Martini–Enfield rifles were, by and large, conversions of the Zulu War era.577/450 Martini–Henry, rechambering the rifle for use with the newly introduced.303 British cartridge. Whilst most Martini–Enfields were converted rifles, a number were newly manufactured as well; the Martini–Enfield Mk I was a Martini–Henry Mk III rebarrelled to.303 and with a new extractor installed, whilst the Martini–Enfield Mk II rifles were of new manufacture, although there are examples of converted Mk II rifles. Martini–Henry conversions used Metford rifled barrels, which were more than suitable for the first.303 cartridges, which used black powder as a propellant but wore out quickly when fired with cordite/nitrocellulose cartridges. In 1895, the Enfield rifled barrel was introduced, much more suitable for use with "modern" ammunition; the Martini–Enfield was in service from 1895–1918 and it remained a Reserve Arm in places like India and New Zealand until well into World War II. Martini–Enfield rifles were manufactured/converted by: RSAF, Enfield Lock LSA Co BSA & M Co HRB Co NA&A Co Martini–Enfield rifles were well made and are more than capable of handling modern commercial.303 British ammunition, but, as with all second hand firearms, they should always be checked by a competent gunsmith before attempting to fire them.
The Khyber Pass region between Pakistan and Afghanistan has long had a reputation for producing unlicensed, home-made copies of firearms using whatever materials are available- more than not, railway sleepers, junked motor vehicles, scrap metal. During the various British military expeditions in the North-West Frontier, the locals acquired examples of the Martini–Henry, Martini–Enfield, Lee–Enfield rifles and began to make their own copies; the quality on such rifles varies from "As good as a factory-produced example" to "dangerously unsafe", tending towards the latter end of the scale. The ammunition used in the region is underloaded, being made from a variety of powders -or old film; as such, Khyber Pass Copy rifles cannot stand up to the pressures generated by modern commercial ammunition, because of the significant possibility of severe injury or death to the operator it is advised that such weapons should not be fired under any but the most unlikely rare and desperate circumstances, although some collectors have made mild handloaded cartridges for their Khyber Pass rifles.
This practice is not recommended, anyone firing a Khyber Pass rifle is doing so at their own risk. Khyber Pass Copies can be recognised by a number of factors, notably: Spelling errors in the markings V. R. cyphers dated after 1901- Queen Victoria died in 1901, so any rifles made after this should be stamped "E. R" Generally inferior workmanship, including weak/soft metal, poorly finished wood, badly struck markings. Many different versions of the original Enfield rifles are on sale at UN, United States or NATO-authorized bazaars adjacent to or within in military or diplomatic installations in Afghanistan; until that time, it was common to find a great variety of'Khyber pass' fake weapons. These ranged a gamut of Martini–Henry's, Snider-converted original Enfield pattern 1853's, blatant knockoffs of the Martini–Henry rifles that lacked all British markings and were engraved with popular Middle Eastern geometric and scrollwork designs. After the limitations regarding the loading method cut the supply of these being brought into Bazaars went into effect, many of the vendors resorted to bringing fake muzzle-loading British pattern 1853'Tower' rifles to sell as send home replicas.
While some vendors may claim them to be made by Enfield, most make no claim at all regarding their authenticity. Small Arms Identification Series No. 15:.450 &.303 Martini Rifles & Carbines Skennerton, Arms & Militaria Press, Gold Coast, QLD http://www.martinihenry.com -An excellent source of information on the Martini–Henry and Martini–Enfield rifles
Martini (automobile company)
Martini was a pioneer Swiss automobile manufacturer, in operation 1897 to 1934. In 1897, Swiss businessman Adolf von Martini, son of Friedrich von Martini, the inventor of the action used in the Martini–Henry rifle, built an experimental rear-engined car, he followed this with V4 cars of 10 hp and 16 hp in 1902. Since Swiss cantons were unusually hostile to cars, the company had to rely more than most on exports, demand from abroad proved sufficient to justify building a factory in Saint-Blaise in 1904. Promptly, his British sales agent, Captain H. H. P. Deasy, set off in a 16 hp on a 2,000-mile trek through the Alps, which followed his earlier stunt of driving a cog-wheeled Martini up a mountain railway. By 1906, Deasy was sole salesman; that summer, with a 20 hp and a four-cylinder 40 hp available, Deasy made an ill-advised challenge to Rolls-Royce. For 1907, there was a chain driven 28 hp, an entry in the Kaiserpreis rally, where the marque placed thirteenth and fifteenth. In 1908, showing the rapid pace of change, shaft drive was standard, in 12 hp, 16 hp and 20 hp models.
