An archangel /ˌɑːrkˈeɪndʒəl/ is an angel of high rank. The word archangel itself is associated with the Abrahamic religions. The word archangel is derived from the Greek ἀρχάγγελος, Michael and Gabriel are recognized as archangels in Judaism, Islam and by most Christians. Protestants recognize Gabriel as an angel but consider Michael to be the only archangel, raphael—mentioned in the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit—is recognized in the Catholic and Orthodox churches. Gabriel and Raphael are venerated in the Roman Catholic Church with a feast on September 29, the named archangels in Islam are Gabriel, Michael and Azrael. Jewish literature, such as the Book of Enoch, mentions Metatron as an archangel, called the highest of the angels, some branches of the faiths mentioned have identified a group of seven Archangels, but the actual angels vary, depending on the source. Gabriel and Raphael are always mentioned, the other archangels vary, but most commonly include Uriel, in Zoroastrianism, sacred texts allude to the six great Amesha Spenta of Ahura Mazda.
An increasing number of experts in anthropology and philosophy, the Amesha Spentas of Zoroastrianism are likened to archangels. They individually inhabit immortal bodies that operate in the world to protect and inspire humanity. The Avesta explains the origin and nature of archangels or Amesha Spentas, to maintain equilibrium, Ahura Mazda engaged in the first act of creation, distinguishing his Holy Spirit Spenta Mainyu, the Archangel of righteousness. Ahura Mazda distinguished from himself six more Amesha Spentas, along with Spenta Mainyu, he oversaw the development of sixteen lands, each imbued with a unique cultural catalyst calculated to encourage the formation of distinct human populations. The Amesha Spentas were charged with protecting these holy lands and through their emanation, the Amesha Spentas as attributes of God are, Spenta Mainyu, lit. Immortality The Hebrew Bible uses the ter. מלאכי אלוהים, The Hebrew word for angel is malach, מלאכי י י, בני אלוהים and הקדושים to refer to beings traditionally interpreted as angelic messengers.
Other terms are used in texts, such as העליונים. References to angels are uncommon in Jewish literature except in works such as the Book of Daniel, though they are mentioned briefly in the stories of Jacob. Daniel is the first biblical figure to refer to individual angels by name and it is therefore widely speculated that Jewish interest in angels developed during the Babylonian captivity. According to Rabbi Simeon ben Lakish of Tiberias, specific names for the angels were brought back by the Jews from Babylon, there are no explicit references to archangels in the canonical texts of the Hebrew Bible. In post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels came to take on a particular significance, though these archangels were believed to have rank amongst the heavenly host, no systematic hierarchy ever developed
Roger II of Sicily
Roger II was King of Sicily, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his brother Simon. He began his rule as Count of Sicily in 1105, became Duke of Apulia and Calabria in 1127, by the time of his death at the age of 58, Roger had succeeded in uniting all the Norman conquests in Italy into one kingdom with a strong centralized government. By 999, Norman adventurers had arrived in southern Italy, by 1016, they were involved in the complex local politics where Lombards were fighting against the Byzantine Empire. Roger I ruled the County of Sicily at the time of the birth of his youngest son, Roger, at Mileto, Calabria, in 1095. Roger Is nephew, Roger Borsa, was the Duke of Apulia and Calabria, alongside these three major rulers were a large number of minor counts, who effectively exercised sovereign power in their own localities. These counts at least nominally owed allegiance to one of these three Norman rulers, but such allegiance was usually weak and often ignored, when Roger I died in 1101, his young son, Simon of Hauteville, became Count, with his mother Adelaide del Vasto as regent.
Simon died four years in 1105, at the age of 12, Adelaide continued as regent to her younger son Roger, who was just nine years old. Upon the death of his brother, Simon of Hauteville, in 1105, Roger inherited the County of Sicily under the regency of his mother. His mother was assisted by such notables as Christodulus, the Greek emir of Palermo, in 1109, Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos, bestowed upon him the title of protonobilissimos, in recognition of his knowledge of the Byzantine court. In the summer of 1110, Roger was visited by the Norwegian king Sigurd Jorsalfare, the story suggests that Sigurd gave Roger the name King of Sicily, twenty years before he actually obtained this title. In 1112, at the age of sixteen, Roger began his rule, being named now knight, now Count of Sicily. In 1117, his mother, who had married Baldwin I of Jerusalem, returned to Sicily, Roger seems to have felt the slight, and this might explain his reluctance to go crusading. Roger married his first wife, daughter of Alfonso VI of Castile, and his queen, who may be identical to his former concubine.
