Come Around Sundown
Come Around Sundown is the fifth studio album by American rock band Kings of Leon, released in Ireland and Germany on October 15, 2010, followed by releases in the UK on October 18 and North America on October 19. The official album covers and track list were revealed on September 3; the lead single, "Radioactive", along with its accompanying music video, premiered on September 8, on the Kings' official website. The following day, it received its official radio premiere on Australian radio; the album debuted at number one in Australia, Belgium, Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom. In the UK, the album sold 183,000 units in its first week as well as breaking the record for biggest first week digital album sales by selling over 49,000 album downloads, it was the 11th biggest selling album of 2010 in the UK with 694,300 sales. On November 30, 2011, the album received a nomination at the 54th Grammy Awards for Best Rock Album. Come Around Sundown has received positive reviews from critics. Sampling 27 reviews, the review aggregator website Metacritic gave the album a weighted average of 64/100.
Rolling Stone magazine placed Come Around Sundown at #18 on their list of the Best Albums of 2010. Q Magazine placed the album at #25 on their lists of the 50 Best Albums of 2010, it its first week, the album sold 183,000 copies. All tracks written by Kings of Leon. Adapted from the booklet of Come Around Sundown. Kings of Leon Caleb Followill – lead and backing vocals and acoustic guitar Matthew Followill – lead guitar, piano, lap steel, backing vocals Jared Followill – bass, piano, xylophone, backing vocals on "Mary" Nathan Followill – drums, backing vocalsAdditional personnel Jacquire King – production, backing vocals Angelo Petraglia – production, B3 organ, wurlitzer Liam O'Neil – B3 organ and tenor sax, piano Robert Mallory – fiddle Krish Lingala – saxophone, theremin Chris Coleman – trumpet, backing vocals Mike Kezner – sitar, maracas Ken Levitan & Andy Mendelsohn for Vector – management Scott Clayton, CAA & Peter Nash – booking List of European number-one hits of 2010 List of number-one hits of 2010 List of number-one albums of 2010 List of number-one albums from the 2010s List of number-one albums from the 2010s
Mary of Burgundy
Mary, Duchess of Burgundy, reigned over many of the territories of the Duchy of Burgundy, now in France and the Low Countries, from 1477 until her death. As the only child of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, his wife Isabella of Bourbon, she inherited the duchy upon the death of her father in the Battle of Nancy on 5 January 1477. Owing to the great prosperity of many of her territories, Mary was referred to as Mary the Rich. Mary of Burgundy was born in Brussels at the ducal castle of Coudenberg, to Charles the Bold known as the Count of Charolais, his wife Isabella of Bourbon, her birth, according to the court chronicler Georges Chastellain, was attended by a clap of thunder ringing from the otherwise clear twilight sky. Her godfather was Dauphin of France, in exile in Burgundy at that time. Reactions to the child were mixed: the baby's grandfather, Duke Philip the Good, was unimpressed, "chose not to attend the as it was only for a girl", whereas her grandmother Isabella of Portugal was delighted at the birth of a granddaughter.
Her illegitimate aunt Anne was assigned as her governess. Philip the Good died in 1467 and Mary's father assumed control of the duchy of Burgundy. Since her father had no living sons at the time of his accession, Mary became his heir presumptive, her father controlled a vast and wealthy domain made up of the Duchy of Burgundy, the Free County of Burgundy, the majority of the Low Countries. As a result, her hand in marriage was eagerly sought by a number of princes; the first proposal was received by her father when she was only five years old, in this case to marry the future King Ferdinand II of Aragon. She was approached by Charles, Duke of Berry, the younger brother of King Louis XI of France, intensely annoyed and attempted to prevent the necessary papal dispensation for consanguinity; as soon as Louis succeeded in producing a male heir who survived infancy, the future King Charles VIII of France, Louis wanted him to be the one to marry Mary though he was thirteen years younger than Mary was.