That year's Coupe de Voiturettes saw 1086cc inlet-over-exhaust SOHC-engined Martinis seventh and tenth, enough for the team victory. The racer was marketed as a 1909 road car, the 10/12, new monobloc construction was standard across the line, yet the engineers could not make up their minds. World War One and the subsequent recession crippled Swiss, Martini, exports. In 1924, Martini was taken over by the Steiger brothers of Burgrieden, the next year conceding the "Battle of the Cylinders" with a new six, licensed from Wanderer; this did not sell, its replacement, the 4.4-liter NF, having four-wheel brakes, was not enough to save the company. The NF soldiered on until 1934 before just fading away, Martini with it; the Martini company manufactured bookbinding machinery. They were purchased by Hans Müller and the company was renamed Müller Martini; the original factory is still in use today, has a 1917 Martini car on display in the lobby of their Bookbinding Academy. Adem G. N. Georgano Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886-1930.
London: Grange-Universal, 1985. Wise, David Burgess. "Martini: A New Star", in Tom, ed. The World of Automobiles. London: Orbis Publishing, 1974. Volume 11, pp. 1259–60
Martini is a brand of Italian vermouth, named after the Martini & Rossi Distilleria Nazionale di Spirito di Vino, in Turin. Clemente Michel, Carlo Re, Carlo Agnelli and Eligio Baudino started the company in 1847, as a vermouth bottling plant in Pessione. A few years Alessandro Martini joined the team, becoming the director in 1863 along with Teofilo Sola and Luigi Rossi. In 1863 they changed the company name to Sola & Cia, they started exporting bottles of vermouth around the world. New York city was given its first crates in 1867. At the time the firm was awarded several prizes, which are still recorded on the bottles: Dublin, Paris and Philadelphia. Just thirty years after its creation, Martini was available in the United States, Argentina, Portugal, Belgium and other countries. In 1879 the Sola family sold its interests to the remaining partners, who renamed the company Martini & Rossi, as it stands today; the brand may have given the American martini vermouth and gin cocktail its name, though other speculations on the cocktail's etymology exist.
In 1892 the business was taken over by Rossi's four sons. In 1929 the Martini Ball & Bar logo was registered for the first time. Restructuring was carried out in 1977 resulting in the creation of the General Beverage Corporation. In 1992 Martini & Rossi merged with Bacardi. “Martini is the world's fourth most powerful ‘spirit’ brand” according to a survey of the market in 2006. In 1970 and 1971 Martini together with Rossi supported the so-called "Ladies Football World Championships"; these tournaments were independent from FIFA and the common national soccer associations. They were held in Mexico. Martini is made from four ingredients: wine, botanicals and alcohol Martini Rosso - 1863 Martini Extra Dry - This was launched on New Year's Day 1900 Martini Bianco - 1910 Martini Rosato - 1980 Martini D’Oro - 1998 Martini Fiero -1998 - New 2017 Martini Soda Martini Riserva Montelera Martini Bitter 1872 Martini Brut Martini Rosé demi sec 2009 Martini Dolce Martini Prosecco Martini Asti Martini Gold by Dolce&Gabbana 2010 Martini Royale 2012 Martini Gran Lusso Limited Edition 150 years 2013 Martini Riserva Speciale Ambrato 2015 Martini Riserva Speciale Rubino 2015 Martini Riserva Speciale Bitter 2017 Martini Official website
Martini & Rossi
Martini & Rossi is an Italian multinational alcoholic beverage company associated with the Martini brand of vermouth and with sparkling wine. It produces the French vermouth, Noilly Prat; the company started in the mid-19th century, as a vermouth bottling plant in Pessione — the Distilleria Nazionale di Spirito di Vino. Three men came to dominate the company, businessman Alessandro Martini, winemaker Luigi Rossi and accountant Teofilo Sola, in 1863 they changed the name to Martini, Sola & Cia; the Sola family sold out in 1879, the company became known as Martini & Rossi. 1892 – The business is taken over by Rossi's four sons. 1929 – The Martini Ball & Bar logo is registered for the first time. 1930 – Rossi's grandsons take over control of the company. 1977 – The company is restructured with the creation of the General Beverage Corporation. 1993 – Martini & Rossi merged with Bacardi. Since the earliest days of the company, Martini have marketed their products aggressively, with some memorable TV advertising and sponsoring events under their MARTINI Terrazza logo.
