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Marwari language

Marwari is a Rajasthani language spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan. Marwari is found in the neighbouring state of Gujarat and Haryana, Eastern Pakistan and some migrant communities in himalayan country Nepal. With some 7.9 million or so speakers, it is one of the largest varieties of Rajasthani. Most speakers live with a quarter million in Sindh and a tenth that number in Nepal. There are two dozen dialects of Marwari. Marwari is popularly written in Devanagari script, as is Hindi, Marathi and Sanskrit. Indian Marwari has no official status in the government in India and is not used as a language of education. Marwari is still spoken in and around Bikaner and Jodhpur, it is said that Marwari and Gujarati evolved from Gujjar Bhakha or Maru-Gurjar, language of the Gurjars. Formal grammar of Gurjar Apabhraṃśa was written by Jain monk and eminent Gujarati scholar Hemachandra Suri. Marwari is spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan. Marwari speakers have dispersed throughout India and other countries but are found most notably in the neighbouring state of Gujarat and in Eastern Pakistan.

Speakers are found in Bhopal. With around 7.9 million speakers in India according to the 2001 census. There are several dialects: Thaḷī, Bāgṛī, Sirohī, Godwārī. Indian Marwari in Rajhastan shares a 50%–65% lexical similarity with Hindi, it has many cognate words with Hindi. Notable phonetic correspondences include /s/ in Hindi with /h/ in Marwari. For example, /sona/'gold' and /hono/'gold'. Pakistani Marwari shares 87% lexical similarity between its Southern subdialects in Sindh and Northern subdialects in Punjab, 79%–83% with Dhakti, 78% with Meghwar and Bhat Marwari dialects. Mutual intelligibility of Pakistani Marwari with Indian Marwari is decreasing due to the rapid shift of active Pakistanese speakers to Urdu, their use of the Arabic script and different sources of support medias, their separation from Indian Marwaris if there are some educational efforts to keep it active. Lots of words are being borrowed from other major Pakistani languages. Merwari shares 82%–97% intelligibility of Pakistani Marwari, with 60%–73% lexical similarity between Merwari varieties in Ajmer and Nagaur districts, but only 58%–80% with Shekhawati, 49%–74% with Indian Marwari, 44%–70% with Godwari, 54%–72% with Mewari, 62%–70% with Dhundari, 57%–67% with Haroti.

Unlike Pakistani Marwari, the use of Merwari remains vigorous if its most educated speakers proficiently speak Hindi. /h/ sometimes elides. There are a variety of vowel changes. Most of the pronouns and interrogatives are, distinct from those of Hindi. Marwari languages have a structure, quite similar to Hindustani, their primary word order is subject–object–verb Most of the pronouns and interrogatives used in Marwari are distinct from those used in Hindi. Marwari vocabulary is somewhat similar to other Western Indo-Aryan languages Rajasthani and Gujarati, elements of grammar and basic terminology differ enough to impede mutual intelligibility. In addition, Marwari uses many words found in Sanskrit. Marwari is written in the Devanagari script, although the Mahajani script is traditionally associated with the language. Traditionally it was written in Mahajani script. In Pakistan it is written in the Perso-Arabic script with modifications. Historical Marwari orthography for Devanagari uses other characters in place of standard Devanagari letters.

Lambadi List of Indian languages by total speakers Marwari Muslims Marwari people Shekhawati Lakhan Gusain. Marwari. Munich: Lincom Europa Marwari Dictionary Hanvant's Rajasthani Dictionary Basic phrases in Marwari language

Roberta Blackman-Woods

Roberta Carol Blackman-Woods is a British academic and former Labour Party politician, the Member of Parliament for the City of Durham from 2005 to 2019. Blackman-Woods is from Northern Ireland and was educated at the University of Ulster, graduating with a BSc degree and a PhD in Social Science. Following this she was employed by Newcastle City Council, before going on to pursue a career in academia; as a sociologist with expertise in housing, she served as Professor of Social Policy and an Associate Dean in the School of Arts and Social Sciences at the University of Northumbria prior to her election, had been Dean of Social and Labour studies at Ruskin College and head of policy at the Local Government Information Unit. Blackman-Woods had been Chair of the City of Durham Constituency Labour Party and before that in Newcastle upon Tyne East and Wallsend, she has served as a Councillor on Oxford and Newcastle City Councils. In 2004, Blackman-Woods was selected as the Labour candidate for the City of Durham constituency through an All-Women Shortlist.

