chaiban of Beirut; Liechtenstein: Ritter & Wohlwend of Vaduz; Lithuania: Jaunius Gumbus and Laimonas Skibarka with Lidelka, Petrauskas, Valiunas ir partneriai Lawin of Vilnius; Luxembourg: Bonn Schmitt Steichen; Macao: Anderson & Anderson LLP of China and Mongolia; Malaysia: Raslan Loong of Kuala Lumpur of Malaysia; Malta: Rutter Giappone & Associates of Valetta; Mexico: Noriega y Escubedo, A.C. of Mexico; Mongolia: Anderson & Anderson LLP of California and China; Netherlands: Molengraaf Institute for Private and European Law of Utrecht; New Zealand: Faculty of Law, University of Auckland, New Zealand; Nicaragua: Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP of New York City; Nigeria: AELEX of Lagos, Port Harcourt and Accra; Northern Ireland: C & Jefferson of Belfast; Norway: Advokatfirmaet NORDIA DA, Oslo; Pakistan: Surrige & Beecheno of Karachi; Panama: Icaza, Gonzalez-Ruiz & Aleman of Panama; Paraguay: Peroni Sosa Tellechea Burt & Narvaja of Asunción; Peru: Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP of New York City; Philippine Republic: Ortega, Del Castillo, Bacorro, Odulio, Calma & Carbonell of Manila; Poland: Chadbourne & Parke LLP of New York City, and Radzikowski, Szubielska i Wspolnicy, Sp. K. of Warsaw; Portugal: Dr. Nuno Reynolds Telles Pereira and Dr. Miguel Almeida Fernandes of Cascais; Romania: SALANS of Bucharest; Russian Federation: Reznik, Gagarin, Abushakhmin & Partners of Moscow; Saudi Arabia: White & Case LLP of New York City and Law Office of Mohammed Al-Sheikh Mahassni in Association with White & Case of Riyadh; Scotland: Digby Brown of Glasgow; Singapore: David Chong & Co. of Singapore; Slovak Republic: Čechová & Partners of Bratislava; South Africa: Cliffe Dekker Inc. of Johannesburg and Cape Town; Spain: Garriguez; Sweden: Baker & McKenzie Advokatbyrå of Stockholm; Switzerland: Pestalozzi Lachenal Patry of Zurich and Geneva; Taiwan: Lee and Li of Taipei, Taiwan (Formosa); Thailand: Tilleke & Gibbins, Thailand and Vietnam; Turkey: Yilmaz Öz of Ankara; Ukraine: Chadbourne & Parke LLP of Kyiv and New York City; Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam: Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle LLP of New York City; Vietnam: Tilleke & Gibbins, Bangkok, Thailand and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
  28. ^ The International Conventions were as follows: Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters; Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards; Convention on the Taking of Evidence Abroad in Civil or Commercial Matters; Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalization for Foreign Public Documents; United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods; Convention on the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods; Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction; Inter-American Convention on Letters Rogatory; Additional Protocol the Inter-American Convention on Letters Rogatory; Inter-American Convention on International Commercial Arbitration. The Uniform and Model Acts were as follows: Anatomical Gift (1987); Anatomical Gift; Arbitration; Arbitration (2000); Assignment of Rents; Business Corporation; Model Business Corporation Act (1984); Model Business Corporation Act (1969) (with amendments through October, 1981); Child Custody Jurisdiction Act; Child-Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement (1987); Commercial Code, Note by William A. Schnader; Commercial Code (1966 Amendments; 1966 Optional Amendments; 1972 Official Text of Article 9; 1973 Official Amendment, 1977 Official Amendment, Article 8; 1987 Official Text of Article 2A – Leases; 1989 Official Text of Article 4A – Funds Transfer; 1989 Official Text of Repealer of Article 6 and [Revised] Article 6; 1990 Amendment of Article 2A – Leases; 1991 Official Text of Revised Articles 3 and 4 (with 1993 Amendment); 1994 Official Text of Revised Article 8; 1995 Official Text of Revised Article 5; 1998 Official Text of Revised Article 9 (with 2001 Amendments); 2001 Official Text of Revised Article 1; 2003 Official Text of Article 7 – Documents of Title); Common Trust Fund; Consumer Leases; Deceptive Trade