The company has been involved in motor racing sponsorship under the Martini Racing banner since 1968, was a minor sponsor of Scuderia Ferrari until 2008. From 2014 - 2018 Martini was the title sponsor of Williams F1, with the team called "Williams Martini Racing", the car in the traditional Martini racing colors. Vermouth is made from wine with added sugar and botanicals. Martini Rosso — 1863 Martini Bianco — 1910 Martini Extra Dry — This was launched on New Year's Day 1900. Martini Rosato Martini D’Oro — 1998 Martini Fiero Martini Gold Martini Royale Martini Bitter Noilly Prat, a French vermouth owned by the company Their sparkling wines are all from northern Italy, are sold under the Martini & Rossi brand: Martini & Rossi Asti from Piedmont Martini & Rossi Prosecco from Veneto Martini & Rossi red wine & gin List of Italian companies Martini Racing Martini, the brand of Vermouth produced by the company. Official website Martini & Rossi SpA, history of the company from fundinguniverse.com
Pink Martini is a musical group, formed in 1994 by pianist Thomas Lauderdale in Portland, Oregon. Members of the band call it a little orchestra that crosses the genres of classical music, classic pop, Latin music, jazz; the co-lead vocalists for Pink Martini are Storm Large. Thomas Lauderdale worked in politics in 1994 in his hometown of Oregon, he considered the music at most fundraisers loud and boring. He founded Pink Martini as a remedy, crossing the genres of jazz, classical music, traditional pop to appeal to a broad audience. During the following year, he called China Forbes, a classmate from Harvard, invited her to join the band, their first single, "Sympathique", was nominated for Song of the Year at the Victoires de la Musique Awards in France. Forbes sings in 15 languages. "All of us in Pink Martini have studied different languages as well as different styles of music from different parts of the world," says Lauderdale. "So our repertoire is wildly diverse. At one moment, you feel like you're in the middle of a samba parade in Rio de Janeiro, in the next moment, you're in a French music hall of the 1930s or a palazzo in Napoli.
It's a bit like an urban musical travelogue. We're much an American band, but we spend a lot of time abroad and therefore have the incredible diplomatic opportunity to represent a broader, more inclusive America… the America which remains the most heterogeneously populated country in the world… composed of people of every country, every language, every religion." Featuring 10–12 musicians, Pink Martini performs its multilingual repertoire on concert stages and with symphony orchestras throughout the world. Pink Martini made its European debut at the Cannes Film Festival in 1997 and its orchestral debut with the Oregon Symphony in 1998 under the direction of Norman Leyden. Since the band has gone on to play with more than 50 orchestras around the world, including multiple engagements with the Los Angeles Philharmonic at the Hollywood Bowl, the Boston Pops, the National Symphony at the Kennedy Center, the San Francisco Symphony, the BBC Concert Orchestra at Royal Albert Hall in London. Other appearances include the grand opening of the Los Angeles Philharmonic's Frank Gehry-designed Walt Disney Concert Hall, with return sold-out engagements for New Year's Eve 2003, 2004, 2008 and 2011.
On New Year's Eve 2005, Pink Martini performed live at the Arlene Schnitzer Concert Hall in Portland, Oregon. This performance was aired live on National Public Radio's Toast of the Nation, in partnership with Oregon Public Broadcasting was recorded for a live DVD and broadcast on US public broadcasting and French television; the DVD has been re-released to retail as Discover the World: Live in Concert, featuring not only the full concert, but several vignettes and a short documentary of the band's history. On November 22, 2005, Pink Martini appeared on Late Night with Conan O'Brien. On June 1, 2007, the band appeared on the long-running BBC Two Later with Jools Holland TV music program. On June 14, 2007, Pink Martini performed on Late Show with David Letterman, performing "Hey Eugene". In December 2010 the band performed "We Three Kings" on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno and returned in December 2011 to perform "Santa Baby."In February 2011, China Forbes, recorded a video greeting to the European Space Agency's Italian astronaut, Paolo Nespoli, Russian cosmonaut Aleksandr Kaleri, on board the International Space Station.