In 1122, William II the Duke of Apulia, who was fighting with Count Jordan of Ariano, Roger, in exchange, provided William with 600 knights and access to money for his campaign. However, the union of Sicily and Apulia was resisted by Pope Honorius II, after this coalition failed, in August 1128 Honorius invested Roger at Benevento as Duke of Apulia. The baronial resistance, backed by Naples, Salerno, in September 1129 Roger was generally recognized as duke of Apulia by Sergius VII of Naples, Robert of Capua, and the rest. He began at once to enforce order in the duchy, where ducal power had long been fading, on the death of Pope Honorius in February 1130 there were two claimants to the papal throne. Roger supported Antipope Anacletus II against Innocent II, the reward was a crown, and, on 27 September 1130, Anacletus papal bull made Roger king of Sicily
Alfonso V of Aragon
Alfonso the Magnanimous KG was the King of Aragon, Majorca and Corsica, Sicily and Count of Barcelona from 1416, and King of Naples from 1442 until his death. He was one of the most prominent figures of the early Renaissance, born at Medina del Campo, he was the son of Ferdinand I of Aragon and Eleanor of Alburquerque. He represented the old line of the counts of Barcelona through the line, and was on his fathers side descended from the House of Trastamara. By hereditary right he was king of Sicily and claimed the island of Sardinia for himself, Alfonso was in possession of much of Corsica by the 1420s. In 1421 the childless Queen Joanna II of Naples adopted and named him as heir to the Kingdom of Naples, and Alfonso went to Naples. Here he hired the condottiero Braccio da Montone with the task of reducing the resistance of his rival claimant, Louis III of Anjou, with Pope Martin V supporting Sforza, Alfonso switched his religious allegiance to the Aragonese antipope Benedict XIII. After an attempt to arrest the queen herself had failed, Joan called on Sforza who defeated the Aragonese militias near Castel Capuano in Naples, Alfonso fled to Castel Nuovo, but the help of a fleet of 22 galleys led by Giovanni da Cardona improved his situation.
Sforza and Joanna ransomed Caracciolo and retreated to the fortress of Aversa, here she repudiated her earlier adoption of Alfonso and, with the backing of Martin V, named Louis III as her heir instead. The Duke of Milan, Filippo Maria Visconti, joined the anti-Aragonese coalition, on his way towards Barcelona, Alfonso destroyed Marseille, a possession of Louis III. In late 1423 the Genoese fleet of Filippo Maria Visconti moved in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, rapidly conquering Gaeta, Procida and Sorrento. Naples, which was held by Alfonsos brother, Pedro de Aragon, was besieged in 1424 by the Genoese ships and Joannas troops, now led by Francesco Sforza, the city fell in April 1424. Pedro, after a resistance in Castel Nuovo, fled to Sicily in August. Joanna II and Louis III again took possession of the realm, an opportunity for Alfonso to reconquer Naples occurred in 1432, when Caracciolo was killed in a conspiracy. Alfonso tried to regain the favour of the queen, but failed, in her will, she bequeathed her realm to René of Anjou, Louis IIIs younger brother.
