The Cleveland Browns are a professional American football team based in Cleveland, Ohio. The Browns compete in the National Football League as a club of the American Football Conference North division. The Browns play their games at FirstEnergy Stadium, which opened in 1999, with administrative offices and training facilities in Berea. The Browns official colors are brown and white and they are unique among the 32 member franchises of the NFL in that they do not have a logo on their helmets and are the only team named after a specific person, original coach Paul Brown. The franchise was founded in 1945 by businessman Arthur B, McBride and coach Paul Brown as a charter member of the All-America Football Conference. The Browns dominated the AAFC, compiling a 47–4–3 record in the four active seasons. When the AAFC folded after the 1949 season, the Browns joined the National Football League along with the San Francisco 49ers, from 1965 to 1995, they made the playoffs 14 times, but did not win another championship or appear in the Super Bowl in that period.
In 1995, owner Art Modell, who had purchased the Browns in 1961, announced plans to move the team to Baltimore, Maryland. The Browns intellectual property, including name, training facility, and history, were kept in trust. A new team would be established by 1999 either by expansion or relocation, the Browns were announced as an expansion team in 1998 and resumed play in 1999. Since resuming operations in 1999, the Browns have struggled to find success and they have had only two winning seasons, one playoff appearance, and no playoff wins. The franchise has noted for a lack of stability with quarterbacks. To date, the Browns overall win-loss record since 1999 is 88–200, the Browns origins date to 1944, when taxicab magnate Arthur B. Mickey McBride secured the rights to a Cleveland franchise in the newly formed All-America Football Conference. S, early in 1945, McBride named 36-year-old Ohio State Buckeyes coach Paul Brown as the teams head coach and general manager and gave him a share in its profits.
The move surprised and upset Buckeye fans, who had hoped he would resume his successful run at the school after the war, the name of the team was at first left up to Paul Brown, who rejected calls for it to be christened the Browns. The franchise and the Cleveland Plain Dealer held a naming contest to publicize the team, in June 1945, a committee selected Panthers as the new teams name, named after a failed American Football League franchise in Cleveland which only lasted a single season in 1926. It is unclear whether Panthers was the highest vote-getter, or if it was second-highest behind Browns, the owner of the failed AFL Panthers franchise, General C. X. Zimmerman, indicated that he owned the name Cleveland Panthers, at this point, Paul Brown bowed to popular sentiment and agreed to the Browns name
American football plays
In American football a play is a close to the ground plan of action or strategy used to move the ball down the field. A play occurs at either the snap from the center or at kickoff, most commonly plays occur at the snap during a down. These plays range from basic to very complicated, football players keep a record of these plays in their playbook. A play begins in one of two ways, A play from scrimmage begins when the ball is delivered from the center to a back, usually the quarterback. The ball carriers forward progress is stopped to the point where a stalemate occurs and it is clear that the ball cannot be advanced any farther, the ball carrier steps out of bounds. A forward pass touches the ground before it is caught, the ball touching the ground in other situations does NOT end the play. In the case of a fumble, the play continues until one of the above conditions is met. When the play ends, the ball is set for the next play, for the first three instances above, the ball is set at the point of its maximum forward progress.
If he runs backwards of his own volition, the ball is marked where he goes down, in the case of an incomplete pass, the ball is placed at the previous line of scrimmage. Play resumes as described above, the offensive team must have seven players on the line of scrimmage at the start of a play. Those players may be positioned at any place along the line of scrimmage, the defensive team may position as many as 11 players on the line of scrimmage. Usually, there are from 3 to 8 defensive players on the line of scrimmage, run block -- An active type of blocking, where the player steps forward in an attempt to push a defensive player out of the path of the ball carrier. Pass block-- A passive type of blocking, where the player steps backward to establish a pocket around the quarterback to give the quarterback a chance to pass. Lead block-- A situation where one player precedes the ball carrier along his path in order to clear any defensive players that have not already been blocked. Pull -- When a member of the line takes a step back from his usual place in a line.