Nicholas I, Duke of Lorraine, was a few years older than Mary and controlled a duchy that lay alongside Burgundian territory, but his plan to combine his domain with hers was ended by his death in battle in 1473. Mary assumed the rule of her father's domains upon his defeat in battle and death on 5 January 1477. King Louis XI of France seized the opportunity to attempt to take possession of the Duchy of Burgundy proper and the regions of Franche-Comté, Picardy and Artois; the king was anxious that Mary should marry his son Charles and thus secure the inheritance of the Low Countries for his heirs, by force of arms if necessary. Burgundy, fearing French military power, sent an embassy to France to negotiate a marriage between Mary and the six-year-old Dauphin, but returned home without a betrothal. Mary was compelled to sign a charter of rights known as the Great Privilege in Ghent on 10 February 1477 on the occasion of her formal recognition as her father's heir. Under this agreement, the provinces and towns of Flanders, Brabant and Holland recovered all the local and communal rights, abolished by the decrees of the dukes of Burgundy in their efforts to create a centralized state on the French model out of their disparate holdings in the Low Countries.
In particular, the Parliament of Mechelen was abolished and replaced with the pre-existing authority of the Parliament of Paris, considered an amenable counterweight to the encroaching centralization undertaken by both Charles the Bold and Philip the Good. The duchess had to undertake not to declare war, make peace, or raise taxes without the consent of these provinces and towns and only to employ native residents in official posts; such was the hatred of the people for the old regime that in spite of the duchess's tears and entreaties, two of her father's most influential councilors, the Chancellor Hugonet and the Sire d'Humbercourt, were executed in Ghent after it was discovered that they were in correspondence with the king of France. Mary soon made her choice among the many suitors for her hand by selecting Archduke Maximilian of Austria, the future Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, who became her co-ruler; the marriage took place at Ghent on 19 August 1477. Mary's marriage into the House of Habsburg initiated two centuries of contention between France and the Habsburgs, a struggle that climaxed with the War of the Spanish Succession in the years 1701–1714.
In the Netherlands, affairs now went more smoothly. In 1482, a falcon hunt in the woods near Wijnendale Castle was organised by Adolph of Cleves, Lord of Ravenstein, who lived in the castle. Mary loved riding and was hunting with Maximilian and knights of the Court when her horse tripped, threw her in a ditch, landed on top of her, breaking her back, she died several weeks on 27 March, from internal injuries, having made a detailed will. She was buried in the Church of Our Lady in Bruges on April 3, 1482, her 2-year-old daughter, Margaret of Austria, was sent in vain to France, to marry the Dauphin, in an attempt to please Louis XI and persuade him not to invade the territories owned by Mary. Louis was swift to re-engage hostilities with Maximilian and forced him to agree to the Treaty of Arras of 1482, by which Franche-Comté and Artois passed for a time to French rule, only to be
RMS Queen Mary
The RMS Queen Mary is a retired British ocean liner that sailed on the North Atlantic Ocean from 1936 to 1967 for the Cunard Line – known as Cunard-White Star Line when the vessel entered service. She was the flagship of the Cunard and White Star Lines, built by John Brown & Company in Clydebank, Queen Mary, along with RMS Queen Elizabeth, were built as part of Cunard's planned two-ship weekly express service between Southampton and New York; the two ships were a British response to the express superliners built by German and French companies in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Queen Mary was the flagship of the Cunard Line from May 1936 until October 1946 when she was replaced in that role by Queen Elizabeth. Queen Mary won the Blue Riband that August. With the outbreak of the Second World War, she was converted into a troopship and ferried Allied soldiers during the war. Following the war, Queen Mary was refitted for passenger service and along with Queen Elizabeth commenced the two-ship transatlantic passenger service for which the two ships were built.