This solution was opposed by the new pope, Eugene IV, the Neapolitans having called in the French, Alfonso decided to intervene and, with the support of several barons of the kingdom, captured Capua and besieged the important sea fortress of Gaeta. His fleet of 25 galleys was met by the Genoese ships sent by Visconti, in the battle of Ponza that ensued, Alfonso was defeated and taken prisoner. Helped by a Sicilian fleet, Alfonso recaptured Capua and set his base in Gaeta in February 1436, papal troops had invaded the Neapolitan kingdom, but Alfonso bribed their commander, Cardinal Giovanni Vitelleschi, and their successes waned. In the meantime, René had managed to reach Naples on 19 May 1438, Alfonso tried to besiege the city in the following September, but failed
A shrine is a holy or sacred place, which is dedicated to a specific deity, hero, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped. Shrines often contain idols, relics, or other objects associated with the figure being venerated. A shrine at which offerings are made is called an altar. Shrines can be found in various settings, such as churches, cemeteries, or in the home, a shrine may become a focus of a cult image. Many shrines are located buildings and in the temples designed specifically for worship, such as a church in Christianity. A shrine here is usually the centre of attention in the building, in such cases, adherents of the faith assemble within the building in order to venerate the deity at the shrine. In classical temple architecture, the shrine may be synonymous with the cella, historically, in Hinduism and Roman Catholicism, and in modern faiths, such as Neopaganism, a shrine can commonly be found within the home or shop. This shrine is usually a structure or a setup of pictures and figurines dedicated to a deity that is part of the official religion.
Small household shrines are common among the Chinese and people from South and Southeast Asia, whether Hindu. Usually a small lamp and small offerings are kept daily by the shrine, Buddhist household shrines must be on a shelf above the head, Chinese shrines must stand directly on the floor. Small outdoor yard shrines are found at the bottom of many gardens, following various religions, including historically. Shrines are found in most, though not all, Shrines therefore attract the practice of pilgrimage. Shrines are found in many, though not all, forms of Christianity, Roman Catholicism, the largest denomination of Christianity, has many shrines, as do Orthodox Christianity and Anglicanism. For a shrine to be described as national, the approval of the Episcopal Conference is necessary, for it to be described as international, the approval of the Holy See is required. Another use of the shrine in colloquial Catholic terminology is a niche or alcove in most – especially larger – churches used by parishioners when praying privately in the church.
They were called Devotional Altars, since they could look like small Side Altars or bye-altars, Shrines were always centered on some image of Christ or a saint – for instance, a statue, mural or mosaic, and may have had a reredos behind them. However, Mass would not be celebrated at them, they were used to aid or give a visual focus for prayers. Side altars, where Mass could actually be celebrated, were used in a way to shrines by parishioners
Peter III of Aragon
Peter the Great was the King of Aragon of Valencia, and Count of Barcelona from 1276 to his death. At the invitation of some rebels, he conquered Sicily and became its king in 1282, pressing the claim of his wife, Constance of Hohenstaufen and he was one of the greatest of medieval Aragonese monarchs. Peter was the eldest son of James I of Aragon and his second wife Violant of Hungary, among betrothals of his youth, he was betrothed to Eudoxia Laskarina, the youngest daughter of Emperor Theodoros II of Nicaea, in or before 1260. This contract was dissolved, after Eudoxias brother lost the throne in 1261. On 13 June 1262, Peter married Constance and heiress of Manfred of Sicily, during his youth and early adulthood, Peter gained a great deal of military experience in his fathers wars of the Reconquista against the Moors. On James Is death in 1276, the lands of the Crown of Aragon were divided amongst his two sons, Peter the Great and Constance of Sicily were crowned in Zaragoza in November 1276 by the archbishop of Tarragona.
Peters first act as king was to complete the pacification of his Valencian territory, however, a revolt soon broke out in Catalonia, led by the viscount of Cardona and abetted by Roger-Bernard III of Foix, Arnold Roger I of Pallars Sobirà, and Ermengol X of Urgell. The rebels had developed a hatred for Peter as a result of the severity of his dealings with them during the reign of his father, now they opposed him for not summoning the Catalan corts, and confirming its privileges after his ascension to the throne. At the same time, a succession crisis continued in the County of Urgell, meanwhile, a good portion of the county had been repossessed by Peters father, James I, and was thus inherited by Peter in 1276. In 1278, Ermengol X, Álvaros eldest son, succeeded in recovering most of his lost patrimony, in 1280, Peter defeated the stewing rebellion led by Roger-Bernard III after besieging the rebels in Balaguer for a month. Most of the leaders were imprisoned in Lleida until 1281. When Muhammad I al-Mustansir, the Hafsid Emir of Tunisia who had put himself under James the Conqueror, died in 1277, Peter first sent an expedition to Tunis in 1280 under Conrad de Llansa designed to re-establish his suzerainty.
