James VI and I
James VI and I was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother Mary was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, in 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died without issue. He continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22 years, a period known after him as the Jacobean era, until his death in 1625 at the age of 58. After the Union of the Crowns, he based himself in England from 1603, only returning to Scotland once in 1617 and he was a major advocate of a single parliament for England and Scotland.
In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonization of the Americas began, at 57 years and 246 days, Jamess reign in Scotland was longer than those of any of his predecessors. He achieved most of his aims in Scotland but faced difficulties in England, including the Gunpowder Plot in 1605. James himself was a scholar, the author of works such as Daemonologie, The True Law of Free Monarchies. He sponsored the translation of the Bible that would be named after him, Sir Anthony Weldon claimed that James had been termed the wisest fool in Christendom, an epithet associated with his character ever since. Since the latter half of the 20th century, historians have tended to revise Jamess reputation and treat him as a serious, James was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Both Mary and Darnley were great-grandchildren of Henry VII of England through Margaret Tudor, Marys rule over Scotland was insecure, and she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a rebellion by Protestant noblemen.
James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, and as the eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and he was baptised Charles James or James Charles on 17 December 1566 in a Catholic ceremony held at Stirling Castle. His godparents were Charles IX of France, Elizabeth I of England, Mary refused to let the Archbishop of St Andrews, whom she referred to as a pocky priest, spit in the childs mouth, as was the custom. The subsequent entertainment, devised by Frenchman Bastian Pagez, featured men dressed as satyrs and sporting tails, Jamess father, was murdered on 10 February 1567 at Kirk o Field, perhaps in revenge for Rizzios death. James inherited his fathers titles of Duke of Albany and Earl of Ross, Mary was already unpopular, and her marriage on 15 May 1567 to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, who was widely suspected of murdering Darnley, heightened widespread bad feeling towards her. In June 1567, Protestant rebels arrested Mary and imprisoned her in Loch Leven Castle and she was forced to abdicate on 24 July 1567 in favour of the infant James and to appoint her illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, as regent.
The care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, to be conserved and upbrought in the security of Stirling Castle
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller was a German poet, physician and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life, Schiller struck up a productive, if complicated, friendship with the already famous and they frequently discussed issues concerning aesthetics, and Schiller encouraged Goethe to finish works he left as sketches. This relationship and these led to a period now referred to as Weimar Classicism. They worked together on Xenien, a collection of satirical poems in which both Schiller and Goethe challenge opponents to their philosophical vision. Friedrich Schiller was born on 10 November 1759, in Marbach, Württemberg as the son of military doctor Johann Kaspar Schiller. Schiller grew up in a religious family and spent much of his youth studying the Bible. His father was away in the Seven Years War when Friedrich was born and he was named after king Frederick the Great, but he was called Fritz by nearly everyone. Kaspar Schiller was rarely home during the war, but he did manage to visit the family once in a while and his wife and children visited him occasionally wherever he happened to be stationed.
When the war ended in 1763, Schillers father became an officer and was stationed in Schwäbisch Gmünd. Due to the high cost of living—especially the rent—the family moved to nearby Lorch, although the family was happy in Lorch, Schillers father found his work unsatisfying. He sometimes took his son with him, in Lorch, Schiller received his primary education. The quality of the lessons was fairly bad, and Friedrich regularly cut class with his older sister, because his parents wanted Schiller to become a pastor, they had the pastor of the village instruct the boy in Latin and Greek. Pastor Moser was a teacher, and Schiller named the cleric in his first play Die Räuber after him. As a boy, Schiller was excited by the idea of becoming a cleric and often put on black robes, in 1766, the family left Lorch for the Duke of Württembergs principal residence, Ludwigsburg. Schillers father had not been paid for three years, and the family had been living on their savings but could no longer afford to do so, so Kaspar Schiller took an assignment to the garrison in Ludwigsburg.