The two ships dominated the transatlantic passenger transportation market until the dawn of the jet age in the late 1950s. By the mid-1960s, Queen Mary was ageing and, though still among the most popular transatlantic liners, was operating at a loss. After several years of decreased profits for Cunard Line, Queen Mary was retired from service in 1967, she left Southampton for the last time on 31 October 1967 and sailed to the port of Long Beach, United States, where she remains permanently moored. Much of the machinery, including one of the two engine rooms, three of the four propellers, all of the boilers, were removed; the ship serves as a tourist attraction featuring a museum and a hotel. The ship is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the National Trust for Historic Preservation has accepted the Queen Mary as part of the Historic Hotels of America. With Germany launching Bremen and Europa into service, Britain did not want to be left behind in the shipbuilding race. White Star Line began construction on their 80,000-ton Oceanic in 1928, while Cunard planned a 75,000-ton unnamed ship of their own.
Construction on the ship known only as "Hull Number 534", began in December 1930 on the River Clyde by the John Brown & Company shipyard at Clydebank in Scotland. Work was halted in December 1931 due to the Great Depression and Cunard applied to the British Government for a loan to complete 534; the loan was granted, with enough money to complete the unfinished ship, to build a running mate, with the intention to provide the weekly service to New York with just two ships. One condition of the loan was that Cunard would merge with the White Star Line, Cunard's chief British rival at the time and, forced by the depression to cancel construction of its Oceanic. Both lines agreed and the merger was completed on 10 May 1934. Work on Queen Mary resumed and she was launched on 26 September 1934. Completion took 3 1⁄2 years and cost 3.5 million pounds sterling. Much of the ship's interior was constructed by the Bromsgrove Guild. Prior to the ship's launch, the River Clyde had to be deepened to cope with her size, this being undertaken by the engineer D. Alan Stevenson.
The ship was named after Mary of Teck, consort of King George V. Until her launch, the name was kept a guarded secret. Legend has it that Cunard intended to name the ship Victoria, in keeping with company tradition of giving its ships names ending in "ia", but when company representatives asked the king's permission to name the ocean liner after Britain's "greatest queen", he said his wife, Mary of Teck, would be delighted, and so, the legend goes, the delegation had of course no other choice but to report that No. 534 would be called Queen Mary. This story was denied by company officials, traditionally the names of sovereigns have only been used for capital ships of the Royal Navy; some support for the story was provided by Washington Post editor Felix Morley, who sailed as a guest of the Cunard Line on Queen Mary's 1936 maiden voyage. In his 1979 autobiography, For the Record, Morley wrote that he was placed at table with Sir Percy Bates, chairman of the Cunard Line. Bates told him the story of the naming of the ship "on condition you won't print it during my lifetime."
The name Queen Mary could have been decided upon as a compromise between Cunard and the White Star Line, as both lines had traditions of using names either ending in "ic" with White Star and "ia" with Cunard. The name had been given to the Clyde turbine steamer TS Queen Mary, so Cunard made an arrangement with its owners and this older ship was renamed Queen Mary II. Queen Mary was fitted with 24 Yarrow boilers in four boiler rooms and four Parsons turbines in two engine rooms; the boilers delivered 400 pounds per square inch steam at 700 °F which provided a maximum of 212,000 shp to four propellers, each turning at 200 RPM. Queen Mary achieved 32.84 knots on her acceptance trials in early 1936. In 1934 the new liner was launched by Queen Mary as RMS Queen Mary. On her way down the slipway, Queen Mary was slowed by eighteen drag chains, which checked the liner's progress into the River Clyde, a portion of, widened to accommodate the launch; when she sailed on her maiden voyage from Southampton on 27 May 1936, she was commanded by Sir Edgar T. Britten, the master designate for Cunard White Star whilst the ship was under construction at the John Brown shipyar
Mary is a feminine given name, the English form of the name Maria, in turn a Latin form of the Greek name Μαρία, found in the New Testament. Both variants reflect Syro-Aramaic Maryam, itself a variant of Miryam; the name may have originated from the Egyptian language. The name was early etymologized as containing the Hebrew root mr "bitter", or mry "rebellious". St. Jerome, following Eusebius of Caesarea, translates the name as "drop of the sea", from Hebrew מר mar "drop" and ים yam "sea"; this translation was subsequently rendered stella maris due to scribal error, whence Our Lady's title Star of the Sea. Rashi, an 11th-century Jewish commentator on the Bible, wrote that the name was given to the sister of Moses because of the Egyptians' harsh treatment of Jews in Egypt. Rashi wrote that the Israelites lived in Egypt for 210 years, including 86 years of cruel enslavement that began at the time Moses' elder sister was born. Therefore, the girl was called Miriam. Possible use of Maria as a Christian given name is recorded for the 3rd century.
