Martyrs' Square known as "Al Burj" or "Place des Cannons", is the historical central public square of Beirut, Lebanon. Like Martyr's Square in Damascus, it is named after the 6 May 1916 executions ordered by Djemal Pasha during World War I. In 1931, the historic square took its name to commemorate the martyrs executed there under Ottoman rule. In the 1950s the square became a popular venue for coffee-houses. During the Lebanese Civil War, it formed the demarcation line. Name "Sahat al-Burj", the Municipality of Beirut modernized the square in 1878 as the main meeting place of the city. Beshara Effendi designed a garden with fountain and kiosks, overlooked by the Petit Serail - the seat of Beirut’s governor general – as well as public buildings and souks. After that, the square underwent a lot of transformations until 1931, where it took the name of Martyrs' Square in commemoration of the martyrs executed there under Ottoman rule and a monument was erected. In 1950, the Petit Serail was demolished.
The new Rivoli cinema blocked the link between the harbor. Martyrs’ Square became Beirut’s bus and taxi terminus and a popular venue for cinemas, coffee-houses, modest hotels and the red-light district. During the Civil War, Martyrs' Square formed the demarcation line. In 2005, an international competition was launched for the design of a new square with its axis open to the sea, reestablishing Martyrs’ Square as Beirut’s premier public space and heart of the capital. Martyrs’ Square originated as an open space beyond the city wall; the ancient watchtower of Burj al-Kashef marked its outer limit, gave the square its first and still surviving name, Sahat al-Burj. In 1773, a Russian cannon placed near the Burj caused the square’s name to be changed to ‘Place du Canon’, it became ‘Place des Canons’ in 1860, when the initial Russian cannon was replaced by cannons from the French fleet. Named ‘Hamidiyyeh Square’ in 1884 to honor Sultan Abdul Hamid II, it became ‘Union Square’ and ‘Freedom Square’ with the advent of the Young Turks revolution of 1908.
In 1931, the square took the name it still bears today, Martyrs’ Square, to commemorate the martyrs executed there under Ottoman rule and the Martyrs’ Monument, Beirut was erected. First enclosed as a formal urban space in the 1860s, the Municipality of Beirut modernized the square in 1878 as the main meeting place of the city. Beshara Effendi designed a garden with fountain and kiosks, overlooked by the Petit Serail - the seat of Beirut’s governor general – as well as public buildings and souks; the tramway, built in 1906, placed the square at the center of Beirut’s transport network. During the early years of the French Mandate, the Duraffourd and subsequent Danger Plans created the ‘Place de l’Etoile’, they proposed the demolition of the Petit Serail to open Martyrs’ Square to the sea, an ambition, foiled. The square was neglected and Etoile Square became the geographic and administrative center of the capital. In 1931, it was renamed Martyrs’ Square after those executed there on 6 May 1916, in the last years of Ottoman rule.
The nationalists were a cross-confessional group that were fighting for Lebanon's autonomy and independence: Emir Aref Chehab Saïd Akl, note the difference between the martyr and the modern-day poet Father Joseph Hayek Abdul Karim al-Khalil Abdelwahab al-Inglizi Joseph Bshara Hani Mohammad Mahmassani Mahmoud Mahmassani Omar Ali Nashashibi Omar Hamad Philippe El Khazen, Journalist from Jounieh, Lebanon Farid El Khazen, brother of Philippe and a journalist & editor Sheikh Ahmad Tabbara Petro Paoli Abdel Ghani al-Arayssi, editor of al-Mufid newspaper Muhammad Chanti, publisher of ad-difa'a newspaper in Jaffa. George Haddad and poetIn 1950, the Petit Serail was demolished; the new Rivoli cinema blocked the link between the harbor. Martyrs’ Square became Beirut’s bus and taxi terminus and a popular venue for cinemas, coffee-houses, modest hotels and the red-light district. During the Lebanese Civil War, Martyrs’ Square formed the demarcation line that divided the city in half. In 2005, an international competition was launched for the design of a new square with its axis open to the sea, reestablishing Martyrs’ Square as Beirut’s premier public space and heart of the capital.
1773: Initially Sahat al-Burj, it became Place du canon, after the Russian cannon, placed on the square. 1860: Renamed Place des canons after the Russian cannon was replaced by Cannons from the French fleet. 1878: Municipality of Beirut modernized the square as the main meeting place of the city. 1884: Named Hamidiyyeh Square in honor of Sultan Abdul Hamid II. 1906: The tramway was built and placed the square at the center of Beirut's transport network. 1908: Named Freedom Square following the advent of the Young Turks revolution. 1931: The square took the name of Martyrs' Square in commemoration of the martyrs executed there under Ottoman rule. 1950: The demolition of the Petit Serail, earlier proposed during the early years of the French Mandate. 1975-1990: Civil war, Martyrs’ Square formed the demarcation line that divided the city in half. 2005: International competition was launched for the design of a new square. Municipality of Beirut Davie, May Beyrouth 1825-1975. Un siècle et demi d'urbanisme, Ordre des ingénieurs Beyrouth.