There the Schiller boy came to the attention of Karl Eugen and he entered the Karlsschule Stuttgart, in 1773, where he eventually studied medicine. During most of his life, he suffered from illnesses that he tried to cure himself. While at the Karlsschule, Schiller read Rousseau and Goethe and discussed Classical ideals with his classmates, the plays critique of social corruption and its affirmation of proto-revolutionary republican ideals astounded its original audience
Timothy Peter Dalton is an English actor. He is best known for portraying James Bond in The Living Daylights and Licence to Kill, as well as Mr Rochester in Jane Eyre, before his fourth birthday, the family moved back to England to Belper in Derbyshire. While in Belper, he attended the Herbert Strutt Grammar School, as a teenager, he was a member of the Air Training Corps at LXX Squadron. He decided to become an actor at 16 after seeing a production of Macbeth and he left school in 1964 to enrol in the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and tour with the National Youth Theatre. Dalton did not complete his RADA studies, leaving the academy in 1966 to join the ensemble of the Birmingham Repertory Theatre. Dalton quickly moved to television, working mainly with the BBC and this was the first of several period dramas, which included a remake of Wuthering Heights in 1970 in which he portrayed Heathcliff. After a few films, Dalton took a break in 1971 to concentrate on the theatre, performing with the Royal Shakespeare Company.
In 1975, Dalton and Vivien Merchant headed the cast of a revival of Noël Cowards The Vortex, with two exceptions, the films Mary, Queen of Scots and Permission to Kill, he remained a theatre actor until 1978. That year he starred in Sextette as the husband of 85-year-old Mae West, hailing his return to cinema, while in the United States, Dalton worked mainly in television, although he starred in several films. During this time, he played Prince Barin in the fiction film Flash Gordon. Dalton starred alongside Jonathan Pryce in the film The Doctor and the Devils, Dalton co-starred with Joan Collins in the miniseries, Sins. He was replaced in two films in which hed been signed to appear and he was offered the role of real-life British Prime Minister William Lamb in the film Lady Caroline Lamb. The filmmakers replaced him with Jon Finch at the last moment, Dalton sued for breach of contract, in 1985, Dalton was set to play Don Alfonso de la Torré in Roman Polanskis film Pirates. The two men did not get along, so Polanski replaced Dalton with Damien Thomas, Dalton had been considered for the role of James Bond several times.
Dalton told the producers that he was too young for the role, in a 1987 interview, Dalton said, Originally I did not want to take over from Sean Connery. He was far too good, he was wonderful, I was about 24 or 25, which is too young. But when youve seen Bond from the beginning, you dont take over from Sean Connery. In either 1979 or 1980, he was approached again, but did not favour the direction the films were taking, as he explained, his idea of Bond was different
Arthur Nigel Davenport was an English stage and film actor. Best known as the Duke of Norfolk and Lord Birkenhead in the Academy Award-winning films A Man for All Seasons and Chariots of Fire, Davenport was born in Great Shelford, Cambridgeshire, to Katherine Lucy and Arthur Henry Davenport. His father was a bursar at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge and he grew up in an academic family and was educated at St Peters School, Cheltenham College and Trinity College, Oxford. Originally he chose to study Philosophy and Economics but switched to English on the advice of one of his tutors and he began appearing in British film and television productions in supporting roles, including a walk-on in Tony Richardsons film, Look Back in Anger. Subsequent roles included a theatre manager opposite Laurence Olivier in the version of The Entertainer. In 1972, he appeared as George Adamson, opposite Susan Hampshire in Living Free, during the production of Stanley Kubricks 1968 film 2001, A Space Odyssey, Davenport read the lines of HAL9000 off-camera during the computers dialogues with actors Keir Dullea and Gary Lockwood.
