Adam Anders is a Swedish film and music producer who has sold more than 100 million albums and in recent years has become one of the most in-demand Executive Producers for music-driven film and television. Anders is the CEO of Anders Media, its record label Deep Well Records, a sub-label of Capitol Music Group. In 2013, Adam was named No. 15 in Hollywood Reporter's Top 35 Hitmakers. Anders' work has earned him four Grammy Award nominations, two People's Choice Awards; as the Executive Music Producer for Glee, Anders' musical productions have helped put Glee on the iTunes Top Songs chart, including original songs that he wrote, such as "Loser Like Me" and "Get It Right". Glee had at one time seven of the top ten tracks on the iTunes Top Song chart including the above two original songs at one and two the cast's versions of Pink's "Raise Your Glass" at number three, The Beatles' "Blackbird" at number five, Maroon 5's "Misery" at number six, another original song, "Hell to the No", at number eight.
In May 2011, Glee had one of its biggest sales weeks to date with 986,000 downloads of tracks produced by Anders. Anders has a track record of writing and producing music for both established artists and up-and-comers including the Jonas Brothers, Miley Cyrus, Selena Gomez, Backstreet Boys, Clay Aiken and many others, his music can be heard on many major motion pictures and television shows including Disney's High School Musical 3, Hannah Montana, Evan Almighty and The Wedding Planner, as well as the 2012 film Rock of Ages. Adam Anders launched Los Angeles-based record label, Deep Well Records in 2011; the first artist signed to his label was singer/songwriter/actor Shane Harper, whose self-titled debut album was released on February 14, 2012 and included the Anders-produced first single entitled, "One Step Closer". In addition, he runs Anders Media, Inc. a production company that specializes in developing original music-driven content for major film studios and TV networks. Anders moved his label Deep Well Records to the Capitol Music Group, is a consultant for Virgin Records.
In October 2015, Anders co-produced "Hollow" by Tori Kelly, the featured single on her deluxe edition album, Unbreakable Smile. The song was co-written by several songwriters signed to the Anders-owned publishing company of the same brand, Deep Well Music Publishing. In 2016, Anders added film and TV producing credits as an executive producer for the US version of The Passion, it aired on Palm Sunday, March 20, 2016 on FOX. Anders will executive produce the soundtrack and act as producer for ABC's remake of Dirty Dancing. Adam Anders was born in Sweden. Both his parents were professional musicians and playing all over the world; this exposed Adam to a variety of musical and cultural differences at a early age. Despite being classically trained Gospel performers, both his mother and father encouraged him to listen and take influences from all musical styles, from Rock'n' Roll to Soul. Anders formed his first band at the age of 10, together with his brother and sister and toured Europe with him playing bass.
The family moved to the US, moving around the West Coast. Due to all the traveling, Adam was homeschooled after 5th grade. Due to music being the core of his whole life, Anders became such a prominent bass player that the University of Southern Florida accepted him to the Jazz program at the early age of 13, they declared he was allowed full credit for taking the college music classes. After graduating at the age of 16, Anders decided to live with his brother in Tennessee, he played music during the day. After six months, he got a position as a bass player for the Christian singer-songwriter Steven Curtis Chapman, allowing him to solemnly focus on music as a career. After remaining on several major tours, making money to buy more studio equipment, Anders felt that songwriting and producing gave greater satisfaction and decided to transition to studio work. Adam Anders began his professional career writing and producing songs for both established artists and up-and-comers. Anders co-wrote the Backstreet Boys hit "More Than That" and Steven Curtis Chapman's "Nobody Ever."
Anders worked with Disney producing music for major motion pictures and television shows including Camp Rock and Camp Rock 2, Hannah Montana and Sonny With a Chance. During this time, he collaborated with pop-singers Jesse McCartney, Clay Aiken, Nick Lachey, Ashley Tisdale, the Jonas Brothers. In 2007 and 2008, Anders' music could be heard in Disney's High School Musical 3 and Universal's Evan Almighty. Glee In 2009, Anders began producing music for FOX's hit television show Glee. Producing the popular Glee anthem "Don't Stop Believin" was the first of many contributions to the show. One year Anders was made Executive Music Producer for the musical comedy television show; the producer penned Glee's first two original songs, "Loser Like Me" and "Get It Right". Throughout his time on the show, he wrote a total of seven original songs and produced all sixteen of the Glee albums. Glee had at one time seven of the top ten tracks on the iTunes Top Song chart including the above two original songs at one and two the cast's versions of Pink's "Raise Your Glass" at number three, The Beatles' "Blackbird" at number five, Maroon 5's "Misery" at number six, another original song, "Hell to the No", at number eight.