In 1281, he prepared to lead a fleet of 140 ships with 15,000 men to invade Tunisia on behalf of the governor of Constantine. The fleet landed at Alcoyll in 1282 and it was these Aragonese troops that received a Sicilian embassy after the Vespers of 30 March asking Peter to take their throne from Charles of Anjou. This made Peter III the heir of Manfred of Sicily in right of his wife, the Italian physician John of Procida acted on behalf of Peter in Sicily. John had fled to Aragon after Charles success at Tagliacozzo, John travelled to Sicily to stir up the discontents in favour of Peter and thence to Constantinople to procure the support of Michael VIII Palaeologus. Michael refused to aid the Aragonese king without papal approval, and so John voyaged to Rome and there gained the consent of Pope Nicholas III, who feared the ascent of Charles in the Mezzogiorno. John returned to Barcelona but the pope died, to be replaced by Simon de Brion, a Frenchman and an ally of Charles
Palermo is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo. The city is noted for its history, culture and gastronomy, playing an important role throughout much of its existence, Palermo is located in the northwest of the island of Sicily, right by the Gulf of Palermo in the Tyrrhenian Sea. The city was founded in 734 BC by the Phoenicians as Ziz, Palermo became a possession of Carthage, before becoming part of the Roman Republic, the Roman Empire and eventually part of the Byzantine Empire, for over a thousand years. The Greeks named the city Panormus meaning complete port, from 831 to 1072 the city was under Arab rule during the Emirate of Sicily when the city first became a capital. The Arabs shifted the Greek name into Balarme, the root for Palermos present-day name, eventually Sicily would be united with the Kingdom of Naples to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies until the Italian unification of 1860. The population of Palermo urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 855,285, in the central area, the city has a population of around 676,000 people.
The inhabitants are known as Palermitani or, panormiti, the languages spoken by its inhabitants are the Italian language, Sicilian language and the Palermitano dialect. Palermo is Sicilys cultural and touristic capital and it is a city rich in history, art and food. Palermo is the main Sicilian industrial and commercial center, the industrial sectors include tourism, commerce. Palermo currently has an airport, and a significant underground economy. In fact, for cultural and economic reasons, Palermo was one of the largest cities in the Mediterranean and is now among the top tourist destinations in both Italy and Europe. It is the seat of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Arab-Norman Palermo. The city is going through careful redevelopment, preparing to become one of the major cities of the Euro-Mediterranean area. Roman Catholicism is highly important in Palermitano culture, the Patron Saint of Palermo is Santa Rosalia whose Feast Day is celebrated on 15 July. The area attracts significant numbers of each year and is widely known for its colourful fruit and fish markets at the heart of Palermo, known as Vucciria, Ballarò.
Palermo lies in a basin, formed by the Papireto, the basin was named the Conca dOro by the Arabs in the 9th century. The city is surrounded by a range which is named after the city itself. These mountains face the Tyrrhenian Sea, Palermo is home to a natural port and offers excellent views to the sea, especially from Monte Pellegrino
Uriel is one of the archangels of post-Exilic Rabbinic tradition, and of certain Christian traditions. In apocryphal and occult works, Uriel has been equated or confused with Urial, Uryan, Vretil, Suriel, Phanuel, the angels mentioned in the older books of the Hebrew Bible are without names. Indeed, rabbi Simeon ben Lakish of Tiberias, asserted that all the names for the angels were brought back by the Jews from Babylon. Raphael features prominently in the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit, the Book of Tobit is accepted as scriptural by the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Oriental Orthodox Church. Where a fourth archangel is added to the three, to represent the four cardinal points, Uriel is generally the fourth. Uriel is listed as the angel in Christian Gnostics, by Gregory the Great. However, the Book of Enoch clearly distinguishes the two Angels, Uriel means the Light of God while Phanuel means the Face of God, Uriel is the third angel listed in the Testament of Solomon, the fourth being Sabrael.
