Marshall Warren Nirenberg
Marshall Warren Nirenberg was an American biochemist and geneticist. He shared a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1968 with Har Gobind Khorana and Robert W. Holley for breaking the genetic code, in the same year, together with Har Gobind Khorana, he was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University. It was not known, how DNA directed the expression of proteins, Nirenberg teamed up with Heinrich J. Matthaei at the National Institutes of Health to answer these questions. They produced RNA composed solely of uracil, a nucleotide that only occurs in RNA and they added this synthetic poly-uracil RNA into a cell-free extract of Escherichia coli which contained the DNA, RNA, ribosomes and other cellular machinery for protein synthesis. They added DNase, which breaks apart the DNA, so no additional proteins would be produced other than that from their synthetic RNA. They added 1 radioactively labeled amino acid, the blocks of proteins. Only in the containing the radioactively labeled phenylalanine, was the resulting protein radioactive.
This implied that the code for phenylalanine on RNA consisted of a repetition of uracil bases. Indeed, as we now, it is UUU. This was the first step in deciphering the codons of the genetic code, in August 1961, at the International Congress of Biochemistry in Moscow, Nirenberg presented a paper to a small group of scientists. Francis Crick convinced the leaders to invite Nirenberg to repeat his performance the next day. Speaking before the congress of more than a thousand people. He quickly received great attention for these experiments. Within a few years, his team had performed similar experiments and found that three-base repeats of adenosine produced the amino acid lysine. The next breakthrough came when Philip Leder, a researcher in Nirenbergs lab. This greatly sped up the assignment of three-base codons to amino acids so that 50 codons were identified in this way, khoranas experiments confirmed these results and completed the genetic code translation. Faced with the possibility of helping the first NIH scientist win a Nobel prize, dr.
DeWitt Stetten, Jr. director of the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, called this period of collaboration NIHs finest hour. Nirenbergs research focused on neuroscience, neural development, and the homeobox genes, Nirenberg was born in New York City, the son of Minerva and Harry Edward Nirenberg, a shirtmaker
Donald Van Slyke
Donald Dexter Van Slyke was a renowned Dutch American biochemist. His achievements included the publication of 317 journal articles and 5 books, as well as awards, among them the National Medal of Science. A non-SI unit of measurement for buffering activity, the slyke, is named after him, as is the Van Slyke determination, Van Slyke was born in Pike, New York on March 29,1883. He completed his BA in 1905 and PhD in 1907 both at the University of Michigan, his fathers alma mater and his PhD studies were performed under Moses Gomberg. Van Slyke took up a position at the Rockefeller Institute in 1907. Levene arranged for him to one year in Berlin under Hermann Emil Fischer in 1911. His early work focused on determining the amino acid composition of proteins, a major achievement during this time was the discovery of the amino acid hydroxylysine. In 1914, Van Slyke was appointed chief chemist of the newly founded Rockefeller Institute Hospital and his work focused especially on the measurement of gas and electrolyte levels in tissues, for which he is considered to be one of the founders of modern quantitative blood chemistry.
He is considered by many to have first popularised the term clinical chemistry in his two-volume work Quantitative Clinical Chemistry, the two-volume work was widely accepted in the medical world as the Bible of quantitative clinical chemistry. During this period, he served as managing editor of the Journal of Biological Chemistry from 1914 to 1925. In 1948, approaching retirement age, Van Slyke took up a position as Deputy Director of Biology and he held this position briefly before moving back into research at Brookhaven, which he continued until his death in 1971
Kenneth Joseph Ken Arrow was an American economist and political theorist. He was the joint winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics with John Hicks in 1972, in economics, he was a figure in post-World War II neo-classical economic theory. Many of his graduate students have gone on to win the Nobel Memorial Prize themselves. His most significant works are his contributions to social theory, notably Arrows impossibility theorem. He has provided work in many other areas of economics, including endogenous growth theory. Arrow was born on August 23,1921, in New York City, Arrows mother, was from Iași, and his father, Harry Arrow, was from nearby Podu Iloaiei. The Arrow family were Romanian Jews and his family was very supportive of his education. Growing up during the Great Depression, he embraced socialism in his youth and he would move away from socialism, but his views retained a left-leaning philosophy. He graduated from Townsend Harris High School and earned a Bachelors degree from the City College of New York in 1940 in mathematics and he attended Columbia University, for his graduate studies.
