Ukrainians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, by total population the seventh-largest nation in Europe. The Constitution of Ukraine applies the term'Ukrainians' to all its citizens; the people of Ukraine have been known as "Rusyns" and "Cossacks", among others. According to most dictionary definitions, a descriptive name for the "inhabitants of Ukraine" is Ukrainian or Ukrainian people; the ethnonym Ukrainians became accepted only in the 20th century after their territory obtained distinctive statehood in 1917. From the 14th to the 16th centuries, the Western portions of the European part of what is now known as Russia, the territories of northern Ukraine and Belarus were known as Rus', continuing the tradition of Kievan Rus'. People of these territories were called Rus or Rusyns; the Ukrainian language appeared in the 14th – 16th centuries, but at that time, it was known as Ruthenian, like its brothers. In the 16th – 17th centuries, with the establishment of the Zaporizhian Sich, the notion of Ukraine as a separate country with a separate ethnic identity came into being.
However, the ethnonym Ukrainians and the linguonym Ukrainian were used only and the people of Ukraine continued to call themselves and their language Ruthenian. After the decline of the Zaporizhian Sich and the establishment of Imperial Russian hegemony in Ukraine, Ukrainians became more known by the Russian regional name, Little Russians, with the majority of Ukrainian élites espousing Little Russian identity; this official name did not spread among the peasantry which constituted the majority of the population. Ukrainian peasants still referred to their country as Ukraine and to themselves and their language as Ruthenians/Ruthenian. With the publication of Ivan Kotliarevsky's Eneyida in 1798, which established the modern Ukrainian language, with the subsequent Romantic revival of national traditions and culture, the ethnonym Ukrainians and the notion of a Ukrainian language came into more prominence at the beginning of the 19th century and replaced the words "Rusyns" and "Ruthenian". In areas outside the control of the Russian/Soviet state until the mid-20th century, Ukrainians were known by their pre-existing names for much longer.
The appellation Ukrainians came into common usage in Central Ukraine and did not take hold in Galicia and Bukovyna until the latter part of the 19th century, in Transcarpathia until the 1930s, in the Prešov Region until the late 1940s. The modern name ukrayintsi derives from Ukrayina, a name first documented in 1187. Several scientific theories attempt to explain the etymology of the term. According to the traditional theory, it derives from the Proto-Slavic root *kraj-, which has two meanings, one meaning the homeland as in "nash rodnoi kraj", the other "edge, border", had the sense of "periphery", "borderland" or "frontier region" etc. According to some new alternative Ukrainian historians such as Hryhoriy Pivtorak, Vitaly Sklyarenko and other scholars, translate the term "u-kraine" as "in-land", "home-land" or "our-country"; the name in this context derives from the word "u-kraina" in the sense of "domestic region", "domestic land" or "country". In the last three centuries the population of Ukraine experienced periods of Polonization and Russification, but preserved a common culture and a sense of common identity.
Most ethnic Ukrainians live in Ukraine. The largest population of Ukrainians outside of Ukraine lives in Russia where about 1.9 million Russian citizens identify as Ukrainian, while millions of others have some Ukrainian ancestry. The inhabitants of the Kuban, for example, have vacillated among three identities: Ukrainian, "Cossack". 800,000 people of Ukrainian ancestry live in the Russian Far East in an area known as "Green Ukraine". According to some previous assumptions, an estimated number of 2.4 million people of Ukrainian origin live in North America. Large numbers of Ukrainians live in Brazil, Moldova, Italy, Uzbekistan, the Czech Republic and Romania. There are large Ukrainian communities in such countries as Latvia, France, Paraguay, the UK, Slovakia, Austria and the former Yugoslavia; the Ukrainian diaspora is present in more than one hundred and twenty countries of the world. The number of Ukrainians in Poland amounted to some 51,000 people in 2011. Since 2014, the country has experienced a large increase in immigration from Ukraine.