Uriel appears in the Second Book of Esdras found in the Biblical apocrypha in which the prophet Ezra asks God a series of questions, and Uriel is sent by God to instruct him. According to the Revelation of Esdras, the angels that will rule at the end of the world are Michael, Uriel, Gabuthelon, Zebuleon and Arphugitonos. The last five listed only appear in book and nowhere else in apocryphal or apocalyptic works. In Christian apocryphal gospels Uriel plays a role, differing sources, in the rescue of Jesus cousin John the Baptist from the Massacre of the Innocents ordered by King Herod. He carries John and his mother Saint Elizabeth to join the Holy Family after their Flight into Egypt and their reunion is depicted in Leonardo da Vincis Virgin of the Rocks. Uriel is often identified as a cherub and angel of repentance and he stands at the Gate of Eden with a fiery sword, or as the angel who watches over thunder and terror. In the Apocalypse of Peter he appears as the Angel of Repentance, in the Life of Adam and Eve, Uriel is regarded as the spirit of the third chapter of Genesis.
He is identified as one of the angels who helped bury Adam, stemming from medieval Jewish mystical traditions, Uriel has become the Angel of Sunday, the Angel of Poetry, and one of the Holy Sephiroth. Uriel is depicted as the destroyer of the hosts of Sennacherib and he checked the doors of Egypt for lambs blood during the plague. He holds the key to the Pit during the End Times and he is often depicted carrying a book or a papyrus scroll representing wisdom. Uriel is a patron of the Arts, in addition, every Monday throughout the year is dedicated to the angels
Traditionally the narthex was a part of the church building, but was not considered part of the church proper. Peters Basilica in Rome or in the Basilica of SantAmbrogio in Milan, the exonarthex may have been either open or enclosed, with a door leading to the outside as in the Byzantiine Chora Church. By extension, the narthex can denote a covered porch or entrance to a building, the word comes from narthex and was the place for penitents. In Modern Greek narthekas no longer has meaning and is either the porch of a church, as English. In English the narthex is now the porch outside the church at the west end, the purpose of the narthex was to allow those not eligible for admittance into the general congregation to hear and partake in the service. In the Russian Orthodox Church funerals are held in the narthex. Later reforms removed the requirement to exclude people from services who were not full members of the congregation, Church architects continued, however, to build a room before the entrance of the nave.
This room could be called an inside vestibule or a porch, some traditions still call this area the narthex as it represents the point of entry into the church, even if everyone is admitted to the nave itself. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the esonarthex and exonarthex had, to this day, this is where the faithful will bring their baskets at Pascha for the priest to bless the Paschal foods which they will take back to their homes for the festive break-fast. Traditionally, the narthex is where candles and prosphora will be sold for offering during Divine Services, on feast days there will be a procession to the narthex, followed by intercessory prayers, called the Litiy. In Armenia the local style of narthex is known as a gavit, antechamber Cathedral diagram Liturgical east and west Lobby Westwork Krautheimer, Richard. Media related to Narthexes at Wikimedia Commons
A pendentive is a constructive device permitting the placing of a circular dome over a square room or an elliptical dome over a rectangular room. The pendentives, which are segments of a sphere, taper to points at the bottom. In masonry the pendentives thus receive the weight of the dome, prior to the pendentives development, the device of corbelling or the use of the squinch in the corners of a room had been employed. Pendentives were commonly used in Orthodox and Baroque churches, hagia Sophia Squinch Heinle, Schlaich, Jörg, Kuppeln aller Zeiten, aller Kulturen, Stuttgart, ISBN 3-421-03062-6 Rasch, Jürgen, Die Kuppel in der römischen Architektur. Entwicklung, Konstruktion, Architectura,15, pp. 117–139
The gospels of Matthew and Luke are known as the Synoptic Gospels, because they include many of the same stories, often in the same sequence. Also known to have written the book of Acts and to have been a friend of Paul of Tarsus, John – a disciple of Jesus. They are called evangelists, an meaning people who proclaim good news. Images normally, but not invariably, appear with wings like angels. e. Man, the king of creation as the image of the creator, the lion as the king of beasts of prey, the ox as the king of domesticated animals and the eagle as the king of the birds. Matthew the Evangelist, the author of the first gospel account, is symbolized by a winged man, matthews gospel starts with Josephs genealogy from Abraham, it represents Jesus Incarnation, and so Christs human nature. This signifies that Christians should use their reason for salvation, Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel account, is symbolized by a winged lion – a figure of courage and monarchy. The lion represents Jesus resurrection, and Christ as king and this signifies that Christians should be courageous on the path of salvation.