Pulling can be done on pass and run plays, pocket -- The protected area around a quarterback established by the offensive line in order to give him adequate time and sight lines in order to complete a pass. Gap -- A space between blockers, hole -- A space in the line where a ball carrier aims on a running play. These can be predesignated holes defined by the spacing between players before the snap, or they can be established by moving players around and establishing the holes after the snap
AFC Championship Game
The AFC Championship Game is one of the two semi-final playoff games of the National Football League, the largest professional American football league in the United States. The game is played on the penultimate Sunday in January and determines the champion of the American Football Conference, the winner advances to face the winner of the National Football Conference Championship Game in the Super Bowl. The game was established as part of the 1970 merger between the NFL and the American Football League, with the merged league realigning into two conferences. Since 1984, each winner of the AFC Championship Game has received the Lamar Hunt Trophy, named after the founder of the AFL and longtime leader of the Kansas City Chiefs, Lamar Hunt. The first AFC Championship Game was played following the 1970 regular season after the merger between the NFL and the American Football League. The game is considered the successor to the former AFL Championship, every AFC team except the Houston Texans has played in an AFC Championship Game at least once.
The Pittsburgh Steelers have the most appearances in the AFC Championship Game at 16, with 11 of those games being in Pittsburgh, at the end of each regular season, a series of playoff games involving the top six teams in the AFC are conducted. In the current NFL playoff structure, this consists of the four division champions, the two teams remaining following the Wild Card round and the divisional round play in the AFC Championship game. Initially, the site of the game was determined on a rotating basis, since the 1975–76 season, the site of the AFC Championship has been based on playoff seeding based on the regular season won-loss record, with the highest surviving seed hosting the game. A wild card team can only host the game if both participants are wild cards, in case the fifth seed would host the sixth seed. Such an instance has never occurred in the NFL, beginning with 1984–85 season, the winner of the AFC Championship Game has received the Lamar Hunt Trophy, named after the founder of the AFL.
The original design consisted of a base with a sculpted AFC logo in the front. Numbers in parentheses in the table are AFC Championships, bold indicates team won Super Bowl that year. ^ b, The Seahawks were members of the NFC in 1976 and members of the AFC from 1977 to 2001, including their appearances in the NFC Championship Game, they hold a combined 3–1 record between both Conference Championship Games. ^ c, The Buccaneers were members of the AFC in 1976 before moving to the NFC in 1977, ^ e, Includes appearances as the Baltimore Colts, where they went 1–1 in AFC Championship Games. Since moving to Indianapolis in 1984, the Colts are 2–3 in AFC Championship Games ^ f, Includes appearances as the Houston Oilers, since moving to Tennessee in 1997, they are 1–1 in AFC Championship Games. Los Angeles Raiders Largest margin of victory –48 points**, January 20,1991 – Buffalo Bills vs
Thomas Alfred Maddox is a former football quarterback in the National Football League, the XFL, and the Arena Football League. Maddox was born in Shreveport and raised in Hurst, Texas, at UCLA, Maddox played collegiately for two seasons and led UCLA to the John Hancock Bowl in 1991. The Denver Broncos drafted Maddox in the first round of the 1992 NFL Draft, originally thought to be the successor to Broncos star quarterback John Elway, Maddox had an unimpressive record in his rookie year and saw limited playing time in his early NFL career. Before the 1994 season, the Broncos traded Maddox to the Los Angeles Rams, and Maddox would join the New York Giants, Jacksonville Jaguars, Maddox played under coach Dan Reeves with the Broncos and Falcons. Maddox became starting quarterback for the Los Angeles Xtreme of the XFL, with the Xtreme, Maddox led the team to the Million Dollar Game championship and became league MVP for the season. Later that year, Maddox signed with the Pittsburgh Steelers, originally as backup to Kordell Stewart, Maddox became the Steelers starting quarterback in 2002 and led the Steelers to a 10–5-1 record and a postseason run.