In her previous work she had been known by her maiden name, Roberta Woods, but added her husband's surname, after selection to avoid confusion with Liberal Democrat candidate Carol Woods. Elected at the 2005 general election with a majority of 3,274, Blackman-Woods made her maiden speech to the House of Commons on 24 May 2005, making reference to the work of her predecessor Gerry Steinberg, the importance to Durham of Durham Cathedral, the University of Durham and the historic legacy of mining within the area. Blackman-Woods was a member of the Joint Committee on Statutory Instruments from 2005–2010 and has been a member of the Education and Skills Select committee and the Business, Innovation and Skills Select Committee. In 2006 she became the Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Hilary Armstrong; this post lasted until Armstrong returned to the backbenches when Gordon Brown became Prime Minister, but Blackman-Woods was appointed PPS to the Secretary of State for Defence, Des Browne, in 2007.

Following Des Brown's retirement to the backbenches she served as PPS to David Lammy MP as Minister of State for Higher Education. She was Chair of the All Party Afghanistan Group from 2005 and the All Party Balanced and Sustainable Communities Group from 2007. Blackman-Woods was an active member of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and the Inter-Parliamentary Union throughout her Parliamentary career. In 2010, she was re-elected to Parliament with a majority of 3,067, was appointed Shadow Minister for Business in June 2010, before being moved to shadow the Civil Society Minister by new Labour Leader Ed Miliband in October 2010. In the October 2011 shadow cabinet re-shuffle, Blackman-Woods was moved to become Shadow Minister in Communities and Local Government covering planning policy and procurement. In 2015, she was re-elected with a majority of 11,439, was confirmed as the shadow housing minister, she resigned from the front bench in June 2016, before supporting Owen Smith in the 2016 Labour leadership election.

She subsequently rejoined the front bench on Corbyn's re-election. She was re-elected in 2017 with a majority of 12,362, on July 2017 she was appointed as a Shadow International Development Minister. On 16 July 2019 she announced that she would not be standing at the next general election for family reasons, she gave her valedictory speech in the House of Commons on 5 November 2019. Roberta Blackman-Woods' maiden speech to the House of Commons BBC News Election 2005 results for the City of Durham Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou

Theodor Seitz

Theodor Seitz was a German colonial governor. He studied law at the University of Heidelberg, he entered in the service of the Foreign Office and became on 9 May 1907 Imperial Governor of Kamerun. On 28 August 1910, he became Governor of German South West Africa at Windhoek. At the outbreak of World War I, the colony was invaded by a British-South African force; the outnumbered German troops under command of Victor Franke had to capitulate on 9 July 1915. He remained in captivity until 1919, when all Germans were sent to Germany and the colony was annexed by the British. In 1920 he became president in 1930 honorary president. Literature by and about Theodor Seitz in the German National Library catalogue Newspaper clippings about Theodor Seitz in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW

Fortress of Louisbourg

The Fortress of Louisbourg is a National Historic Site of Canada and the location of a one-quarter partial reconstruction of an 18th-century French fortress at Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. Its two sieges that of 1758, were turning points in the Anglo-French struggle for what today is Canada; the original settlement was made in 1713, called Havre à l'Anglois. Subsequently, the fishing port grew to become a major commercial port and a defended fortress; the fortifications surrounded the town. The walls were constructed between 1720 and 1740. By the mid-1740s Louisbourg, named for Louis XIV of France, was one of the most extensive European fortifications constructed in North America, it was supported by two smaller garrisons on Île Royale located at present-day St. Peter's and Englishtown; the Fortress of Louisbourg suffered key weaknesses, since it was erected on low-lying ground commanded by nearby hills and its design was directed toward sea-based assaults, leaving the land-facing defences weak.