The English form Mary arises by adoption of French Marie into Middle English. Wycliffe's Bible still has Marie, with the modern spelling current from the 16th century, found in the Tyndale Bible, Coverdale Bible and translations; the name Maria was given in Great Britain, with the traditional prounuciation of /məˈraɪə/. Mary is still among the top 100 names for baby girls born in Ireland, common amongst Christians there and popularised amongst Protestants with regard to Queen Mary II, co-monarch and wife of William III. Mary was the 179th most popular name for girls born in England and Wales in 2007, ranking behind other versions of the name. In the United States, Mary was the most popular name for girls from 1880 until 1961, it first fell below the top 100 most popular names in 2009. By contrast, the latinate form Maria rose into the top 100 in 1944, peaking at rank 31 in the 1970s, but falling below rank 100 once again in 2012; the name Mary remains more popular in the Southern United States than elsewhere in the country.
Mary was the 15th most popular name for girls born in Alabama in 2007, the 22nd most popular name for girls born in Mississippi in 2007, the 44th most popular name for girls in North Carolina, the 33rd most popular name for girls in South Carolina, the 26th most popular name for girls in Tennessee. Mary was still the most common name for girls in the United States in the 1990 census. Mariah had a short-lived burst of popularity after 1990, when singer Mariah Carey first topped the charts, peaking at rank 62 in 1998. Molly, a pet form, was ranked as the 29th most popular name there and spelling variant Mollie at No. 107. Biblical Marys: Mary, the Mother of Jesus of Nazareth Mary Magdalene, a disciple of Jesus of Nazareth Mary of Bethany Mary of Clopas Mary, mother of James aka Mary, mother of James the younger Mary, mother of John Mark Mary Salome Mary of Rome All pages with titles beginning with Mary Marian Marion Muire Molly Polly Máire Rosenkrantz and Satran, Pamela Redmond. Beyond Jennifer and Jason and Montana.
St. Martin's Paperbacks, Fourth Edition. ISBN 0-312-94095-5 Todd, Loreto. Celtic Names for Children. Irish American Book Company. ISBN 0-9627855-6-3 Wallace, Carol; the Penguin Classic Baby Name Book. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-200470-7 Wood, Jamie Martinez. ¿Cómo te llamas, Baby? Berkley. ISBN 0-425-17959-1
New Testament people named Mary
The name Mary appears 61 times in the New Testament, in 53 different verses. It was the single most popular female name among Palestinian Jews of the time, borne by about one in five women, most of the New Testament references to Mary provide only the barest identifying information. Scholars and traditions therefore differ as to how many distinct women these references represent and which of them refer to the same person. A common Protestant tradition holds that there are six different women named as Mary in the New Testament: Mary, mother of Jesus. A common Roman Catholic tradition includes six New Testament saints called Mary: Mary, mother of Jesus, and there are other variations. In most traditions at least three Marys are present at the Crucifixion and at the Resurrection, but again traditions differ as to the identities of these three, as to whether they are the same three at these two events. Mary the mother of Jesus known as the Madonna, is one of the main characters of the Gospels; the terms Mariology and, in the context of Christianity, both most refer to this person.