For his achievements in 2002, the NFL named Maddox Comeback Player of the Year, in this backup role, Maddox earned a Super Bowl ring when Pittsburgh won Super Bowl XL after the 2005 season, beating the Seattle Seahawks. The 2005 season was his final season as a football player. After retiring from football, Maddox became a baseball coach in his native Dallas/Fort Worth area. Born in Shreveport, Maddox graduated from L. D, Bell High School at Hurst, Texas in 1990. At L. D. Bell, Maddox lettered in football, basketball, as a senior, he was team captain, and was named the Southwest Texas Offensive Player of the Year, District Most Valuable Player, and the Area Most Valuable Player. Maddox played two seasons of football as quarterback at UCLA. In 1990, Maddox completed 182 of 327 of his passes for 2,682 yards,17 touchdowns, and 14 interceptions. The following season, Maddox led UCLA to a 9–3 record and the John Hancock Bowl title with a 209-for-343 completion rate for 2,681 yards,16 touchdowns, and 16 interceptions.
In his two years with UCLA, Maddox became the first Pac-10 player to pass 5,000 yards by sophomore year and won first-team All-American honors in 1991. Maddox announced his marriage and further explained, Playing in the NFL has been a dream of mine since childhood. Maddox was drafted by the Denver Broncos in the first round of the 1992 NFL Draft, covering the draft for television, Joe Theismann commented that Maddox should have stayed at UCLA for another year. His selection by the Broncos did not sit well with Elway, the Broncos had greater needs at several other positions, which Elway felt should have been addressed with their first pick instead of using it on Maddox
Pro Football Hall of Fame
The Pro Football Hall of Fame is the hall of fame for professional American football. As of 2017, there are a total of 310 members of the Hall of Fame, groundbreaking for the building was held on August 11,1962. The original building contained just two rooms, and 19,000 square feet of interior space, in April 1970, ground was broken for the first of many expansions. This first expansion cost $620,000, and was completed in May 1971, the size was increased to 34,000 square feet by adding another room. The pro shop opened with this expansion and this was an important milestone for the Pro Football Hall of Fame, as yearly attendance passed the 200,000 mark for the first time. In November 1977, work began on another project, costing US$1,200,000. It was completed in November 1978, enlarging the shop and research library. The total size of the hall was now 50,500 square feet, the building remained largely unchanged until July 1993. The Hall announced yet another expansion, costing US$9,200,000 and this expansion was completed in October 1995.
The buildings size was increased to 82,307 square feet, the most notable addition was the GameDay Stadium, which shows an NFL Films production on a 20-foot by 42-foot Cinemascope screen. Through 2017, all inductees except one, played part of their professional career in the NFL. For CFL stars, there is a parallel Canadian Football Hall of Fame, only one player, the Chicago Bears have the most Hall of Famers among the leagues franchises with 32 enshrinees. Enshrinees are selected by a 46-person committee, largely made up of media members, each city that has a current NFL team sends one representative from the local media to the committee. A city with more than one franchise sends a representative for each franchise, there are 13 at-large delegates, and one representative from the Pro Football Writers Association. Except for the PFWA representative, who is appointed to a term, all other appointments are open-ended and terminated only by death, retirement. To be eligible for the process, a player or coach must have been retired for at least five years.
Any other contributor such as an owner or executive can be voted in at any time. Fans may nominate any player, coach or contributor by simply writing to the Pro Football Hall of Fame via letter or email
Tampa Bay Buccaneers
The Tampa Bay Buccaneers are a professional American football franchise based in Tampa, Florida. The Buccaneers currently compete in the National Football League as a team of the National Football Conference South division. Along with the Seattle Seahawks, the joined the NFL in 1976 as an expansion team. After the season, the club switched conferences with the Seahawks, during the 2002 league realignment, the Bucs joined three former NFC West teams to form the NFC South. The club is owned by the Glazer family, and plays its games at Raymond James Stadium in Tampa. They are the first team since the merger to complete a season when starting 10 or more rookies. In 1976 and 1977, the Buccaneers lost their first 26 games, after a brief winning era in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the team suffered through 14 consecutive losing seasons. Over the course of 41 seasons, the Buccaneers have compiled an record of 256–402–1, with a regular-season record of 250–393–1. Unlike in the case of Green Bay, there is no municipality known as Tampa Bay.