A third weakness was that it was a long way from France or Quebec, from which reinforcements might be sent. It was captured by British colonists in 1745, was a major bargaining chip in the negotiations leading to the 1748 treaty ending the War of the Austrian Succession, it was returned to the French in exchange for border towns in. It was captured again in 1758 by British forces in the Seven Years' War, after which its fortifications were systematically destroyed by British engineers; the British continued to have a garrison at Louisbourg until 1768. The fortress and town were reconstructed in the 1960s and 1970s, using some of the original stonework, which provided jobs for unemployed coal miners; the head stonemason for this project was Ron Bovaird. The site is operated by Parks Canada as a living history museum; the site stands as the largest reconstruction project in North America. French settlement on Île Royale can be traced to the early 17th century following settlements in Acadia that were concentrated on Baie Française such as at Port-Royal and other locations in present-day peninsular Nova Scotia.

A French settlement at Sainte Anne on the central east coast of Île Royale was established in 1629 and named Fort Sainte Anne, lasting until 1641. A fur trading post was established on the site from 1651–1659, but Île Royale languished under French rule as attention was focused on the St. Lawrence River/Great Lakes colony of Canada and the small agricultural settlements of mainland Acadia; the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 gave Britain control of part of Newfoundland. In 1713, France set about constructing Port Dauphin and a limited naval support base at the former site of Fort Sainte-Anne; the harbour, being ice-free and well protected, soon became a winter port for French naval forces on the Atlantic seaboard and they named it Havre Louisbourg after King Louis XIV. The Fortress was besieged in 1745 by a New England force backed by a Royal Navy squadron; the New England attackers succeeded when the fortress capitulated on June 16, 1745. A major expedition by the French to recapture the fortress led by Jean-Baptiste de La Rochefoucauld de Roye, duc d'Anville, the following year was destroyed by storms and British naval attacks before it reached the fortress.

In 1748, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended the War of the Austrian Succession, restored Louisbourg to France in return for territory gained in the Austrian Netherlands and the British trading post at Madras in India. Maurepas, the ministre de la marine, was determined to have it back, he regarded the fortified harbour as essential to maintaining French dominance in the fisheries of the area. The disgust of the French in this transaction was matched by that of the English colonists; the New England forces left, taking with them the famous Louisbourg Cross, which had hung in the fortress chapel. This cross was rediscovered in the Harvard University archives only in the latter half of the 20th century. Having given up Louisbourg, Britain in 1749 created its own fortified town on Chebucto Bay which they named Halifax, it soon became the largest Royal Navy base on the Atlantic coast and hosted large numbers of British army regulars. The 29th Regiment of Foot was stationed there. Britain's American colonies were expanding into areas claimed by France by the 1750s, the efforts of French forces and their Indian allies to seal off the westward passes and approaches through which American colonists could move west soon led to the skirmishes that developed into the French and Indian War in 1754.

The conflict widened into the larger Seven Years' War by 1756, which involved all of the major European powers. A large-scale French naval deployment in 1757 fen

Cutter Laboratories

Cutter Laboratories was a family-owned pharmaceutical company located in Berkeley, founded by Edward Ahern Cutter in 1897. Cutter's early products included anthrax vaccine, hog cholera virus, anti-hog cholera serum—and a hog cholera vaccine; the hog cholera vaccine was the first tissue culture vaccine, human or veterinary produced. The company expanded during World War II as a consequence of government contracts for blood plasma and penicillin. After Edward Cutter's death, his three sons—Dr. Robert K. Cutter, Edward "Ted" A. Cutter, Jr. and Frederick A. Cutter—ran the company. In the next generation Robert's son David followed his father as president of the company; the Bayer pharmaceutical company bought Cutter Laboratories in 1974. On April 12, 1955, following the announcement of the success of the polio vaccine trial, Cutter Laboratories became one of several companies, recommended to be given a license by the United States government to produce Salk's polio vaccine. In anticipation of the demand for vaccine, the companies had produced stocks of the vaccine and these were issued once the licenses were signed.