She is mentioned by name twelve times in the Gospel of Luke, five times in the Gospel of Matthew, once in the Gospel of Mark and once in the Book of Acts. Nearly all of these mentions by name are within Christmas story, which appears only in Matthew and Luke, not in Mark or John. Only two of the Gospel passages that mention this Mary by name, Matthew 13:55 and Mark 6:3, are in Jesus' life, they are accepted as parallel passages describing the same event. In addition Matthew 12:46–50 and Mark 3:31–35 both describe Mary's visit to Jesus as an adult but without mentioning her by name, Luke 2:48–51 describes an event from Jesus' childhood with Mary again a major player but not mentioned by name; the Gospel of John mentions her twice but without naming her, is the only one of the Gospels to explicitly state that she was present at the Crucifixion. Matthew and Mark both list two women named Mary as present, but most traditions do not identify either of these with the mother of Jesus, leading to the conclusion that there were three Marys present.
Matthew and Mark record the attendance of many other women whom they do not name, Luke does not identify by name any of the many women present. All traditions affirm her presence at the Crucifixion. Roman Catholic tradition assigns her feast days of January 1, March 25, August 15 and December 8, while the Church of England celebrates March 25, May 31 or 2 July, 15 August, 8 September and 13 December; the Lutheran church commemorates her at lesser festivals on May 31 and August 15. See also: Mariology Roman Catholic Mariology Anglican Marian theology Lutheran Marian theology Protestant views on Mary Blessed Virgin Mary Theotokos Ecumenical meetings and documents on Mary Mary in Islam Virgin Mary Mary virgin Marian feast days Mary Magdalene is named three times in Matthew, four times in Mark, twice in Luke and three times in John, was given the title Apostle to the Apostles by no less a person than St Augustine. All four Gospels name her as one of the small group of women who found the tomb empty, all but Luke name her as one of the many women present at the Crucifixion, Luke names none of the women who had followed him from Galilee, which would include her.
Matthew and Mark both name her as one of the small group. Prior to the Crucifixion, the only explicit mention of her is in Luke 8:2, in which she is one of only three named of the many women accompanying Jesus in his travels. Here she is described as one of the women, healed of evil spirits and infirmities, as the one from whom seven demons had gone out. Several scholars and traditions identify her with other women in the New Testament, but none of these are universally accepted. Roman Catholic tradition, in particular, has from time to time identified her with both Mary of Bethany and with the unnamed woman, a sinner of Luke 7:37–39, resulting in the view that she is mentioned more times than Mary, the mother of Jesus, in the New Testament, giving rise to the legend that made her a model of a penitent sinner and according to Pope Gregory, a reformed prostitute; this view, taken to its extreme in Legenda Aurea, is no longer affirmed by the Roman Catholic Church but remains in popular devotion.
Her feast day is July 22, is celebrated by the Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches and by the Church of England. Mary, the sister of Martha and Lazarus, lived with them near Jerusalem. Jesus visited them there on at least two occasions. Mary and Martha are mentioned by name in John 11:1–12:8 and in Luke 10:38–41. Three other passages, one each in Matthew and Luke, refer to an unnamed person identified by some but by no means all authorities as this Mary, or as Mary Magdalene, or both. Roman Catholic tradition in particular identifies the person in Luke with both Mary of Bethany and Saint Mary Magdalene. John describes two visits by Jesus to Martha. In John 11, Jesus raises Mary's brother Lazarus from death. Mary and Lazarus appear t
Mary of Clopas
Mary of Clopas, was one of various New Testament people named Mary. Mary of Cleophas is explicitly mentioned only in John 19:25, where she is among the women present at the crucifixion of Jesus: Now there stood by the cross of Jesus His mother, His mother’s sister, Mary of Clopas, Mary Magdalene; the expression Mary of Cleophas in the Greek text is ambiguous as to whether Mary was the daughter or wife of Cleophas, but exegesis has favoured the reading "wife of Cleophas". Hegesippus thought; the Gospels of Mark and Matthew each include passages regarding the women at the crucifixion that are nearly identical to one another. Unlike the parallel passage in the Gospel of John, neither of these Gospels directly mention Mary, the mother of Jesus witnessing the crucifixion. There were women looking on afar off: among whom was Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, Salome. Among, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joses, the mother of Zebedee's children; this has led some scholars to assume Mary of Clopas to be identical with "Mary the mother of James and Joses".