Luke the Evangelist, the author of the gospel account, is symbolized by a winged ox or bull – a figure of sacrifice, service. Lukes account begins with the duties of Zacharias in the temple, it represents Jesus sacrifice in His Passion and Crucifixion, the ox signifies that Christians should be prepared to sacrifice themselves in following Christ. John the Evangelist, the author of the gospel account, is symbolized by an eagle – a figure of the sky. This symbolizes that Christians should look on eternity without flinching as they journey towards their goal of union with God, each of the symbols is depicted with wings, following the biblical sources first in Ezekiel 1–2, and in Revelation. They were presented as one of the most common found on church portals and apses. When surrounding Christ, the figure of the man appears at top left – above Christs right hand. Underneath the man is the ox and underneath the lion is the eagle and this both reflects the medieval idea of the order of nobility of nature of the beasts and the text of Ezekiel 1.10.
From the thirteenth century their use began to decline, as a new conception of Christ in Majesty, showing the wounds of the Passion, sometimes in Evangelist portraits they appear to dictate to the writing evangelist. Matthew is often cited as the first Gospel account, not only owing to its place in the canon, most biblical scholars however, see the gospel account of Mark as having been written first and Johns gospel account as having been written last. It has become customary to speak of the Gospel of Matthew
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
The New Testament is the second major part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity, Christians regard both the Old and New Testaments together as sacred scripture. The New Testament has frequently accompanied the spread of Christianity around the world and it reflects and serves as a source for Christian theology and morality. Both extended readings and phrases directly from the New Testament are incorporated into the various Christian liturgies, the New Testament has influenced religious and political movements in Christendom and left an indelible mark on literature and music. In almost all Christian traditions today, the New Testament consists of 27 books, John A. T. Robinson, Dan Wallace, and William F. Albright dated all the books of the New Testament before 70 AD. Others give a date of 80 AD, or at 96 AD. Over time, some disputed books, such as the Book of Revelation, other works earlier held to be Scripture, such as 1 Clement, the Shepherd of Hermas, and the Diatessaron, were excluded from the New Testament.
However, the canon of the New Testament, at least since Late Antiquity, has been almost universally recognized within Christianity. The term new testament, or new covenant first occurs in Jeremiah 31,31, the same Greek phrase for new covenant is found elsewhere in the New Testament. Modern English, like Latin, distinguishes testament and covenant as alternative translations, John Wycliffes 1395 version is a translation of the Latin Vulgate and so follows different terms in Jeremiah and Hebrews, Lo. Days shall come, saith the Lord, and I shall make a new covenant with the house of Israel, for he reproving him saith, Lo. Days come, saith the Lord, when I shall establish a new testament on the house of Israel, use of the term New Testament to describe a collection of first and second-century Christian Greek Scriptures can be traced back to Tertullian. In Against Marcion, written circa 208 AD, he writes of the Divine Word, by the 4th century, the existence—even if not the exact contents—of both an Old and New Testament had been established.
Lactantius, a 3rd–4th century Christian author wrote in his early-4th-century Latin Institutiones Divinae and that which preceded the advent and passion of Christ—that is, the law and the prophets—is called the Old, but those things which were written after His resurrection are named the New Testament. The canon of the New Testament is the collection of books that most Christians regard as divinely inspired, several of these writings sought to extend and apply apostolic teaching to meet the needs of Christians in a given locality. The book order is the same in the Greek Orthodox, Roman Catholic, the Slavonic and Ethiopian traditions have different New Testament book orders. Each of the four gospels in the New Testament narrates the life, the word gospel derives from the Old English gōd-spell, meaning good news or glad tidings. The gospel was considered the good news of the coming Kingdom of Messiah, and the redemption through the life and death of Jesus, Gospel is a calque of the Greek word εὐαγγέλιον, euangelion