More recent data put the number of Ukrainian workers at 1.2 – 1.3 million in 2016. In the last decades of the 19th century, many Ukrainians were forced by the Tsarist autocracy to move to the Asian regions of Russia, while many of their counterpart Slavs under Austro-Hungarian rule emigrated to the New World seeking work and better economic opportunities. Today
Olha Yulianivna Kobylianska was a Ukrainian modernist writer and feminist. Kobylianska was born in Gura Humorului in Bukovyna in the family of a minor administration worker of Ukrainian noble descent from Central Ukraine, she was the fourth child of seven of Yulian Yakovych Kobyliansky. One of her distant relatives was the German poet Zacharias Werner. Maria Werner was a Polonized German, baptized a Greek Catholic and learned the local dialect of the Ukrainian language. One of Olha's brothers, Stepan Yulianovych, became a painter-portraitist, Yulian Yulianovych, became a philologist and was the author of several textbooks in Latin. Kobylianska was self-educated, receiving only four years of formal schooling in the German language, she wrote her first works in German, beginning in 1880. Besides a proficiency in German she spoke Ukrainian as well as Polish. Sometime in 1868, she moved with her family to Suceava. There she met with the daughter of Ukrainian writer Mykola Ustyianovych. In 1889, she moved to her mother's parents estate in the village of Dymka.
In 1973, a museum was opened there in her memory. In 1891, she moved to Chernivtsi. There she met Natalia Kobrynska, Doctor Sofia Okunevska, fell in love with Kobrynska's brother, Dr. Yevhen Ozarkevych. In 1894, she became one of the initiators of the Association of Ruthenian Women in Bukovina, the program of which she included in her brochure Something about the idea of the feminist movement. One of her most prominent works which captured her political and social views was the novel Tsarivna, published in the Bukovina newspaper in 1895, as well as in other publications later. In 1896, she wrote Arystokratka, followed by Impromptu phantasie, Valse melancolique in 1898; the last of these constituted a pioneering treatment of same-sex love, was based on Kobylians'ka's own experiences. In the 1890s, she had enjoyed a romantic relationship with the male literary critic, Osyp Makovei, who had championed Kobylians'ka's work and was comfortable with the theme of strong, educated female characters who asserted their right for sexual fulfillment.
However, the two broke up and in 1901 Kobylians'ka met with the female writer Lesia Ukrainka. The meeting produced an intensely passionate union, realised through correspondence as illness and circumstances prevented them from living together; the literary critic Ihor Kostetsky suggested that their relationship was lesbian, while George S. N. Luckyj believes that: "There was little or no physical contact between the two women, though the language of their letters appears homo-erotic". Solomiia Pavlychko has noted the strong homoerotic motifs found in Kobylians'ka's published work, most notably Valse mélancolique, her other well known novels were V nedilyu rano zillia kopala. Of the latter, Vitaly Chernetsky wrote:The book's plot is based on a well-known Ukrainian folk song, "Oi ne khody, Hrytsiu...". In it, a young man, Hryts', courts two young women simultaneously. One of the two women, in despair, poisons her beloved with an herb potion. Since the plot of the work is known to the reader in advance, attention is turned instead to its presentation: the narrative techniques employed, the description of nature, rural customs and rituals, the additional subplots and details introduced by the author.
The novel's plot is developed through the introduction of a new set of characters, nomadic Gypsies who move between and the Hungarian plain and play a pivotal role in the text. This element of what contemporary cultural studies would term hybridity makes Kobylians'ka's novel stand out among the works of Ukrainian Modernists tackling folkloric themes; some of her poetic and prose works in the abstract-symbolic style were published in various local magazines such as Svit and Ukrainian Hut. Mykhailo Starytsky wrote a play under the same name V nedilyu rano zillia kopala; that work was translated into several languages. Kobylianska met and traveled with fellow Ukrainians such as Lesia Ukrainka, Ivan Franko, Vasyl Stefanyk, Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky, who influenced her cultural and political outlook. Together with other writers such as Marko Cheremshyna, Osyp Makovey, Katria Hrynevycheva, she described World War I; some of her stories of that period were Juda, The letter of a convicted soldier to his wife, others.
Her writings were influenced by Friedrich Nietzsche. Kobylianska was interested in the Ukrainian peasantry, wrote about the lives of these people, she depicted the struggle between good and evil and the mystical force of nature, predestination and the irrational in many of her stories of peasant life. Her works are known for their impressionistic, lyrical descriptions of nature and subtle psychological portrayals. Kobylianska's works have been published in many selections. In 1944, a literary memorial museum dedicated to her was opened in Chernivtsi, in the building in which she lived from 1938-1942. Solomiia Pavlychko has noted the strong homoerotic motifs found in Kobylians'ka's published work, most notably Valse mélancolique. One of her quotes "Earth" "The Wolfhound" "The Melancholic Waltz" (1990, t / f.