In what became known as the Cutter incident, some lots of the Cutter vaccine—despite passing required safety tests—contained live polio virus in what was supposed to be an inactivated-virus vaccine. Cutter withdrew its vaccine from the market on April 27 after vaccine-associated cases were reported; the mistake produced 120,000 doses of polio vaccine. Of children who received the vaccine, 40,000 developed abortive poliomyelitis, 56 developed paralytic poliomyelitis—and of these, five children died from polio; the exposures led to an epidemic of polio in the families and communities of the affected children, resulting in a further 113 people paralyzed and 5 deaths. The director of the microbiology institute lost his job, as did the equivalent of the assistant secretary for health. Secretary of Health and Welfare Oveta Culp Hobby stepped down. Dr Sebrell, the director of the NIH, resigned. Surgeon General Scheele sent Drs. William Tripp and Karl Habel from the NIH to inspect Cutter's Berkeley facilities, question workers, examine records.

After a thorough investigation, they found nothing wrong with Cutter's production methods. A congressional hearing in June 1955 concluded that the problem was the lack of scrutiny from the NIH Laboratory of Biologics Control. A number of civil lawsuits were filed against Cutter Laboratories in subsequent years, the first of, Gottsdanker v. Cutter Laboratories; the jury found Cutter not negligent, but liable for breach of implied warranty, awarded the plaintiffs monetary damages. This set a precedent for lawsuits. All five companies that produced the Salk vaccine in 1955—Eli Lilly, Parke-Davis, Pitman-Moore, Cutter—had difficulty inactivating the polio virus. Three companies other than Cutter were sued; the Cutter incident was one of the worst pharmaceutical disasters in US history, exposed several thousand children to live polio virus on vaccination. The NIH Laboratory of Biologics Control, which had certified the Cutter polio vaccine, had received advance warnings of problems: in 1954, staff member Dr. Bernice Eddy had reported to her superiors that some inoculated monkeys had become paralyzed.

William Sebrell, the director of NIH wouldn't hear of such a thing. Despite lawsuits resulting from vaccine-related cases of polio, Cutter Laboratories expanded its business. Between 1955 and 1960, they purchased: Veterinary product manufacturers Ashe-Lockhart, Inc. and Haver-Glover Laboratories of Kansas City Plastic manufacturers Plastron Specialties, Pacific Plastics Company in San Francisco, Olympic Plastics Company in Los Angeles An animal feed farm, Corn King Company, in Cedar Rapids A plant-derived allergy medicine company, Hollister-Stier, in Spokane, Los Angeles and AtlantaIn 1960 Cutter established Cutter Laboratories Pacific, Inc. in Japan. Annual Cutter company sales had increased from $11,482,000 in 1955 to $29,934,000 in 1962. In the early 1960s, Cutter's catalog listed more than 700 products—and in 1962 the company's assets were "80% greater than when the polio disaster had occurred." Cutter Laboratories was purchased by the German chemical and pharmaceutical company Bayer in 1974.

In the late 1970s through 1980s, numerous companies, including Bayer's Cutter Biologic division, produced unsafe blood products to treat hemophilia. The pharmaceutical product—produced from blood from donors across the US—was contaminated with the HIV virus at a time when HIV could not be screened out; these problems led to lawsuits over the next twenty years. A recent German documentary called "Tödlicher Ausverkauf: Wie BAYER AIDS nach Asien importierte" researched the Koate product for hemophiliacs sold by Bayer's Cutter division under full knowledge of its HIV contamination. Cutter ex-manager Merill Boyce expressed the opinion that the company should be responsible and pay damages. Another ex-manager John H Hink, on the team that marketed Koate to Asia, expressed regret in the documentary that management had required that they sell old stock despite knowledge of HIV contamination. Lexi J Hazan and Charles A Kozak are attorneys who represent victims against Bayer AG in the Koate cases. Thomas C Drees is a consultant.