Practices (Revised); Declaratory Judgments; Determination of Death; Revised Disposition of Unclaimed Property; Division of Income for Tax Purposes; Durable Power of Attorney (See Probate Code Amendments); Enforcement of Foreign Judgments; Evidence, Rules of (1974) with 1986 Amendments; Federal Lien Registration Act (1978); 1982 Amendments; Fiduciaries; Foreign Executed Wills; Foreign-Money Claims; Foreign Probated Wills; Fraudulent Conveyances; Fraudulent Transfer; Gifts to Minors; Revised; Amendments to Revised Act; Guardianship and Protective Proceedings (1997) (See Probate Code Amendments); International Wills Act (See Probate Code, 1977 Amendments); Interstate Arbitration of Death Taxes; Interstate Compromise of Death Taxes; Interstate Family Support; Interstate Family Support Act (2001); Joint Obligations; Land Sales Practices Act; Limited Partnership (1976 Act, 1983 Amendments to 1976 Act, 1976 Act with 1985 Amendments); Limited Partnership Act (2001); Management of Institutional Funds; Mediation; Model Entity Transactions; Notarial Acts; Partnership; Partnership (1997); Photographic Copies of Business and Public Records as Evidence; Premarital Agreement; Principal and Income (Revised 1962); Principal and Income (1997); Probate Code (1975 Amendments; 1977 Amendments; 1979 Amendments; 1982 Amendments; 1984 Amendments; 1987 Amendments; 1989 Amendments, Additional 1997 Amendments; Article II – Interstacy, Wills and Donative Transfers (1990); 1991 Amendments; 1993 Amendments; 1998 Amendments; 2003 Revision of Section 3-916); Real Property Electronic Recording; Reciprocal Enforcement of Support (As Amended); Revised; Residential Mortgage Satisfaction; Securities; Securities Act (1985) with 1988 Amendments; Simplification of Fiduciary Securities Transfers; Simultaneous Death; Simultaneous Death (1993); Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities; Testamentary Additions to Trusts; Testamentary Additions to Trust (1991); To Secure Attendance of Witnesses From Without a State in Criminal Proceedings; Trade Secrets Act with 1985 Amendments; Transfers to Minors; Unclaimed Property (1981); Unclaimed Property (1995); Vendor and Purchaser Risk; Wage Withholding and Unemployment Insurance Procedure. Martindale-Hubbell International Law Digest; Argentina-Vietnam International Law Digests; Selected International Conventions; U.S. Uniform Acts. World Headquarters; 121 Chanlon Road, New Providence, NJ; Phone: +1-908-771-7777; Fax: +1 908 771 7792; International Office; Procter House 1 Procter Street; London WC1V 6EU United Kingdom; Phone: + 44 (0)20 7911 1920; Fax: + 44 (0) 20 7911 1921; Email: info@martindale.com; www.martindale .com; www.lawyers.com: LexisNexis Martindale Hubbell; One Hundred Thirty Eighth Year. 2006. ISBN 1-56160-719-3. 
  29. ^ martindale.com
  30. ^ LexisHub Staff (2009-10-09). "Press Release: Martindale-Hubbell Law Digests Now Available For Your Free Use". LexisNexis.com LexisNexis® Legal Newsroom Lexis Hub. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  31. ^ "Press Release: LexisNexis Martindale-Hubbell and Internet Brands Announce Joint Venture". ReedElsevier.com. 2013-08-30. Retrieved 2015-01-23. 
  32. ^ Shoptaw, Taylor. "Digest > Adams and Reese Named a Top Law Firm by Fortune". Memphis Daily News. Martindale-Hubbell peer review ratings are based on the confidential opinions of lawyers and members of the judiciary who provide reviews of lawyers about whom they have professional knowledge. 
  33. ^ Lawyers.com
  34. ^ martindale.com
  35. ^ Nusbaum, Marci Alboher (2000-05-11). "Untangling the Legal Maze by Surfing the Web". New York Times. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2012-11-21. 
  36. ^ a b Lee, Jennifer 8. (2001-02-22). "Legal Aid Online; Web's Law Library: A Partial Catalog". New York Times. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2012-11-21. 
  37. ^ Sarji, Hani (2012-04-18). "Declining Health Is Scary: Estate And Financial Planning Can Protect You". Forbes. Retrieved 2012-11-21. 
  38. ^ "New Jury Verdict Roundup Launched on Lawyers.com Blog". MarketWatch.com. 2011-11-07. Retrieved 2012-11-21. 

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