James Tabor, considering that James and Joses are the names of two of the four brothers of Jesus, has deduced that "Mary the mother of James and Joses" is Mary, the mother of Jesus, making Mary the wife of Clopas the same Mary. This interpretation would necessitate that Mary the mother of Jesus married a man named Clopas, after her marriage to Joseph. Tabor notes that Levirate marriage may have been applicable, in which case a brother of Joseph would have been obliged to wed his widowed wife. Clopas appears in early Christian writings as a brother of Joseph, as the father of Simeon, the second bishop of Jerusalem. Eusebius of Caesarea, referencing the works of Hegesippus, relates in his Church History, that after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD, the Christians of Jerusalem: all with one consent pronounced Symeon, the son of Clopas, of whom the Gospel makes mention, he was a cousin, of the Saviour. For Hegesippus records. According to some interpretations, the same Mary was among the women that on resurrection morning went to the tomb to anoint Jesus' body with spices.
Matthew 28:1 calls her "the other Mary" to distinguish her from Mary Magdalene, while Mark 16:1 uses the name "Mary, the mother of James", most derived from James the Less. The Latin version of that name, Maria Iacobi is used in tradition. Stephen S. Smalley says that it is "probable" that Mary of Cleophas is Mary the mother of James, the son of Alphaeus. In a manner similar to the Gospel of John, the apocryphal Gospel of Philip seems to list Mary of Cleophas among Jesus' female entourage: There were three who always walked with the Lord: Mary, his mother, her sister, Magdalene, the one, called his companion, his sister and his mother and his companion were each a Mary. Adding to the confusion, the Gospel of Philip seems to refer to her as Jesus' mother's sister and Jesus' own sister. In the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, written in the seventh century, states that Mary of Cleophas was the daughter of Cleophas and Anna: Jesus met them, with Mary His mother, along with her sister Mary of Cleophas, whom the Lord God had given to her father Cleophas and her mother Anna, because they had offered Mary the mother of Jesus to the Lord.
And she was called by the same name, for the consolation of her parents. The most common interpretation is that "of Cleopas" indicates the husband of Mary of Cleophas and subsequently the father of her children, but some see "of Cleophas" as meaning this Mary's father. In medieval tradition Cleophas is the second husband of Saint Anne and the father of "Mary of Cleophas". Catholic and Orthodox traditions believed that Clopas is a brother of Saint Joseph, that he is the same person as Cleopas. An early tradition within the Roman Catholic Church identify Mary of Cleophas as the sister of Mary, the mother of Jesus. Eusebius of Caesarea citing Hegesippus records that "Cleophas was a brother of Joseph", which makes Mary of Cleophas a sister-in-law of Mary, the mother of Jesus. Jerome identifies Mary of Cleophas as the sister of Mary, the mother of Jesus and as the mother of those who were called the brothers and sisters of Jesus. According to the surviving fragments of the work Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord of the Apostolic Father Papias of Hierapolis, who lived circa 70-163 AD, Mary of Cleophas would be the mother of James the Just, Simon and Joses or Joseph.
Papias identifies this "Mary" as the sister of Mary, the mother of Jesus, thus as the maternal aunt of Jesus. The Anglican theologian J. B. Lightfoot dismissed Papias' evidence as spurious. In the Roman Martyrology she is remembered with Saint Salome on April 24; some have regarded Mary as the daughter of Clopas, in turn one of the husbands of Saint Anne. Myrrhbearers The Three Marys
Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King James V, was six days old when her father died and she acceded to the throne, she spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents, in 1558, she married the Dauphin of France, Francis. He ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, Mary became queen consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561. Four years she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and in June 1566 they had a son, James. In February 1567, Darnley's residence was destroyed by an explosion, he was found murdered in the garden. James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was believed to have orchestrated Darnley's death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle.