In May 2011, Glee hit a sales week high with 986,000 downloads of tracks produced by Anders. Other Projects During his time on Glee, Anders launched his Los Angeles-based record label, Deep Well Records; the first artist signe
Kenneth Ray Rogers is an American singer, actor, record producer, entrepreneur. He is a member of the Country Music Hall of Fame. Though he has been most successful with country audiences, Rogers has charted more than 120 hit singles across various music genres, topped the country and pop album charts for more than 200 individual weeks in the United States alone, has sold over 100 million records worldwide, making him one of the best-selling music artists of all time. On September 25, 2015, Rogers announced on NBC's Today Show that he was retiring from show business after a final tour to spend more time with his wife and twin boys. Two of his albums, The Gambler and Kenny, are featured in the About.com poll of "The 200 Most Influential Country Albums Ever". He was voted the "Favorite Singer of All Time" in a 1986 joint poll by readers of both USA Today and People, he has received numerous awards such as the AMAs, Grammys, ACMs and CMAs, as well as a lifetime achievement award for a career spanning six decades in 2003.
Success includes the 2006 album release, Water & Bridges, an across the board hit, that hit the Top 5 in the Billboard Country Albums sales charts charting in the Top 15 of the Billboard 200. The first single from the album, "I Can't Unlove You", was a sizable chart hit. Remaining a popular entertainer around the world, the following year he completed a tour of the United Kingdom and Ireland, telling BBC Radio 2 DJ Steve Wright his favorite hit was "The Gambler", he has acted in a variety of movies and television shows, most notably the title roles in Kenny Rogers as The Gambler and the MacShayne series as well as his appearance on The Muppet Show. He is a co-founder of the restaurant chain Kenny Rogers Roasters in collaboration with former Kentucky Fried Chicken CEO John Y. Brown Jr.. Rogers was born the fourth of eight children on August 21, 1938, in Texas, his parents were Lucille Lois, a nurse's assistant, Edward Floyd Rogers, a carpenter. Rogers is of Native American ancestry. Rogers attended Wharton Elementary School.
At his estate in Colbert, Rogers keeps a pet goat named Smitty, having acquired the animal from a friend in 2008. According to Rogers, the goat has been " center", providing a calming influence after long and stressful touring schedules. Kenny Rogers has been married five times, he is presently married to Wanda Miller since 1997, together they have two children, he has five children in total. Janice Gordon, May 15, 1958 – April 1960, divorced, he had a minor solo hit in 1957 called "That Crazy Feeling". After sales slowed down, Rogers joined a jazz group called The Bobby Doyle Three, who got a lot of work in clubs thanks to a reasonable fan following; the group recorded for Columbia Records. They disbanded in 1965, a 1966 jazzy rock single Rogers recorded for Mercury Records, called "Here's That Rainy Day", failed. Rogers worked as a producer and session musician for other performers, including country artists Mickey Gilley and Eddy Arnold. In 1966 he joined the New Christy Minstrels as double bass player.
Feeling that the Minstrels were not offering the success they wanted and fellow members Mike Settle, Terry Williams, Thelma Camacho left the group. They formed The First Edition in 1967, they were joined by Kin Vassy. They chalked up a string of hits on both the pop and country charts, including "Just Dropped In", "But You Know I Love You", "Ruby, Don't Take Your Love to Town", "Tell It All, Brother", "Reuben James", "Something's Burning"; when the First Edition disbanded in 1976, Rogers launched his solo career. He soon developed a more middle-of-the-road sound that sold to both country audiences, he has charted more than 60 top 40 hit singles. His music has been featured in top-selling movie soundtracks, such as Convoy, Urban Cowboy, The Big Lebowski. After leaving the First Edition in 1976, after a decade with the group, Rogers signed a solo deal with United Artists. Producer Larry Butler and Rogers began a partnership. Rogers first outing for his new label was Love Lifted Me; the album charted and two singles, "Love Lifted Me" and "While the Feeling's Good", were minor hits.