Kassir, Samir Histoire de Beyrouth, Paris. ISBN 2-213-02980-6. Sassine Farès et Tuéni, Ghassan El-Bourj. Place de la Liberté et Porte du Levant, Editions Dar an-Nahar, Beyrouth. Khalaf, Samir. Heart of Beirut: R
The 2017–18 Washington State Cougars men's basketball team represented Washington State University during the 2017–18 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The team was led by fourth-year head coach Ernie Kent; the Cougars played their home games at the Beasley Coliseum in Pullman, Washington as members in the Pac-12 Conference. They finished the season 4 -- 14 in Pac-12 play to finish in 11th place, they lost in the first round of the Pac-12 Tournament to Oregon. The Cougars finished the 2016–17 season 13–18, 6–12 in Pac-12 play to finish in a tie for ninth place, they lost in the first round of the Pac-12 Tournament to Colorado
The Creation Evidence Museum of Texas Creation Evidences Museum, is a creationist museum in Glen Rose in Somervell County in central Texas, USA. Founded in 1984 by Carl Baugh for the purpose of researching and displaying exhibits that support creationism, it portrays the Earth as six thousand years old and humans coexisting with dinosaurs, disputing that the Earth is 4.5 billion years old and dinosaurs became extinct 65.5 million years before human beings arose. The Creation Evidence Museum was founded by Carl Baugh, a young Earth creationist, after he came to Glen Rose in 1982 to research claims of fossilized human footprints alongside dinosaur footprints in the limestone banks of the Paluxy River, near Dinosaur Valley State Park, he claims to have excavated 475 dinosaur footprints and 86 human footprints, which form the basis of the Creation Evidence Museum as well as other exhibits. Baugh, who does not have an accredited degree, remains the director and main speaker for CEM. In 2001 Baugh and Creation Evidence Museum were featured on The Daily Show where Baugh likened human history to The Flintstones and the show poked fun at his claims about the hyperbaric biosphere, pterodactyl expeditions, dinosaurs.
The Creation Evidence Museum sponsors continuing paleontological and archaeological excavations among other research projects, including a hunt for living pterodactyls in Papua New Guinea, expeditions to Israel. Materials from the museum have been recommended by the National Council on Bible Curriculum in Public Schools, but the NCBCPS curriculum has been deemed "unfit for use in public school classrooms."One of the museum's projects is a "hyperbaric biosphere", a chamber which the museum hopes will reproduce the atmospheric conditions that these creationists postulate for Earth before the Great Flood, enable them to grow dinosaurs. Baugh says that these conditions made creatures live longer, get larger and nicer, he claims that tests under these conditions have tripled the lifespan of fruit-flies, detoxified copperhead snakes. A much larger version is under construction in the new building. In 2008, a descendant of a family that provided many original Paluxy River dinosaur tracks in the 1930s claimed that her grandfather had faked many of them, including the Alvis Delk Cretaceous Footprint.
Zana Douglas, the granddaughter of George Adams, explained that during the 1930s depression her grandfather and other residents of Glen Rose made money by making moonshine and selling "dinosaur fossils". The faux fossils brought $15 to $30 and when the supply ran low, they "just carved more, some with human footprints thrown in." All of the creationist exhibits have been criticized as incorrectly identified dinosaur prints, other fossils, or outright forgeries. The second floor balcony of the museum features prominently a 12 feet high statue of Dallas Cowboys football coach Tom Landry. Displays in the Creation Evidence Museum include: The "London Artifact" known as the "London Hammer", an out-of-place artifact found in 1934 in London, Texas; this is a hammer "of recent American historical style" found in a limestone concretion, claimed to be Ordovician period or Cretaceous rock. It was examined by scientists who concluded that the stone has not been part of the surrounding rock formation but can have formed around the hammer recently: "The stone is real, it looks impressive to someone unfamiliar with geological processes...
Minerals in solution can harden around an intrusive object dropped in a crack or left on the ground if the source rock is chemically soluble." The "Burdick Track", a human footprint in Cretaceous rock. Glen J. Kuban and geologist Gregg Wilkerson described anatomical errors in the "footprint", remains of algae which indicate that it was carved into the bottom of a limestone slab, similar to other tracks that were carved in the Dinosaur Valley State Park area; the "Fossilized Human Finger", a finger where tissues appear to have been replaced by Cretaceous stone. The stone was not found in situ and according to Mark Isaak "looks remarkably similar in size and shape to the cylindrical sandstone infillings of Ophiomoipha or Thalassmoides shrimp burrows found in Cretaceous rocks. Although its general shape is fingerlike, it has none of the fine structure one would expect from a finger." The "Meister Print", two trilobites in slate that appear to be crushed in a sandal print. The print is "questionable on several accounts" such as the shallowness of the print, spall patterns, striding sequence, similarities to the Wheeler formation.
"In short, the trilobites in the specimen are real enough, but the'print' itself appears to be due to inorganic, geologic phenomena," according to Kuban. The "Hand Print in Stone" a hand print in Cretaceous rock. Baugh has provided no evidence it was in situ in any Cretaceous bed, nor allowed experts to inspect it. Creationists have been critical of it too; the "Alvis Delk Cretaceous Footprint" a human footprint overlapped by an Acrocanthosaurus dinosaur footprint, found when a slab taken from Glen Rose was cleaned up. The footprint is presented as representing Homo bauanthropus, a species name coined by Baugh but not recognised by anyone else. Biologist PZ Myers described it as a blatant fake; the "human print has toes like tubes and a weirdly dug-in big toe", while "the dino print is worse — it’s a three-pronged flat plate" with no resemblance to a real dinosaur footprint. Kuban described anatomical problems in detail, he notes that the slab was not documented in situ, there are significant issues with CT scans claimed to authenticate the slab.
Other creationists have not supported t