The astronauts were preparing to oversee the docking of ESA's Automated Transfer Vehicle cargo vessel, Johannes Kepler, which took place at 17:08 CET on 24 February. The greeting was set to the soundtrack of Dosvedanya Mio Bombino—one of Pink Martini's signature songs—and was mixed with footage of the docking. Pink Martini's debut album Sympathique was released independently in 1997 on the band's own label, Heinz Records, became an international phenomenon, garnering the group nominations for "Song of the Year" and "Best New Artist" in France's Victoires de la Musique Awards in 2000. Pink Martini released Hang On Little Tomato in 2004, Hey Eugene! in 2007 and Splendor in the Grass in 2009. In November 2010 the band released Joy to the World, a festive, multi-denominational holiday album featuring songs from around the globe. Joy to the World received glowing reviews and was carried in Starbucks stores during the 2010 and 2011 holiday seasons. All five albums have gone gold in France, Canada and Turkey and have sold well over 2.5 million copies worldwide.
In Fall 2011, the band released two albums: A Retrospective, a collection of the band's most beloved songs spanning their 17-year career, which includes eight unreleased tracks, 1969, an album of collaborations with Japanese singer Saori Yuki. 1969 has been certified platinum in Japan. On September 24, 2013 the band released. On March 4, 2014, they released Dream a Little Dream with the von Trapps. In 2016, Pink Martini released its 9th new studio album, Je dis oui!, featuring three songs bandleader Thomas Lauderdale co-wrote for the film Souvenir starring Isabelle Huppert. The album's guest vocalists include Ari Shapiro, Rufus Wainwright, Kat
The Martini–Henry is a breech-loading single-shot lever-actuated rifle, used by the British Army. It first entered service in 1871 replacing the Snider–Enfield, a muzzle-loader converted to the cartridge system. Martini–Henry variants were used throughout the British Empire for 30 years, it combined the dropping-block action first developed by Henry O. Peabody and improved by the Swiss designer Friedrich von Martini, combined with the polygonal barrel rifling designed by Scotsman Alexander Henry. Though the Snider was the first breechloader firing a metallic cartridge in regular British service, the Martini was designed from the outset as a breechloader and was both faster firing and had a longer range. There were four main marks of the Martini–Henry rifle produced: Mark I, Mark II, Mark III, Mark IV. There was an 1877 carbine version with variations that included a Garrison Artillery Carbine, an Artillery Carbine, smaller versions designed as training rifles for military cadets; the Mark IV Martini–Henry rifle ended production in 1889, but remained in service throughout the British Empire until the end of the First World War.
It was seen in use by some Afghan tribesmen as late as the Soviet invasion. Early in 2010 and 2011, United States Marines recovered at least three from various Taliban weapons caches in Marjah, another was found near Orgun in Paktika Province by United States Army's 101st Airborne Division; the Martini–Henry was copied on a large scale by North-West Frontier Province gunsmiths. Their weapons were of a poorer quality than those made by Royal Small Arms Factory, but copied down to the proof markings; the chief manufacturers were the Adam Khel Afridi. The British called such weapons "Pass-made rifles". In the original chambering, the rifles fired a round-nosed, tapered-head.452-inch, soft hollow-based lead bullet, wrapped in a paper patch giving a wider diameter of.460 to.469-inch. It was crimped in place with two cannelures, ahead of 2 fibre card or mill board disks, a concave beeswax wad, another card disk and cotton wool filler; this sat on top of the main powder charge inside a rimmed brass foil cartridge made in drawn brass.
The cartridge case was paper lined so as to prevent the chemical reaction between the black powder and the brass. Known today as the.577/450, a bottle-neck design with the same base as the.577 cartridge of the Snider–Enfield. It was charged with 85 grains of Curtis and Harvey's No.6 coarse black powder, notorious for its heavy recoil. The cartridge case was ejected to the rear; the rifle was the steel barrel 33.22 inches. The Henry patent rifling produced a heptagonal barrel with seven grooves with one turn in 22 inches; the weapon weighed 8 pounds 7 ounces. A sword bayonet was standard issue for noncommissioned officers; the standard bayonet was a socket-type spike, either converted from the older Pattern 1853 or newly produced as the Pattern 1876, referred to as the "lunger". A bayonet designed by Lord Elcho was intended for chopping and other sundry non-combat duties, featured a double row of teeth so it could be used as a saw; the Mk2 Martini–Henry rifle, as used in the Zulu Wars, was sighted to 1,800 yards.