On 24 July 1567 she was forced to abdicate in favour of her one-year-old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, Queen Elizabeth I of England. Mary had once claimed Elizabeth's throne as her own, was considered the legitimate sovereign of England by many English Catholics, including participants in a rebellion known as the Rising of the North. Perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth in 1586, she was beheaded the following year at Fotheringhay Castle. Mary was born on 8 December 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland, to King James V and his French second wife, Mary of Guise, she was said to have been born prematurely and was the only legitimate child of James to survive him. She was the great-niece of King Henry VIII of England, as her paternal grandmother, Margaret Tudor, was Henry VIII's sister.
On 14 December, six days after her birth, she became Queen of Scotland when her father died from the effects of a nervous collapse following the Battle of Solway Moss, or from drinking contaminated water while on campaign. A popular tale, first recorded by John Knox, states that James, hearing on his deathbed that his wife had given birth to a daughter, ruefully exclaimed, "It cam wi' a lass and it will gang wi' a lass!" His House of Stuart had gained the throne of Scotland by the marriage of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce, to Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland. The crown had come to his family through a woman, would be lost from his family through a woman; this legendary statement came true much later—not through Mary, but through her descendant Queen Anne. Mary was baptised at the nearby Church of St Michael. Rumours spread that she was weak and frail, but an English diplomat, Ralph Sadler, saw the infant at Linlithgow Palace in March 1543, unwrapped by her nurse, wrote, "it is as goodly a child as I have seen of her age, as like to live."As Mary was an infant when she inherited the throne, Scotland was ruled by regents until she became an adult.
From the outset, there were two claims to the regency: one from Catholic Cardinal Beaton, the other from the Protestant Earl of Arran, next in line to the throne. Beaton's claim was based on a version of the king's will. Arran, with the support of his friends and relations, became the regent until 1554 when Mary's mother managed to remove and succeed him. King Henry VIII of England took the opportunity of the regency to propose marriage between Mary and his own son and heir, hoping for a union of Scotland and England. On 1 July 1543, when Mary was six months old, the Treaty of Greenwich was signed, which promised that, at the age of ten, Mary would marry Edward and move to England, where Henry could oversee her upbringing; the treaty provided that the two countries would remain separate and that if the couple should fail to have children, the temporary union would dissolve. Cardinal Beaton rose to power again and began to push a pro-Catholic pro-French agenda, angering Henry, who wanted to break the Scottish alliance with France.
Beaton wanted to move Mary away from the coast to the safety of Stirling Castle. Regent Arran resisted the move, but backed down when Beaton's armed supporters gathered at Linlithgow; the Earl of Lennox escorted her mother to Stirling on 27 July 1543 with 3,500 armed men. Mary was crowned in the castle chapel on 9 September 1543, with "such solemnity as they do use in this country, not costly" according to the report of Ralph Sadler and Henry Ray. Shortly before Mary's coronation, Scottish merchants headed for France were arrested by Henry, their goods impounded; the arrests caused anger in Scotland, Arran joined Beaton and became a Catholic. The Treaty of Greenwich was rejected by the Parliament of Scotland in December; the rejection of the marriage treaty and the renewal of the Auld Alliance between France and Scotland prompted Henry's "Rough Wooing", a military campaign designed to impose the marriage of Mary to his son. English forces mounted a series of raids on French territory. In May 1544, the English Earl of Hertford raided Edinburgh, the Scots took Mary to Dunkeld for safety.
In May 1546, Beaton was murdered by Protestant lairds, on 10 September 1547, nine months after the death of Henry VIII, the Scots suffered a heavy defeat at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh. Mary's guardians, fearful for her safety, sent her t