Vechornytsi are Slavic traditional gatherings with music, songs and rituals. Vechornytsi traditionally began in late September. Young people from villages gathered in the evenings for entertainment. There were festive vechornytsi. During everyday parties people created folk art objects like rushnyky, while entertaining themselves by singing songs or telling jokes. During festive vechornytsi rich dinners were cooked, there was music and dancing, it was the ladies' responsibility to cook a dinner and the men's responsibility to provide everybody with music and sweets. Vechornytsi were for younger people. Here they not only entertained each other during long winter evenings, but met new people, communicated more and found partners; each street in a village had at least one house for vechornytsi. Small remote farms could have a few houses for parties, because it was a custom that brothers and sisters could not attend the same vechornytsi. Definition of Vechornytsi The Article on Ukrainian Holidays and Rituals
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Franz Liszt was a Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, music teacher and organist of the Romantic era. He was a writer, a philanthropist, a Hungarian nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary. Liszt gained renown in Europe during the early nineteenth century for his prodigious virtuosic skill as a pianist, he was a friend, musical promoter and benefactor to many composers of his time, including Frédéric Chopin, Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz, Robert Schumann, Camille Saint-Saëns, Edvard Grieg, Ole Bull, Joachim Raff, Mikhail Glinka, Alexander Borodin. A prolific composer, Liszt was one of the most prominent representatives of the New German School, he left behind an extensive and diverse body of work which influenced his forward-looking contemporaries and anticipated 20th-century ideas and trends. Among Liszt's musical contributions were the symphonic poem, developing thematic transformation as part of his experiments in musical form, radical innovations in harmony. Franz Liszt was born to Anna Liszt and Adam Liszt on 22 October 1811, in the village of Doborján in Sopron County, in the Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire.
Liszt's father played the piano, violin and guitar. He had been in the service of Prince Nikolaus II Esterházy and knew Haydn and Beethoven personally. At age six, Franz began listening attentively to his father's piano playing. Adam began teaching him the piano at age seven, Franz began composing in an elementary manner when he was eight, he appeared in concerts at Sopron and Pressburg in October and November 1820 at age 9. After the concerts, a group of wealthy sponsors offered to finance Franz's musical education in Vienna. There Liszt received piano lessons from Carl Czerny, who in his own youth had been a student of Beethoven and Hummel, he received lessons in composition from Ferdinando Paer and Antonio Salieri, the music director of the Viennese court. Liszt's public debut in Vienna on December 1, 1822, at a concert at the "Landständischer Saal", was a great success, he was greeted in Austrian and Hungarian aristocratic circles and met Beethoven and Schubert. In spring 1823, when his one-year leave of absence came to an end, Adam Liszt asked Prince Esterházy in vain for two more years.
Adam Liszt therefore took his leave of the Prince's services. At the end of April 1823, the family returned to Hungary for the last time. At the end of May 1823, the family went to Vienna again. Towards the end of 1823 or early 1824, Liszt's first composition to be published, his Variation on a Waltz by Diabelli, appeared as Variation 24 in Part II of Vaterländischer Künstlerverein; this anthology, commissioned by Anton Diabelli, includes 50 variations on his waltz by 50 different composers, Part I being taken up by Beethoven's 33 variations on the same theme, which are now separately better known as his Diabelli Variations, Op. 120. Liszt's inclusion in the Diabelli project—he was described in it as "an 11 year old boy, born in Hungary"—was certainly at the instigation of Czerny, his teacher and a participant. Liszt was the only child composer in the anthology. After his father's death in 1827, Liszt moved to Paris, he gave up touring. To earn money, Liszt gave lessons in piano playing and composition from early morning until late at night.
His students were scattered across the city and he had to cover long distances. Because of this, he kept uncertain hours and took up smoking and drinking—all habits he would continue throughout his life; the following year, he fell in love with one of his pupils, Caroline de Saint-Cricq, the daughter of Charles X's minister of commerce, Pierre de Saint-Cricq. Her father, insisted that the affair be broken off. Liszt fell ill, to the extent that an obituary notice was printed in a Paris newspaper, he underwent a long period of religious doubts and pessimism, he again was dissuaded this time by his mother. He had many discussions with the Abbé de Lamennais, who acted as his spiritual father, with Chrétien Urhan, a German-born violinist who introduced him to the Saint-Simonists. Urhan wrote music, anti-classical and subjective, with titles such as Elle et moi, La Salvation angélique and Les Regrets, may have whetted the young Liszt's taste for musical romanticism. Important for Liszt was Urhan's earnest championship of Schubert, which may have stimulated his own lifelong devotion to that composer's music.