While there, he studied under Harold Hotelling, and was influenced by him. He received a Masters degree in 1941 and he served as a weather officer in the United States Army Air Forces from 1942–1946. From 1946 to 1949 Arrow spent his time partly as a student at Columbia. During that time he held the rank of Assistant Professor in Economics at the University of Chicago. He left Chicago to take up the post of Acting Assistant Professor of Economics and Statistics at Stanford University, in 1951, he earned his Ph. D. from Columbia. He served in the government on the staff of the Council of Economic Advisers in the 1960s with Robert Solow, in 1968, he left Stanford for the position of Professor of Economics at Harvard University. It was during his tenure here that he received the Nobel Prize in Economics, Arrow returned to Stanford in 1979 and became the Joan Kenney Professor of Economics and Professor of Operations Research. As a Fulbright Distinguished Chair, in 1995 he taught Economics at the University of Siena and he was a founding member of the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences and a member of the Science Board of Santa Fe Institute.
At various stages in his career he was a Fellow of Churchill College, five of his former students have gone on to become Nobel Prize winners
Nature is an English multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. Nature claims a readership of about 3 million unique readers per month. The journal has a circulation of around 53,000. There are sections on books and arts, the remainder of the journal consists mostly of research papers, which are often dense and highly technical. There are many fields of research in which important new advances, the papers that have been published in this journal are internationally acclaimed for maintaining high research standards. In 2007 Nature received the Princess of Asturias Award for Communications, the enormous progress in science and mathematics during the 19th century was recorded in journals written mostly in German or French, as well as in English. Britain underwent enormous technological and industrial changes and advances particularly in the half of the 19th century. In addition, during this period, the number of popular science periodicals doubled from the 1850s to the 1860s.
According to the editors of these popular science magazines, the publications were designed to serve as organs of science, in essence, first created in 1869, was not the first magazine of its kind in Britain. While Recreative Science had attempted to more physical sciences such as astronomy and archaeology. Two other journals produced in England prior to the development of Nature were the Quarterly Journal of Science and Scientific Opinion, established in 1864 and 1868 and these similar journals all ultimately failed. The Popular Science Review survived longest, lasting 20 years and ending its publication in 1881, Recreative Science ceased publication as the Student, the Quarterly Journal, after undergoing a number of editorial changes, ceased publication in 1885. The Reader terminated in 1867, and finally, Scientific Opinion lasted a mere 2 years, janet Browne has proposed that far more than any other science journal of the period, Nature was conceived and raised to serve polemic purpose.
Perhaps it was in part its scientific liberality that made Nature a longer-lasting success than its predecessors and this is what Lockyers journal did from the start. Norman Lockyer, the founder of Nature, was a professor at Imperial College and he was succeeded as editor in 1919 by Sir Richard Gregory. Gregory helped to establish Nature in the scientific community. During the years 1945 to 1973, editorship of Nature changed three times, first in 1945 to A. J. V. Gale and L. J. F. Brimble, to John Maddox in 1965, and finally to David Davies in 1973. In 1980, Maddox returned as editor and retained his position until 1995, philip Campbell has since become Editor-in-chief of all Nature publications
Paul Anthony Samuelson was an American economist and the first American to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The Swedish Royal Academies stated, when awarding the prize, that he has more than any other contemporary economist to raise the level of scientific analysis in economic theory. Economic historian Randall E. Parker calls him the Father of Modern Economics, Samuelson was likely the most influential economist of the 20th century. Samuelson considered Mathematics to be the language for economists and contributed significantly to the mathematical foundations of economics with his book Foundations of Economic Analysis. He was author of the economics textbook of all time, Economics, An Introductory Analysis. He entered the University of Chicago at age 16, during the depths of the Great Depression, after graduating, he became an assistant professor of economics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology when he was 25 years of age and a full professor at age 32. In 1966, he was named Institute Professor, MITs highest faculty honor, Joseph E.
Stiglitz, and Paul Krugman, all of whom went on to win Nobel Prizes. He served as an advisor to Presidents John F. Kennedy and was a consultant to the United States Treasury, the Bureau of the Budget and the Presidents Council of Economic Advisers. By contrast Friedman represented the monetarist perspective, Samuelson died on December 13,2009, at the age of 94. Samuelson was born in Gary, Indiana, on May 15,1915, to Frank Samuelson, a pharmacist, and the former Ella Lipton. His family, he said, was made up of upwardly mobile Jewish immigrants from Poland who had prospered considerably in World War I, because Gary was a brand new steel town when my family went there. In 1923 Samuelson moved to Chicago, he graduated from Hyde Park High School, he studied at the University of Chicago. He said he was born as an economist, at 8. 00am on January 2,1932, the lecture mentioned was on the British economist Thomas Malthus, who most famously studied population growth and its effects. He felt there was a dissonance between neoclassical economics and the way the system seemed to behave, and he said Henry Simons and he completed his Master of Arts degree in 1936, and his Doctor of Philosophy in 1941 at Harvard University.