The song "Runaway Girl" was featured in the motion picture Trackdown. In 1976, Rogers issued his second album, the self-titled Kenny Rogers, whose first single, "Laura", was another solo hit; the single "Lucille" was a major hit, reaching number one on the pop charts in 12 countries, selling over five million copies, establishing Rogers' post-First Edition career. On the strength of "Lucille", the album Kenny Rogers reached No. 1 in the Billboard Country Album Chart. More success was to follow, including the multi-platinum selling album The Gambler and another international Number 1 single, "Coward of the County", taken from the successful album, Kenny. In 1980, the Rogers/Butler partnership came to an end, though they would reunite: in 1987 on the album I Prefer the Moonlight and again in 1993 on the album If Only My Heart Had a Voice. In the late 1970s, Rogers teamed up with close friend and Country Music le
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Brent Maher is a producer and songwriter residing in Nashville, Tennessee. He has produced and engineered six Grammy-winning records and received awards from the CMA, ACM, CCMA, ASCAP, SOCAN and NSAI. Maher engineered classic recordings like Ike and Tina Turner’s “Proud Mary” and The 5th Dimension's "Age of Aquarius", he produced all ten of their albums, writing many of their hit songs. Maher has served two terms on the Board of Directors of the Academy of Country Music. Born in Chase, Maher lived there until he moved to Denver, Colorado as a teenager, he joined the Air Force after high school and was stationed near Nashville where he worked as an aircraft mechanic. During this time, he formed a cover band played guitar and trumpet. While reading the back of the album by Curtis Mayfield, he read in the credits "recording engineer" and realized that this was his calling, he took correspondence courses in engineering. After leaving the Air Force at age 22, Maher was hired as a backup engineer in Nashville by Monument Records president, Fred Foster and chief engineer and eventual mentor, Bill Porter.
Maher said, "As fate would have it, I walked through that door with my Sunday best suit on at the right time and they gave me an opportunity that changed my life". After a few years, Bill Porter purchased United Recording Studios in Las Vegas and asked Maher to go with him. Maher engineered classic recordings like Ike and Tina Turner’s “Proud Mary” and The 5th Dimension's "Age of Aquarius". Maher's work as a producer picked up. In the late 1970s, Maher moved back to Nashville to help owner Buzz Cason build Creative Workshop Recording Studio. In Nashville, Maher engineered Elvis' last number one song “Way Down" in addition to engineering records with Olivia Newton-John, Ray Charles, Merle Haggard. Other producer credits include albums with Kenny Rogers and Dave Loggins. In the early'80's, Maher discovered mother/daughter duo, The Judds and developed their acoustic county sound. After getting The Judd's a record deal with RCA/Curb, he co-wrote many of their hits and produced all their platinum LP's.
Maher received Song of the Year by the Academy of Country Music for writing and producing the Judds’ 1984 chart-topping single, “Why Not Me.” It was followed by awards for “Girls Night Out”, “Rockin' with the Rhythm of the Rain”, “I Know Where I’m Going”, "Let Me Tell You About Love", “Born To Be Blue”, other Judd hits. Maher co-wrote many of Johnny Reid's hit singles in Canada including "Out of the Blue”, "A Woman Like You”, "Let's Go Higher", "Today I'm Gonna Try and Change the World". Additional hits include “Some Kind Of Trouble,”, “Lesson In Leaving’,”, “When Love Starts Talkin’,” and other recordings by Tina Turner, Kenny Rogers, Dottie West, Carl Perkins, Jo Dee Messina and Shelby Lynne. Maher produced all ten of The Judds’ records, Kathy Mattea’s “Good News,” Shelby Lynne’s big band project “Temptation,” and albums by artists including Kenny Rogers, Dottie West, Benny Hester, Jo Dee Messina. On the international scene, Maher produced Canadian Country artist Johnny Reid’s breakthrough Country record "Kicking Stones" and following LP's "Dance With Me" and "A Place Called Love," making Reid one of the top-selling artists in Canada.