Canadian actor Douglas Rain was ultimately chosen for the role of HALs voice, Davenport took the leading role in the off-beat Phase IV, which failed to find an audience. In 1979 he portrayed King George III in Prince Regent, in February 1997, Davenport was the subject of This Is Your Life when he was surprised by Michael Aspel at David Nicholsons stables near Cheltenham. He was president of Equity from 1986 to 1992, Davenport was married twice, first to Helena Margaret White whom he met while he was studying at Oxford University. They married in 1951 and had a daughter, Laura and a son and his second wife was actress Maria Aitken with whom he had a second son, Jack, an actor, best known for co-starring in Pirates of the Caribbean. According to Jerry Bruckheimer, producer of the Pirates of the Caribbean films, Jack was cast as the James Norrington character, Nigel Davenport at the Internet Movie Database Nigel Davenport recalls his appearance on This Is Your Life
The murder was the catalyst for the downfall of Darnley, and it had serious consequences for Marys subsequent career. Mary was having dinner with Riccio and a few ladies-in-waiting when Darnley joined them, accused his wife of adultery and had someone murder Riccio, Mary was held at gunpoint and Riccio was stabbed numerous times. His body had over 50 wounds, Rizzio went first from Turin to the Court of the Duke of Savoy, at Nice. However, finding no opportunities for advancement there, he means to get himself admitted into the train of the Count de Moretto in 1561. The Court in Scotland had no employment for Rizzio, and dismissed him and he ingratiated himself with the Queens musicians, whom she had brought with her from France. James Melville, a friend of Rizzio, said that Her Majesty had three valets in her chamber, who sung three parts, and wanted a bass to sing the fourth part. Thus, he was drawn into her court and he was considered a good musician, and an excellent singer, which first brought him to the attention of the cosmopolitan young Queen.
Towards the end of 1564, having grown wealthy under her patronage, he became the Queens secretary for relations with France and this post attracted a quarterly salary of £20. Ambitious, a Catholic and a foreigner to boot, rumours became rife that Mary was having an adulterous affair with Rizzio. David Rizzio was stabbed 56 times on 9 March 1566 by Lord Darnley and he was accused of leaving Mary Queen of Scots pregnant. The Queen was seven months pregnant at the time, having burst into the Queens private dining room, the rebels, led by Patrick Ruthven, 3rd Lord Ruthven, demanded Rizzio be handed over. Rizzio hid behind Mary but was seized and stabbed to death in the presence of the Queen. After this violent struggle, Rizzio was stabbed an alleged 56 times, before being thrown down the staircase and stripped of his jewels. He was buried within two hours in the cemetery of Holyrood, rumours were thrown around as to why this happened to Rizzio – most claim Darnley was jealous. Robert Melville arrived in Edinburgh from London and reported back to Elizabeth, Mary had escaped from Edinburgh to Dunbar Castle Rizzios brother, arrived in Scotland with Michel de Castelnau and was appointed secretary in Davids place by 25 April 1566.
Joseph and an Italian colleague, Joseph Lutyni, had trouble over coins taken from the queens purse. David Rizzios career was remembered and referred to by Henry IV of France and it is more likely and logical that he lies in an unmarked grave in the graveyard attaching Holyrood Abbey. Buchanan asked his cousin, Thomas Buchanan, a schoolmaster in Stirling, if he thought the story was true, Rizzio is a character in Queens Own Fool, a historical novel by Jane Yolen and Robert J. Harris
Elizabeth R is a BBC television drama serial of six 85-minute plays starring Glenda Jackson in the title role. It was first broadcast on BBC2 from February to March 1971, through the Australian Broadcasting Corporation in Australia, the Lions Cub - The fragile succession heralds dangerous times for the young Princess Elizabeth. Will the Princess Elizabeth survive her emotionally unstable half-sisters reign, the Marriage Game - The new Queen Elizabeth I is 25 years old - and unmarried. Her council—particularly the man she trusts most, Sir William Cecil—urges her to marry quickly, only Lord Robert Dudley, at first her Master of the Horse, and eventually the Earl of Leicester, seems to interest the queen. When Dudleys wife dies under mysterious circumstances, Elizabeth must decide if she wants to marry. Shadow in the Sun - Elizabeth meets her most eligible suitor yet, François, Duke of Alençon, a marriage will cement Frances sought-for alliance with England. Both Sir William Cecil and Thomas Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex, despite the Puritans rousing opposition in the country, Elizabeth seems taken with the witty and flower-tongued François.