Harpers Magazine article, August 1955

Gösta Nystroem

Gösta Nystroem was a Swedish composer. Nystroem Nyström, was born in Silvberg, Sweden, a parish in the province of Dalarna, but spent most of his childhood in Österhaninge near Stockholm, at the time a small village but nowadays a suburban district, his father was an organist. In his younger days, Nystroem was both a composer and a painter, but when he was about thirty years old, he decided to focus on music, he studied composition in Stockholm and Paris. Among his teachers in Paris were Vincent d'Indy and Leonid Sabaneyev. After living in France in Paris, for several years, he moved to Gothenburg on the Swedish west coast in the 1930s, where he worked as a music critic at Göteborgs Handels- och Sjöfartstidning. In 1934–36 he worked as the curator at Göteborgs Konsthall. In the 1950s he settled in Särö, a rather wealthy village about twenty kilometres south of Gothenburg, where he had a house that belonged to the family of his first wife, Gladys Heyman, whom he married in 1921 in France; the couple had three daughters.

Gladys died in 1946, in 1950 Nystroem got remarried to Helen Lyon, like Gladys Heyman, came from an upper class Gothenburg family. In Sweden, Nystroem was regarded as a modernist in the 1930s, but in today's view, his music is only moderately modernistic, it is influenced by the French music of the time of his studies, but still has a Nordic, romantic tone, is most melancholic or sorrowful. As a person and artist Nystroem preferred to live close to it. Among Nystroem's most appreciated works are his romances; the most known collections are Sånger vid havet, På reveln and Själ och landskap: nya sånger vid havet. The poet closest to Nystroem's soul was the Swedish female writer Ebba Lindqvist, they shared a deep relationship with the sea. Five settings to music of Lindqvist's poems are to be found in the romance collections mentioned above. Nystroem composed six symphonies. Among these, Sinfonia espressiva and Sinfonia del mare are considered to be the best. Sinfonia espressiva grows from a slow first movement scored for timpani.

In the second and third movements, groups of wind instruments and percussion are added, only the finale is scored for full orchestra. The sea symphony, Sinfonia del mare, is written in one continuous movement, picturing different moods inspired by the sea, it is Nystroem's most popular work and might be said to have overshadowed other important works in his output. In the middle of the symphony is a section where a soprano sings a setting of Lindqvist's poem "Det enda" about a person who has fled from the sea, "as one flees from the beloved", but who will soon return to "sit by the sea and know it's the one on earth". Nystroem's other symphonies played, are Sinfonia breve, Symphony No. 4, Sinfonia seria, Sinfonia tramontana. 1917 revised 1924 Rondo Capriccioso for violin & orchestra 1924 Regrets, 6 pieces for solo piano 1924–25 Arctic Ocean, symphonic poem after an unfinished ballet 1925 Tower of Babel, symphonic poem 1929–30 Concerto for Strings No. 1 1929–31 Sinfonia Breve 1932–35 revised 1937 Sinfonia Espressiva 1934 The Tempest, incidental music to Shakespeare 1936 Merchant of Venice 1940 Viola Concerto "Hommage à la France" 1940–44 revised 1951-2 Sinfonia Concertante for cello & orchestra 1942 Songs by the Sea, five songs for voice with orchestra or piano 1945 Ouverture Symphonique 1946–48 Sinfonia del Mare after Ebba Lindqvist, for soprano & orchestra 1948 At the Reef, for voice & piano 1950 Soul & Landscape, three Ebba Lindqvist poems for soprano & piano 1952 Sinfonia Shakespeariana 1952 Ungersvennen och de sex Prinsessorna, ballet 1953 Partita for flute, string orchestra & harp 1954–57 Violin Concerto 1955 Concerto for Strings No. 2 1956 String Quartet 1956 Tre havsvisioner, a three part series for eight-part mixed chorus 1958 Herr Arnes Penningar, opera based on a novel by Selma Lagerlöf 1959 Piano Concerto "Concerto Ricercante" 195?

Midsummer Dream, after Martinson, for soprano & piano 1962–63 Sinfonia Seria 1963 Sinfonia di Lontano 1965 Sinfonia Tramontana 19?? Sommarmusik for soprano & orchestra Works by or about Gösta Nystroem at Internet Archive