The Tampa Bay in the names of local professional sports franchises, such as the Buccaneers, Rays and Storm, denotes that they represent the entire region, the Tampa Bay expansion franchise was originally awarded to Tom McCloskey, a construction company owner from Philadelphia. McCloskey soon entered a dispute with the NFL, so the league found a replacement in Hugh Culverhouse. A name-the-team contest resulted in the nickname Buccaneers, a reference to the legends of Southwest Florida. They were one of the few teams to wear white home uniforms, the teams first home was Tampa Stadium, which had recently been expanded to seat just over 72,500 fans. Steve Spurrier was the quarterback for Tampa Bay during their expansion season, the Buccaneers joined the NFL as members of the AFC West in 1976. The following year, they were moved to the NFC Central, while the other 1976 expansion team, the Seattle Seahawks, switched conferences with Tampa Bay and joined the AFC West. This realignment was dictated by the league as part of the 1976 expansion plan, instead of a traditional schedule of playing each division opponent twice, the Buccaneers played every conference team once, plus the Seahawks.
Tampa Bay did not win their first game until the 13th week of their second season, until the Detroit Lions in 2008, the 1976 Bucs held the dubious title as the worst team in NFL history. Their losing streak caused them to become the butt of late-night television comedians jokes and their first win came in December 1977, on the road against the New Orleans Saints
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, values, reason and language. The term was coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument and systematic presentation, classic philosophical questions include, Is it possible to know anything and to prove it. However, philosophers might pose more practical and concrete questions such as, is it better to be just or unjust. Historically, philosophy encompassed any body of knowledge, from the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, natural philosophy encompassed astronomy and physics. For example, Newtons 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy became classified as a book of physics, in the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology.
Other investigations closely related to art, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy, for example, is beauty objective or subjective. Are there many scientific methods or just one, is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy. Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy, philosophy of science, since the 20th century, professional philosophers contribute to society primarily as professors and writers. Traditionally, the term referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, natural science, education. This division is not obsolete but has changed, Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences, especially astronomy, chemistry and cosmology. Moral philosophy has birthed the social sciences, but still includes value theory, metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today, colin McGinn and others claim that no philosophical progress has occurred during that interval.
Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, in one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as how are we to live, a broad and impartial conception of philosophy then, finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality and life in all world civilizations. Socrates was an influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom
Martin Edward Schottenheimer is a former professional American football player and coach. Over his career, he has served as coach of the Cleveland Browns, Kansas City Chiefs, Washington Redskins. He has the most wins of any NFL coach to never coach a team in a Super Bowl. He was fired from his coaching position with the San Diego Chargers in 2007, after leading the Chargers to a 14–2 regular season record. He emerged as the coach of the Virginia Destroyers of the United Football League. In 21 years as an NFL head coach, Schottenheimer won 200 regular season games and 5 out of 18 games in the postseason and he is the only coach in NFL history with at least 200 wins that has a losing playoff record. Schottenheimer was born in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania and he attended high school at Fort Cherry High School in McDonald, Pennsylvania. He signed with the Bills and spent the four seasons with Buffalo, including the Bills 1965 AFL Championship season. Schottenheimer was still with the team during the 1969 preseason and intercepted two passes in a game against the Houston Oilers, some time between the 1969 preseason and regular season, Schottenheimer was sent to the Boston Patriots and spent the next two seasons with the Pats.