As her duties as queen clash with her feelings as a woman, in the end, her good friend and councillor Sussex helps Elizabeth make her painfully honest, final decision. Elizabeth does not want to marry - ever, horrible Conspiracies - As long as the imprisoned Mary, Queen of Scots lives, she is the focus of plotters and revolutionaries. Despite a harsh clampdown against conspiring Roman Catholics, inspires an earnest attempt to overthrow Elizabeth, is the execution of Mary the only way Elizabeth will remain on the throne. Sir Francis Walsingham definitely thinks so, and will use any means to convince Elizabeth to eliminate Mary, but Elizabeth fears Marys death will condemn her in the eyes of God. In the end, Elizabeth makes a final choice, the Enterprise of England - Whispers of war fill the air in Elizabeths court and in Spain. The infirm King Philip II of Spain is eager to avenge the death of Mary, Philip urges an unprepared fleet, commanded by the incompetent Duke of Medina Sidonia, to sail on England.
Even as Elizabeth rebukes the hawks in her council, with hopes of peace and her fate and the future of the country now lie in the hands of Drake, and the Navy. England triumphs, but Elizabeth pays a heavy price with the death of her beloved Robert Dudley. Sweet Englands Pride - He is the sun in splendour, he is all our pride, Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, is the peoples champion. He and Charles Howard were successful in capturing and sacking the Spanish seaport of Cadiz, the queen tells her secretary Robert Cecil, son of William Cecil, I am not Gloriana without the magic of his mirror. After his unsuccessful uprising against the queen in London, he is executed, the old queen shines in her final address to Parliament, but dies soon afterward
Trevor Wallace Howard-Smith, known as Trevor Howard, was an English actor. After varied stage work, he achieved star status with his role in the film Brief Encounter and this led to many popular appearances on film and TV. Howard was born in Cliftonville, England, the son of Mabel Grey and he was educated at Clifton College and at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, acting on the London stage for several years before World War II. His first paid work was in the play Revolt in a Reformatory, the story, which surfaced in Terence Pettigrews biography of the actor, published by Peter Owen in 2001, was initially denied by Howards widow, actress Helen Cherry. Later, confronted with official records, she told the Daily Telegraph that his mother had claimed he was a holder of the Military Cross and she added that Howard had an honourable military record and had nothing to be ashamed of. After a theatrical role in The Recruiting Officer Howard began working in films with The Way Ahead and his role in The Way Ahead came to the attention of David Lean, who was looking for someone to play the role of Alec in Brief Encounter.
Lean recommended him to Noël Coward, who agreed with the suggestion, Leans The Passionate Friends, in which Howard played a character similar to Alec, was not as successful. The Third Man, in which Howard played the slightly dry, slightly crusty, during filming in Vienna, Howard was keen to get to his favourite bar for a drink as soon as filming had wrapped for the evening. On one occasion, Howard was in too much of a hurry to change out of his uniform as a British Army Major. After a few drinks, he got into an argument and attracted the attention of a real Major, Howard was forced to apologise and was summoned to appear before the British commanding general, Sir Alexander Galloway. The Heart of the Matter, like The Third Man, is based on a story by Graham Greene and he was nominated for a BAFTA on four other occasions. And received two other Emmy nominations, one as a lead and the other as a supporting actor and he received three Golden Globe Award nominations. By the time of Sons and Lovers, Howard had shifted to being a character actor, at the time of filming White Mischief on location in Kenya during 1987, Howard was seriously ill and suffering from alcoholism.