The albums won CCMA awards for Album of the Year, Best Selling Canadian Album, a Juno Award for Country Album of the Year. Maher developed and produced the Grammy nominated self-titled debut from Bering Strait, a young band composed of seven Russian musicians whose story was covered by 60 Minutes. Maher's engineering credits include all the projects he has produced, extend to Ike and Tina Turner’s “Proud Mary,” Roy Orbison, Diana Ross & the Supremes, Duke Ellington, Chuck Berry, Sammy Davis Jr. Gladys Knight, Merle Haggard and the Strangers, Glen Campbell/ Tanya Tucker and the Family Stone, others. Brent Maher is a music publisher and CEO of Moraine Music Group, which has produced hit singles over the last 20 years, his current studio is located in Nashville, Tennessee. 2007 – Lost Highway – Willie Nelson and Ray Price 1993 – Good News – Kathy Mattea 1991 –Love Can Build A Bridge – The Judds 1988 – Give A Little Love – The Judds 1986 – Grandpa – The Judds 1984 – Mama, He’s Crazy – The Judds 1978 – Bluer Than Blue – Michael Johnson 1979 – You Pick Me Up – Dottie West 1980 – Leavin's for Unbelievers – Dottie West 1980 – A Lesson in Leavin' – Dottie West 1985 – Why Not Me – The Judds 1985 – Girls' Night Out – The Judds 1986 – Rockin' with the Rhythm of the Rain – The Judds 1988 – I Know Where I’m Going – The Judds 1989 – Turn It Loose – The Judds 1989 – Crying Shame – The Judds 1990 – Let Me Tell You About Love – The Judds 1991 – Born to be Blue – The Judds 1992 – Some Kind of Trouble – Tanya Tucker 1987 – Rockin' with the Rhythm of the Rain – The Judds Beyond his musical career, Brent Maher has given lectures on engineering and production for various schools and universities.
Maher has one of the largest collections of vintage Gretsch guitars in the US. Maher was one of the founding members of Middle Tennessee Fly Fishers Inc. In 2011, he created "Cowboy Golf" and now designs golf courses on farms, which led to founding
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s. It takes its roots from genres such as folk blues. Country music consists of ballads and dance tunes with simple forms, folk lyrics, harmonies accompanied by string instruments such as banjos and acoustic guitars, steel guitars, fiddles as well as harmonicas. Blues modes have been used extensively throughout its recorded history. According to Lindsey Starnes, the term country music gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term hillbilly music. In 2009 in the United States, country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, second most popular in the morning commute; the term country music is used today to describe many subgenres. The origins of country music are found in the folk music of working class Americans, who blended popular songs and Celtic fiddle tunes, traditional English ballads, cowboy songs, the musical traditions of various groups of European immigrants.
Immigrants to the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America brought the music and instruments of Europe along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was "introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon." The U. S. Congress has formally recognized Bristol, Tennessee as the "Birthplace of Country Music", based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum. Historians have noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930. In addition, the Mountain City Fiddlers Convention, held in 1925, helped to inspire modern country music. Before these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a rich musical heritage; the first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlanta's music scene playing a major role in launching country's earliest recording artists. New York City record label Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin' John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, RCA Victor Records in 1927 with the first famous pioneers of the genre Jimmie Rodgers and the first family of country music The Carter Family.
Many "hillbilly" musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. During the second generation, radio became a popular source of entertainment, "barn dance" shows featuring country music were started all over the South, as far north as Chicago, as far west as California; the most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville and continuing to the present day. During the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another country musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become popular as the leader of a "hot string band," and who appeared in Hollywood westerns, his mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, would become known as Western swing. Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had been played at Carnegie Hall, when Johnny Barfield recorded "Boogie Woogie".
The third generation started at the end of World War II with "mountaineer" string band music known as bluegrass, which emerged when Bill Monroe, along with Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs were introduced by Roy Acuff at the Grand Ole Opry. Gospel music remained a popular component of country music. Another type of stripped-down and raw music with a variety of moods and a basic ensemble of guitar, dobro or steel guitar became popular among poor whites in Texas and Oklahoma, it became known as honky tonk, had its roots in Western swing and the ranchera music of Mexico and the border states. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, honky tonk was played by most country bands. Rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music, with Johnny Cash emerging as one of the most popular and enduring representatives of the rockabilly genre. Beginning in the mid-1950s, reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the Nashville sound turned country music into a multimillion-dollar industry centered in Nashville, Tennessee.
The late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genres. In the aftermath of the British Invasion, many desired a return to the "old values" of rock n' roll. At the same time there was a lack of enthusiasm in the country sector for Nashville-produced music. What resulted was a crossbred genre known as country rock. Fourth generation music included outlaw country with roots in the Bakersfield sound, country pop with roots in the countrypolitan, folk music and soft rock. Between 1972 and 1975 singer/guitarist John Denver released a se