At 1,200 yards, 20 shots exhibited a mean deflection from the centre of the group of 27 inches, the highest point on the trajectory was 8 feet at 500 yards. A 0.402 calibre model, the Enfield–Martini, incorporating several minor improvements such as a safety catch, was phased in to replace the Martini–Henry from about 1884. The replacement was gradual. However, before this was complete, the decision was made to replace the Martini–Henry rifles with the.303 calibre bolt-action magazine Lee–Metford, which gave a higher maximum rate of fire. To avoid having three different rifle calibres in service, the Enfield–Martinis were withdrawn, converted to 0.45 calibre, renamed Martini–Henry Mk IV "A", "B" and "C" pattern rifles. Some 0.303 calibre black-powder carbine versions were produced, known as the Martini–Metford, 0.303 calibre cordite carbines, called Martini–Enfields. During the Martini–Henry's service life the British army was involved in a large number of colonial wars, most notably the Anglo-Zulu War in 1879.
The rifle was used in the Battle of Isandlwana, by the company of the 2nd Battalion, 24th Regiment of Foot at the battle of Rorke's Drift, where 139 British soldiers defended themselves against several thousand Zulus. The weapon was not phased out until 1904; the rifle suffered from cartridge-extraction problems during the Zulu War due to the thin, pliable foil brass cartridges used: they expanded too much into the rifle's chamber on detonation, to the point that they stuck or tore open inside the rifle's chamber. It would become difficult to move the breech block and reload the rifle diminishing its effectiveness, or rendering it useless if the block could not be opened. After investigating the matter, the British Army Ordnance Department determined the fragile construction of the rolled brass cartridge, fouling due to the black-powder propellant, were the main causes of this problem. To correct th
Mārtiņi or Mārtiņdiena is an ancient Latvian winter welcoming holiday, when the time of pieguļa and shepherding came to an end. According to a solar calendar, Mārtiņdiena marks the midpoint between the autumnal equinox and winter solstice, is celebrated in the middle of November. Mārtiņi ended Veļu laiks and started Ledus laiks, when the swamp became passable and raids of armed men sitting on horses were expected; the holiday has acquired its name before the 16th century, during which happened the reformation of churches by Livonian Order's sacred memorial day in honor of a Roman soldier Martin, who sat on the horse, offering his cloak to a poor man suffering from coldness. He learned through dreams, that it was Jesus himself. Christian legend tells, that Martin did not want to become a bishop and hid away in the poultry barn, the local church nationals meanwhile walked around and they discovered him because of poultry's noisiness. Therefore, the Latvian Mārtiņi beliefs and predictions are not only associated with horses and clothes, but with poultry slaughter and Children of Mārtiņi march.
"Maidens on Mārtiņi's Eve have to throw a skirt in the middle of the room before going to sleep. "On Mārtiņi's Eve all clothes which were worn on that day, must be left on the floor. In the evening, before Mārtiņi, in honor of stables they sacrificed a rooster, believing that would prevent horses from catching a disease in the winter. Pēteris Šmits's compiled "Latvian folk beliefs" found in following ancient ritual descriptions: "The landlord took a rooster, brought it to the horse stables, stopped in front of one horse and bypassed the rooster around the horse in circles, towards the sun, instead of along the sun. Once it was done to every horses, who were located in the stable the landlord killed the rooster, holding it over a bushel of oats and nearly drenching it with blood; these oats with blood were poured into a manger." With rooster's bloody head and neck the stable's jamb and lintel were smeared, drew a cross on the floor. "On Mārtiņvakarā, they went to the horse stable. There they with its blood tarnished the left hind leg of each horse.
After that a loaf of bread with the rooster were carried around horses the horses would not be smitten with evil spirits and their random incubus." On Mārtiņi mask marches helped with Mārtiņi's healing and pedestrians with Mārtiņi's children or mārtiņiem: "On Mārtiņi Eve the youth dressed up and walked around asking for gifts, which all together were poured." "On Mārtiņi Eve the Mārtiņi children chased Mārtiņi with sticks." If Children of Mārtiņi flogged someone from home team do not run away under the bed, because all his life a man will be fearful." "On Mārtiņi Eve, men went through the village, dressed in clipped fur coats as someone from evil side and girded with belts of braided straw, stuck a tail to buttocks. Traditions of Mārtiņi Day are known by many citizens of European countries. Germans call this celebration Martinstag, Englishmen call it Martinmas, Swedish - Mårtensafton, Danes - Mortensdag, Finns - Martinpäivä, while Estonians call it Mardipäev. Since Middle Ages, this holiday is associated with knight traditions.
In Austria and Netherlands, on Mārtiņi Eve happens a solemn children processions with candles and lanterns. The traditional festive meal on this day is a roasted goose. Ancient Latvian solar calendar