The company wanted to him, but co-star Sarah Miles was determined that Howards distinguished film career would not end that way. In an interview with Terence Pettigrew for his biography of Howard, Miles describes how she gave an ultimatum to the executives, the Dawning was his final film. One of his strangest films, and one he took great delight in, was Vivian Stanshalls Sir Henry at Rawlinson End and his wife, Helen Cherry, starred with him in the film 11 Harrowhouse. Throughout his film career Howard insisted that all his contracts include a clause excusing him from work whenever a cricket Test Match was being played, a British government document leaked to the Sunday Times in 2003 shows that Howard was among almost 300 individuals to decline official honours. He declined a CBE in 1982 and he died on 7 January 1988 from hepatic failure and cirrhosis of the liver in Arkley, aged 74, and was survived by his widow Helen Cherry
Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester
Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester KG was an English nobleman and the favourite and close friend of Elizabeth Is, from her first year on the throne until his death. He was a suitor for the hand for many years. Dudleys youth was overshadowed by the downfall of his family in 1553 after his father, Robert Dudley was condemned to death but was released in 1554 and took part in the Battle of St. Quentin under Philip II of Spain, which led to his full rehabilitation. On Elizabeth Is accession in November 1558, Dudley was appointed Master of the Horse, in October 1562, he became a Privy Councillor and, in 1587, was appointed Lord Steward of the Royal Household. In 1564, Dudley became Earl of Leicester and, from 1563, one of the greatest landowners in North Wales, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, was one of Elizabeths leading statesmen, involved in domestic as well as foreign politics alongside William Cecil and Francis Walsingham. Although he refused to be married to Mary, Queen of Scots, Dudley was for a time relatively sympathetic to her until, from the mid-1580s.
As patron of the Puritan movement, he supported non-conforming preachers, a champion of the international Protestant cause, he led the English campaign in support of the Dutch Revolt. His acceptance of the post of Governor-General of the United Provinces infuriated Queen Elizabeth, the expedition was a military and political failure, and it ruined the Earl financially. Leicester was engaged in many business ventures and was one of the main backers of Francis Drake. During the Spanish Armada, the Earl was in command of the English land forces. In this function, he invited Queen Elizabeth to visit her troops at Tilbury and this was the last of many events he had organised over the years, the most spectacular being the festival at his seat Kenilworth Castle in 1575 on occasion of a three-week visit by the Queen. Dudley was a patron of the arts, literature. Robert Dudleys private life interfered with his career and vice versa. When his first wife, Amy Robsart, fell down a flight of stairs and died in 1560, the resulting scandal very much reduced his chances in this respect.
Popular rumours that he had arranged for his wifes death continued throughout his life, for 18 years he did not remarry for Queen Elizabeths sake and when he finally did, his new wife, Lettice Knollys, was permanently banished from court. This and the death of his legitimate son and heir were heavy blows. Shortly after the death in 1584, a virulent libel known as Leicesters Commonwealth was circulated in England. It laid the foundation of a literary and historiographical tradition that depicted the Earl as the Machiavellian master courtier
Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots, known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. Mary, the surviving legitimate child of James V of Scotland, was six days old when her father died. She spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents and he ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, and Mary briefly became queen consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561, four years later, she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, but their union was unhappy. In February 1567, his residence was destroyed by an explosion, James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was generally believed to have orchestrated Darnleys death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, and the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle, on 24 July 1567, she was forced to abdicate in favour of James VI, her one-year-old son by Darnley.
After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth in 1586 and was beheaded the following year. Mary was born on 7 or 8 December 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland, to King James V and his French second wife and she was said to have been born prematurely and was the only legitimate child of James to survive him. She was the great-niece of King Henry VIII of England, as her paternal grandmother, Margaret Tudor, was Henry VIIIs sister. A popular legend, first recorded by John Knox, states that James, hearing on his deathbed that his wife had given birth to a daughter, ruefully exclaimed, It cam wi a lass and it will gang wi a lass. His House of Stewart had gained the throne of Scotland by the marriage of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce, to Walter Stewart, the crown had come to his family through a woman, and would be lost from his family through a woman.