As a graduate student at Harvard, Samuelson studied economics under Joseph Schumpeter, Wassily Leontief, Gottfried Haberler, Samuelson moved to MIT as an assistant professor in 1940 and remained there until his death. Samuelson comes from a family of well-known economists, including brother Robert Summers, sister-in-law Anita Summers, brother-in-law Kenneth Arrow and nephew Larry Summers. During his seven decades as an economist, Samuelsons professional positions included, Assistant Professor of Economics at M. I. T,1940, member of the Radiation Laboratory 1944–45. Professor of International Economic Relations at the Fletcher School of Law, guggenheim Fellowship from 1948–49 Professor of Economics at MIT beginning in 1947 and Institute Professor beginning in 1962
George Armitage Miller
George Armitage Miller was an American psychologist who was one of the founders of the cognitive psychology field. He contributed to the birth of psycholinguistics and cognitive science in general, Miller wrote several books and directed the development of WordNet, an online word-linkage database usable by computer programs. This paper is frequently cited in both psychology and the wider culture and he won awards, such as the National Medal of Science. Miller started his education focusing on speech and language and published papers on these topics and he started his career at a time when the reigning theory in psychology was behaviorism, which eschewed any attempt to study mental processes and focused only on observable behavior. Working mostly at Harvard University, MIT and Princeton University, Miller introduced experimental techniques to study the psychology of mental processes. He went on to be one of the founders of psycholinguistics and was one of the key figures in founding the broader new field of cognitive science.
He collaborated and co-authored work with figures in cognitive science and psycholinguistics. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Miller as the 20th most cited psychologist of that era. Miller was born on February 3,1920, in Charleston, West Virginia, the son of an executive at a company, George E. Miller. He grew up only his mother during the Great Depression, attended public school. He relocated with his mother and stepfather to Washington D. C. and was at George Washington University for a year and his family practiced Christian Science, which required turning to prayer, rather than medical science, for healing. After his stepfather was transferred to Birmingham, Miller transferred to the University of Alabama and he received his bachelors degree in history and speech in 1940, and a masters in speech in 1941 from the University of Alabama. He had taken courses in phonetics, voice science, and speech pathology, membership in the Drama club fostered his interest in courses in the Speech Department.
He was influenced by Professor Donald Ramsdell, who introduced him both to psychology, indirectly through a seminar, to his future wife Katherine James and they married on November 29,1939. He married Margaret Ferguson Skutch Page in 2008, Miller taught the course Introduction to Psychology at Alabama for two years. He enrolled in the Ph. D. program in psychology at Harvard University in 1943 and his doctorate thesis, The Optimal Design of Jamming Signals, was classified top secret by the US Army. After receiving his doctorate, Miller stayed as a fellow at Harvard, to continue his research on speech. He was appointed assistant professor of psychology in 1948, the course he developed on language and communication would eventually lead to his first major book and communication
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes was a French physicist and the Nobel Prize laureate in physics in 1991. He was born in Paris and was home-schooled to the age of 12, by the age of 13, he had adopted adult reading habits and was visiting museums. Later, de Gennes studied at the École Normale Supérieure and he defended his Ph. D. in 1957 at the University of Paris. In 1959, he was a postdoctoral research visitor with Charles Kittel at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1961, he was assistant professor in Orsay and soon started the Orsay group on superconductors. In 1968, he switched to studying liquid crystals, in 1971, he became professor at the Collège de France, and participated in STRASACOL on polymer physics. From 1980 on, he interested in interfacial problems, the dynamics of wetting. More recently, he worked on materials and on the nature of memory objects in the brain. He was awarded the Harvey Prize, Lorentz Medal and Wolf Prize in 1988 and 1990, in 1991, he received the Nobel Prize in physics.
He was director of the École Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles de la Ville de Paris, P. G. de Gennes has received the F. A. The Royal Society of Chemistry awards the De Gennes Prize biennially and he was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1984. He was awarded A. Cemal Eringen Medal in 1998, in 2003 he was one of 22 Nobel Laureates who signed the Humanist Manifesto. On 22 May 2007, his death was made public as official messages and tributes poured in
Scientific American is an American popular science magazine. Many famous scientists, including Albert Einstein, have contributed articles in the past 170 years and it is the oldest continuously published monthly magazine in the United States. Scientific American was founded by inventor and publisher Rufus M. Porter in 1845 as a weekly newspaper. Throughout its early years, much emphasis was placed on reports of what was going on at the U. S, current issues include a this date in history section, featuring excerpts from articles originally published 50,100, and 150 years earlier. Topics include humorous incidents, wrong-headed theories, and noteworthy advances in the history of science, Porter sold the publication to Alfred Ely Beach and Orson Desaix Munn a mere ten months after founding it. Until 1948, it remained owned by Munn & Company, under Munns grandson, Orson Desaix Munn III, it had evolved into something of a workbench publication, similar to the twentieth-century incarnation of Popular Science.