During this period, Liszt read to overcome his lack of a general education, he soon came into contact with many of the leading authors and artists of his day, including Victor Hugo, Alphonse de Lamartine and Heinrich Heine. He composed nothing in these years; the July Revolution of 1830 inspired him to sketch a Revolutionary Symphony based on the events of the "three glorious days," and he took a greater interest in events surrounding him. He met Hector Berlioz on December 1830, the day before the premiere of the Symphonie fantastique. Berlioz's music made a strong impression on Liszt later when he was writing for orchestra, he inherited from Berlioz the diabolic quality of many of his works. After attending a charity concert on 20 April 1832, for the victims of a Parisian cholera epidemic, organised by Niccolò Paganini, Liszt became determined to become as great a virtuoso on the piano as Paganini was on the violin. Paris in the 1830s had become the nexus
The Baroque is a ornate and extravagant style of architecture, painting and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles, it was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, exuberant detail, deep colour and surprise to achieve a sense of awe; the style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome spread to France, northern Italy and Portugal to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the mid to late 18th century; the English word baroque comes directly from the French, may have been adapted from the Portuguese term barroco, a flawed pearl. Both words are related to the Spanish term berruca; the term did not describe a style of music or art.
Prior to the 18th century, the French baroque and Portuguese barroco were terms related to jewelry, An example from 1531 uses the term to describe pearls in an inventory of Charles V's treasures. The word appears in a 1694 edition of Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française, which describes baroque as "only used for pearls that are imperfectly round." A 1728 Portuguese dictionary describes barroco as relating to a "coarse and uneven pearl."The French term for the artistic style may have had roots in the medieval Latin word baroco, a philosophical term, invented in the 13th century by scholastics to describe a complicated type of syllogism, or logical argument. In the 16th century the philosopher Michel de Montaigne associated the term'baroco' with "Bizarre and uselessly complicated." In the 18th century, the term was used to describe music, was not flattering. In an anonymous satirical review of the première of Jean-Philippe Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie in October 1733, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734, the critic wrote that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was unsparing with dissonances changed key and meter, speedily ran through every compositional device.
In 1762, Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française wrote that the term could be used figuratively to describe something "irregular, bizarre or unequal."Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a musician and composer as well as philosopher, wrote in 1768 in the Encyclopédie: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, loaded with modulations and dissonances. The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, the movement limited, it appears that term comes from the word'baroco' used by logicians."In 1788, the term was defined by Quatremère de Quincy in the Encyclopédie Méthodique as "an architectural style, adorned and tormented". The terms "style baroque" and "musique baroque" appeared in Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française in 1835. By the mid-19th century, art critics and historians had adopted the term as a way to ridicule post-Renaissance art; this was the sense of the word as used in 1855 by the leading art historian Jacob Burkhardt, who wrote that baroque artists "despised and abused detail" because they lacked "respect for tradition."Alternatively, a derivation from the name of the Italian painter Federico Barocci has been suggested.
In 1888, the art historian Heinrich Wölfflin published the first serious academic work on the style, Renaissance und Barock, which described the differences between the painting and architecture of the Renaissance and the Baroque. The Baroque style of architecture was a result of doctrines adopted by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1545–63, in response to the Protestant Reformation; the first phase of the Counter-Reformation had imposed a severe, academic style on religious architecture, which had appealed to intellectuals but not the mass of churchgoers. The Council of Trent decided instead to appeal to a more popular audience, declared that the arts should communicate religious themes with direct and emotional involvement. Lutheran Baroque art developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists. Baroque churches were designed with a large central space, where the worshippers could be close to the altar, with a dome or cupola high overhead, allowing light to illuminate the church below.
The dome was one of the central symbolic features of baroque architecture illustrating the union between the heavens and the earth, The inside of the cupola was lavishly decorated with paintings of angels and saints, with stucco statuettes of angels, giving the impression to those below of looking up at heaven. Another feature of baroque churches are the quadratura. Quadratura paintings of Atlantes below the cornices appear to be supporting the ceiling of the church. Unlike the painted ceilings of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, which combined different scenes, each with its own perspective, to be looked at one at a time, the Baroque ceiling paintings were created so the viewer on the floor of the church would see the entire ceiling in correct perspective, as if the figures were real; the interiors of baroque churches became more and more ornate in the High Baroque, an