This legendary statement came true much later—not through Mary, but through her descendant Queen Anne, Mary was baptised at the nearby Church of St Michael shortly after she was born. As Mary was an infant when she inherited the throne, Scotland was ruled by regents until she became an adult. From the outset, there were two claims to the Regency, one from Catholic Cardinal Beaton, and the other from the Protestant Earl of Arran, Beatons claim was based on a version of the late kings will that his opponents dismissed as a forgery. Arran, with the support of his friends and relations, became the regent until 1554 when Marys mother managed to remove and succeed him. King Henry VIII of England took the opportunity of the regency to propose marriage between Mary and his own son, Prince Edward, hoping for a union of Scotland and England. The treaty provided that the two countries would remain separate and that if the couple should fail to have children the temporary union would dissolve
Francis II of France
Francis II was a monarch of the House of Valois-Angoulême who was King of France from 1559 to 1560. He was King consort of Scotland as a result of his marriage to Mary, Queen of Scots. He ascended the throne of France at the age of fifteen after the death of his father, Henry II. His short reign was dominated by the first stirrings of the French Wars of Religion and they were unable to help Catholics in Scotland against the progressing Scottish Reformation and the Auld Alliance was dissolved. Francis was succeeded by two of his brothers in turn, both of whom were unable to reduce tensions between Protestants and Catholics. Born eleven years after his parents wedding, Francis was named for his grandfather and he was baptized on 10 February 1544 at the Chapelle des Trinitaires in Fontainebleau. His godparents were Francis I, Pope Paul III, and his great-aunt Marguerite de Navarre and he became governor of Languedoc in 1546, and Dauphin of France in 1547, when his grandfather Francis I died. Franciss governor was Jean dHumières and his tutor was Pierre Danès and he learned dancing from Virgilio Bracesco and fencing from Hector of Mantua.
King Henry II, his father, arranged a betrothal for his son to Mary, Queen of Scots, in the Châtillon agreement of 27 January 1548. Mary had been crowned Queen of Scots in Stirling Castle on 9 September 1543 at the age of nine following the death of her father James V. Besides being the queen of Scotland, Mary was a granddaughter of Claude, Duke of Guise, once the marriage agreement was formally ratified, the six-year-old Mary was sent to France to be raised at court until the marriage. On 24 April 1558, the fourteen-year-old Dauphin married the Queen of Scots in Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. It was a union that could have given the kings of France the throne of Scotland and a claim to the throne of England through Marys great grandfather. Until his death, Francis held the title King of Scotland and Francis were to have no children during their short marriage, possibly due to Francis illnesses or his undescended testicles. A little over a year after his marriage, on 10 July 1559, Francis became king at the age of fifteen upon the death of his father Henry II, on 21 September 1559, Francis II was crowned king in Reims by his uncle Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine.
The crown was so heavy that nobles had to hold it in place for him, the court moved to the Loire Valley, where the Château de Blois and the surrounding forests were the new kings home. Francis II took the sun for his emblem and for his mottoes Spectanda fides, according to French law, Francis at the age of fifteen was an adult who in theory did not need a regent. But since he was young, and in health, he delegated his power to his wifes uncles from the noble House of Guise, François, Duke of Guise
James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray
Moray was born in about 1531, the most notable of the many illegitimate children of King James V of Scotland. His mother was the Kings favourite mistress, Lady Margaret Erskine, daughter of John Erskine, 5th Lord Erskine, on 31 August 1536 he had a charter of the lands of Tantallon and others. James was appointed Prior of St Andrews, Fife, in his youth in 1538. As early as May 1553, the ambassador to England, Jean Scheyfve, heard that Mary of Guise planned to make him Regent of Scotland in place of James Hamilton. James attended the wedding of his legitimate half-sister, Queen of Scots, to fund this trip his mother obtained credit from Timothy Cagnioli, an Italian banker in Edinburgh. James became a supporter of the Scottish Reformation, at Perth in June 1559 he plucked down the images in various churches. An English commentator praised James for his virtue, valour, despite their religious differences, Moray became the chief advisor to his sister, Queen of Scots, in 1561 after her return from France.