In the years after World War II, the fell into decline. Thus the partners—publisher Gerard Piel, editor Dennis Flanagan, and general manager Donald H. Miller, Miller retired in 1979, Flanagan and Piel in 1984, when Gerard Piels son Jonathan became president and editor, circulation had grown fifteen-fold since 1948. In 1986, it was sold to the Holtzbrinck group of Germany, in the fall of 2008, Scientific American was put under the control of Nature Publishing Group, a division of Holtzbrinck. Donald Miller died in December 1998, Gerard Piel in September 2004, Mariette DiChristina is the current editor-in-chief, after John Rennie stepped down in June 2009. Scientific American published its first foreign edition in 1890, the Spanish-language La America Cientifica, a Russian edition V Mire Nauki was launched in the Soviet Union in 1983, and continues in the present-day Russian Federation. Kexue, a simplified Chinese edition launched in 1979, was the first Western magazine published in the Peoples Republic of China, founded in Chongqing, the simplified Chinese magazine was transferred to Beijing in 2001.
Later in 2005, an edition, Global Science, was published instead of Kexue. A traditional Chinese edition, known as 科學人, was introduced to Taiwan in 2002, the Hungarian edition Tudomány existed between 1984 and 1992. In 1986, an Arabic edition, Oloom magazine, was published, in 2002, a Portuguese edition was launched in Brazil. From 1902 to 1911, Scientific American supervised the publication of the Encyclopedia Americana and it originally styled itself The Advocate of Industry and Enterprise and Journal of Mechanical and other Improvements. On the front page of the first issue was the engraving of Improved Rail-Road Cars, the masthead had a commentary as follows, Scientific American published every Thursday morning at No.11 Spruce Street, New York, No.16 State Street, and No. 2l Arcade Philadelphia, by Rufus Porter, five copies will be sent to one address six months for four dollars in advance
National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering, as a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Election to the National Academies is one of the highest honors in the scientific field, members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science and medicine. The group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code, … to provide scientific advice to the government whenever called upon by any government department. The Academy receives no compensation from the government for its services, as of 2016, the National Academy of Sciences includes about 2,350 members and 450 foreign associates. It employed about 1,100 staff in 2005, the current members annually elect new members for life. Approximately 200 members have won a Nobel Prize, the National Academy of Sciences is a member of the International Council for Science.
Although there is no relationship with state and local academies of science. The National Academies is governed by a 17-member Council, made up of five officers and 12 Councilors, the National Academy of Sciences meets annually in Washington, D. C. which is documented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, its scholarly journal. The National Academies Press is the publisher for the National Academies, since 2004, the National Academy of Sciences has administered the Marian Koshland Science Museum to provide public exhibits and programming related to its policy work. The museums current exhibits focus on change and infectious disease. The National Academy of Sciences maintains multiple buildings around the United States, the building has a neoclassical architectural style and was built by architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue. The building was dedicated in 1924 and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the building is used for lectures, symposia and concerts, in addition to annual meetings of the NAS, NAE, and NAM.
The 2012 Presidential Award for Math and Science Teaching ceremony was held here on March 5,2014, approximately 150 staff members work at the NAS Building. More than 1,000 National Academies staff members work at The Keck Center of the National Academies at 500 Fifth Street in northwest Washington, the Keck Center provides meeting space and houses the National Academies Press Bookstore. The NAS maintains conference centers in California and Massachusetts, the J. Erik Jonsson Conference Center located at 314 Quissett Avenue in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, is another conference facility. The Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3,1863, created the National Academy of Sciences, many of the original NAS members came from the so-called Scientific Lazzaroni, an informal network of mostly physical scientists working in the vicinity of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts was to name Agassiz to the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, Agassiz was to come to Washington at the governments expense to plan the organization with the others
Philip Warren Anderson
Philip Warren Anderson is an American physicist and Nobel laureate. Anderson was born in Indianapolis and grew up in Urbana and he graduated from University Laboratory High School in Urbana in 1940. Afterwards, he went to Harvard University for undergraduate and graduate work, in graduate school he studied under John Hasbrouck van Vleck. From 1949 to 1984 he was employed by Bell Laboratories in New Jersey and he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1963. From 1967 to 1975, Anderson was a professor of physics at Cambridge University. Co-researchers Sir Nevill Francis Mott and John van Vleck shared the award with him, in 1982, he was awarded the National Medal of Science. He retired from Bell Labs in 1984 and is currently Joseph Henry Professor of Physics, andersons writings include Concepts of Solids, Basic Notions of Condensed Matter Physics and The Theory of Superconductivity in the High-Tc Cuprates. Anderson currently serves on the board of advisors of Scientists and Engineers for America and he is a certified first degree-master of the Chinese board game Go.