He was traded to the Pittsburgh Steelers in 1971 but was traded again to the Colts before the beginning of the 1971 season and he retired from football in 1971 and spent the next several years working in the real estate industry. Schottenheimer credits his professional playing career as being his inspiration for coaching, Schottenheimer came out of retirement in 1974 to sign with the Portland Storm of the World Football League as a player-coach. He injured his shoulder prior to the start of the season, Schottenheimers professional coaching career began in 1974 when he became linebackers coach for the Portland Storm of the World Football League. In 1975 he was hired as a coach for the NFLs New York Giants. Schottenheimer spent 1978 and 1979 as the coach for the NFLs Detroit Lions. In 1980, he was hired as the coordinator for the Cleveland Browns. The Browns were down 17–16 in the quarter, and lost on an interception in New Englands end zone as time expired. Chants of Goodbye Sam rung out from the stands after the New England game, Browns owner Art Modell called the play-calling inexcusable and fired Rutigliano two weeks later.
The 1–7 Browns went 4–4 under Schottenheimer to finish the season with a 5–11 record, the selection of University of Miami quarterback Bernie Kosar in 1985s supplemental draft ushered in a new, largely successful era for Cleveland
Green Bay Packers
The Green Bay Packers are a professional American football team based in Green Bay, Wisconsin. The Packers compete in the National Football League as a club of the leagues National Football Conference North division. They are the third-oldest franchise in the NFL, organized and it is the only non-profit, community-owned major league professional sports team based in the United States. Home games are played at Lambeau Field, the Packers are the last vestige of small town teams common in the NFL during the 1920s and 1930s. Founded in 1919 by Earl Curly Lambeau and George Whitney Calhoun, between 1919 and 1920, the Packers competed against other semi-pro clubs from around Wisconsin and the Midwest. They joined the American Professional Football Association, the forerunner of todays NFL, the Packers have won 13 league championships, the most in NFL history, with nine NFL titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowl victories. They won the first two Super Bowls in 1967 and 1968 and were the only NFL team to defeat the American Football League prior to the AFL–NFL merger.
The Vince Lombardi Trophy is named after the Packers head coach of the same name and their two further Super Bowl wins came in 1997 and 2011. The Packers are long-standing adversaries of the Chicago Bears, Minnesota Vikings, and Detroit Lions, the Bears–Packers rivalry is one of the oldest in NFL history, dating back to 1921. The Green Bay Packers were founded on August 11,1919 by former high-school football rivals Earl Curly Lambeau, Lambeau solicited funds for uniforms from his employer, the Indian Packing Company. He was given $500 for uniforms and equipment, on the condition that the team be named for its sponsor, the Green Bay Packers have played in their original city longer than any other team in the NFL. On August 27,1921, the Packers were granted a franchise in the new pro football league that had been formed the previous year. Financial troubles plagued the team and the franchise was forfeited within the year, before Lambeau found new financial backers and these backers, known as the Hungry Five, formed the Green Bay Football Corporation.
After a near-miss in 1927, Lambeaus squad claimed the Packers first NFL title in 1929 with an undefeated 12–0–1 campaign, among the many impressive accomplishments of these years was the Packers streak of 29 consecutive home games without defeat, an NFL record which still stands. The arrival of end Don Hutson from Alabama in 1935 gave Lambeau, credited with inventing pass patterns, Hutson would lead the league in receptions eight seasons and spur the Packers to NFL championships in 1936,1939 and 1944. An iron man, Hutson played both ways, leading the league in interceptions as a safety in 1940, Hutson claimed 18 NFL records when he retired in 1945, many of which still stand. In 1951, his number 14 was the first to be retired by the Packers, after Hutsons retirement, Lambeau could not stop the Packers slide. He purchased a large lodge near Green Bay for team members, rockwood Lodge was the home of the 1946-1949 Packers, though the 1947 and 1948 seasons produced a record of 12-10-1, and 1949 was even worse at 3-9