She was the surviving child of his fathers marriage to Mary of Guise. Although James disturbed her priests celebrating mass at Holyroodhouse in September 1561, she made him Earl of Moray, with the earldom came Darnaway Castle with its medieval hall, notable even as verie fayer and large builded. Moray had a house called Pitlethie near Leuchars in Fife. In October 1562, he defeated a rebellion by George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly, at the Battle of Corrichie near Aberdeen. Moray opposed the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots, to Lord Darnley in 1565 and he was subsequently declared an outlaw and took refuge in England. Returning to Scotland after the murder of David Rizzio, he was pardoned by the Queen and he contrived, however, to be away at the time of Darnleys assassination, and avoided the tangles of the marriage with Bothwell by going to France. Mary abdicated at Loch Leven Castle on 24 July 1567, Moray returned to Edinburgh from France on 11 August 1567, escorted from Berwick-upon-Tweed by James Melville of Halhill, with a French ambassador, De Lignerolles.
William Cecil, the English secretary of State had arranged his transport from Dieppe in an English ship and he was appointed Regent of Scotland on 22 August. The appointment was confirmed by Parliament in December, Mary was compelled to flee to England. For this and the subsequent management of the kingdom he secured both civil and ecclesiastical peace, and earned the title of The Gude Regent, in September 1568, Moray chose commissioners and went to York to discuss a treaty with England. During this conference he produced the casket letters, which were supposed to incriminate Queen Mary and it was said that a plan to assassinate him at North Allerton on his way back had been called off
Glenda May Jackson, CBE is a British actress and former Labour Party politician. As a professional actress from the late 1950s, she spent four years as a member of the Royal Shakespeare Company from 1964, during her film career, she won two Academy Awards for Best Actress, for Women in Love and A Touch of Class. Other award-winning performances include Alex in the film Sunday Bloody Sunday and she first became a Member of Parliament in 1992, as Member for Hampstead and Highgate. Early in the government of Tony Blair she served as a Junior Transport minister from 1997 to 1999, after constituency boundary changes, from 2010 until her retirement from politics in 2015, she represented Hampstead and Kilburn. At the 2010 general election, her majority of 42 votes was one of the closest results of the entire election and she announced in 2011 that she would stand down as an MP at the 2015 general election. Jackson was born in Birkenhead on the Wirral, where her father was a builder, Jackson was educated at the West Kirby County Grammar School for Girls, and performed at the Townswomens Guild drama group during her teens.
She worked for two years in a branch of the Boots the Chemist chain before taking up a scholarship in 1954 to study at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. Jackson made her stage debut in Terence Rattigans Separate Tables in 1957 while at RADA. Her film debut was a bit part in This Sporting Life, the production ran on Broadway in 1965 and in Paris and Jackson appeared as Ophelia in Peter Halls production of Hamlet in the same year. Critic Penelope Gilliatt thought Jackson was the only Ophelia she had seen who was ready to play the Prince himself. The RSCs staging at the Aldwych Theatre of US, a protest play against the Vietnam War, featured Jackson, that year, she starred in the psychological drama Negatives, which was not a huge financial success, but won her more good reviews. Jacksons starring role in Ken Russells film of Women in Love led to her winning her first Academy Award for Best Actress, in order to play Queen Elizabeth I in the BBCs serial Elizabeth R, Jackson had her head shaved.
After the series was shown on PBS in the US, Jackson received two Primetime Emmy Awards for her performance and she portrayed Queen Elizabeth in the film Mary, Queen of Scots, and gained a BAFTA for her role in John Schlesingers Sunday Bloody Sunday. Filmmaker Melvin Frank saw her comedic potential on the Morecambe and Wise Show and she gained a second Academy Award for Best Actress for A Touch of Class. She continued to work in the theatre, and returned to the RSC to play the role in Ibsens Hedda Gabler. A film version directed by Nunn was released as Hedda for which Jackson was nominated for an Oscar, in 1978, she scored box office success in the United States in the romantic comedy House Calls, which co-starred Walter Matthau. Jackson and Matthau teamed again in the comedy Hopscotch, which was a mild success, John Beaufort for The Christian Science Monitor wrote, Bravura is the inevitable word for Miss Jacksons display of feminine wiles and brilliant technique. Herbert Wise directed a British television version of ONeills drama which was first broadcast in the US as part of PBSs American Playhouse in January 1988