Anderson has made important conceptual contributions to the philosophy of science through his explication of emergent phenomena. He was awarded the Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize in 1964 and he was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1982. Anderson is an atheist and was one of 22 Nobel Laureates who signed the Humanist Manifesto, Philip W. Notes on theory of magnetism. Anderson, Philip W. Concepts in solids, lectures on the theory of solids, singapore River Edge, New Jersey, World Scientific. Anderson, Philip W. Basic notions of condensed matter physics, Philip W. Arrow, Kenneth J. Pines, eds. The economy as a complex system, the proceedings of the Evolutionary Paths of the Global Economy Workshop, held September,1987 in Santa Fe. Redwood City, Addison-Wesley Pub. Co, World Scientific Series in 20th Century Physics, volume 35. Singapore Hackensack, New Jersey, World Scientific Pub. Co, the theory of superconductivity in the high-TC cuprates. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press and different notes from a thoughtful curmudgeon.
Singapore Hackensack, New Jersey, World Scientific, Philip W. Absence of diffusion in certain random lattices
Volker Heine FRS is a New Zealand-British physicist. He was educated at Wanganui Collegiate School and the University of Otago, the following year he obtained a Fellowship at Clare College and became part of the new theory Group in the Cavendish Laboratory. The Group was headed by John Ziman, in 1975 Heine became a Professor, and the Head of the theory group, by called the Theory of Condensed Matter group. He held that position until his retirement in 1997 and his main area of research was electronic structure theory, and particularly pseudopotentials. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1974, awarded the Maxwell Medal and Prize in 1972 and the Max Born Prize in 2001. He currently retains a desk in his old research group, volker Heine, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge. Volker Heine, Fellows Directory, Clare College
Friedmans challenges to what he called naive Keynesian theory began with his 1950s reinterpretation of the consumption function. In the 1960s, he became the main advocate opposing Keynesian government policies and he theorized that there existed a natural rate of unemployment, and argued that employment above this rate would cause inflation to accelerate. He argued that the Phillips curve was, in the run, vertical at the natural rate. Friedman promoted an alternative macroeconomic viewpoint known as monetarism, and argued that a steady and his ideas concerning monetary policy, taxation and deregulation influenced government policies, especially during the 1980s. His monetary theory influenced the Federal Reserves response to the financial crisis of 2007–08. Friedman was an advisor to Republican U. S. President Ronald Reagan and his political philosophy extolled the virtues of a free market economic system with minimal intervention. He once stated that his role in eliminating U. S. conscription was his proudest accomplishment and his support for school choice led him to found the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, renamed EdChoice.
His books and essays have had influence, including in former communist states. Friedman was born in Brooklyn, New York on July 31,1912 and his parents, Sára Ethel and Jenő Saul Friedman, were Jewish immigrants from Beregszász in Carpathian Ruthenia, Kingdom of Hungary. They both worked as dry goods merchants, shortly after Miltons birth, the family relocated to Rahway, New Jersey. In his early teens, Friedman was injured in a car accident, a talented student, Friedman graduated from Rahway High School in 1928, just before his 16th birthday. In 1932, Friedman graduated from Rutgers University, where he specialized in mathematics and economics, during his time at Rutgers, Friedman became influenced by two economics professors, Arthur F. Burns and Homer Jones, who convinced him that modern economics could help end the Great Depression. After graduating from Rutgers, Friedman was offered two scholarships to do graduate work—one in mathematics at Brown University and the other in economics at the University of Chicago, Friedman chose the latter, thus earning a Master of Arts degree in 1933.
He was strongly influenced by Jacob Viner, Frank Knight, and it was at Chicago that Friedman met his future wife, economist Rose Director. During the 1933–1934 academic year he had a fellowship at Columbia University and he was back in Chicago for the 1934–1935 academic year, working as a research assistant for Henry Schultz, who was working on Theory and Measurement of Demand. That year, Friedman formed what would prove to be lifelong friendships with George Stigler, foreshadowing his ideas, he believed price controls interfered with an essential signaling mechanism to help resources be used where they were most valued. During 1935, he work for the National Resources Committee. Ideas from this became a part of his Theory of the Consumption Function