New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven is a coastal city in the U. S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, is part of the New York metropolitan area. With a population of 129,779 as determined by the 2010 United States Census, it is the second-largest city in Connecticut after Bridgeport. New Haven is the principal municipality of Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010. New Haven was the first planned city in America. A year after its founding by English Puritans in 1638, eight streets were laid out in a four-by-four grid, creating what is known as the "Nine Square Plan"; the central common block is the New Haven Green, a 16-acre square at the center of Downtown New Haven. The Green is now a National Historic Landmark, the "Nine Square Plan" is recognized by the American Planning Association as a National Planning Landmark. New Haven is the home of Yale University; as New Haven's biggest taxpayer and employer, Yale serves as an integral part of the city's economy.
Health care, professional services, financial services, retail trade contribute to the city's economic activity. The city served as co-capital of Connecticut from 1701 until 1873, when sole governance was transferred to the more centrally located city of Hartford. New Haven has since billed itself as the "Cultural Capital of Connecticut" for its supply of established theaters and music venues. New Haven had the first public tree planting program in America, producing a canopy of mature trees that gave the city the nickname "The Elm City". Before Europeans arrived, the New Haven area was the home of the Quinnipiac tribe of Native Americans, who lived in villages around the harbor and subsisted off local fisheries and the farming of maize; the area was visited by Dutch explorer Adriaen Block in 1614. Dutch traders set up a small trading system of beaver pelts with the local inhabitants, but trade was sporadic and the Dutch did not settle permanently in the area. In 1637 a small party of Puritans wintered over.
In April 1638, the main party of five hundred Puritans who had left the Massachusetts Bay Colony under the leadership of the Reverend John Davenport and London merchant Theophilus Eaton sailed into the harbor. It was their hope to set up a theological community with the government more linked to the church than that in Massachusetts, to exploit the area's excellent potential as a port; the Quinnipiacs, who were under attack by neighboring Pequots, sold their land to the settlers in return for protection. By 1640, "Qunnipiac's" theocratic government and nine-square grid plan were in place, the town was renamed Newhaven, with'haven' meaning harbor or port; the settlement became the headquarters of the New Haven Colony, distinct from the Connecticut Colony established to the north centering on Hartford. Reflecting its theocratic roots, the New Haven Colony forbid the establishment of other churches, whereas the Connecticut Colony permitted them. Economic disaster struck Newhaven in 1646, when the town sent its first loaded ship of local goods back to England.
It never reached its destination, its disappearance stymied New Haven's development versus the rising trade powers of Boston and New Amsterdam. In 1660, Colony founder John Davenport's wishes were fulfilled, Hopkins School was founded in New Haven with money from the estate of Edward Hopkins. In 1661, the Regicides who had signed the death warrant of Charles I of England were pursued by Charles II. Two of them, Colonel Edward Whalley and Colonel William Goffe, fled to New Haven for refuge. Davenport arranged. A third judge, John Dixwell, joined the others. In 1664 New Haven became part of the Connecticut Colony when the two colonies were merged under political pressure from England, according to folklore as punishment for harboring the three judges; some members of the New Haven Colony seeking to establish a new theocracy elsewhere went on to establish Newark, New Jersey. It was made co-capital of Connecticut in 1701, a status it retained until 1873. In 1716, the Collegiate School relocated from Old Saybrook to New Haven, establishing New Haven as a center of learning.
In 1718, in response to a large donation from British East India Company merchant Elihu Yale, former Governor of Madras, the name of the Collegiate School was changed to Yale College. For over a century, New Haven citizens had fought in the colonial militia alongside regular British forces, as in the French and Indian War; as the American Revolution approached, General David Wooster and other influential residents hoped that the conflict with the government in Britain could be resolved short of rebellion. On 23 April 1775, still celebrated in New Haven as Powder House Day, the Second Company, Governor's Foot Guard, of New Haven entered the struggle against the governing British parliament. Under Captain Benedict Arnold, they broke into the powder house to arm themselves and began a three-day march to Cambridge, Massachusetts. Other New Haven militia members were on hand to escort George Washington from his overnight stay in New Haven on his way to Cambridge. Contemporary reports, from both sides, remark on the New Haven volunteers' professional military bearing, including uniforms.
On July 5, 1779, 2,600 loyalists and British regulars under General Wil
Professor is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries. Professor derives from Latin as a "person who professes" being an expert in arts or sciences, a teacher of the highest rank. In most systems of academic ranks the word "Professor" only refers to the most senior academic position, sometimes informally known as "full professor". In some countries or institutions, the word professor is used in titles of lower ranks such as associate professor and assistant professor; this colloquial usage would be considered incorrect among most other academic communities. However, the unqualified title Professor designated with a capital letter refers to a full professor in English language usage. Professors conduct original research and teach undergraduate and postgraduate courses in their fields of expertise. In universities with graduate schools, professors may mentor and supervise graduate students conducting research for a thesis or dissertation.
In many universities,'full professors' take on senior managerial roles, leading departments, research teams and institutes, filling roles such as president, principal or vice-chancellor. The role of professor may be more public facing than that of more junior staff, professors are expected to be national or international leaders in their field of expertise; the term "professor" was first used in the late 14th century to mean "one who teaches a branch of knowledge". The word comes "...from Old French professeur and directly from Latin professor'person who professes to be an expert in some art or science. As a title, "prefixed to a name, it dates from 1706"; the "hort form prof is recorded from 1838". The term "professor" is used with a different meaning: "ne professing religion; this canting use of the word comes down from the Elizabethan period, but is obsolete in England." A professor is an accomplished and recognized academic. In most Commonwealth nations, as well as northern Europe, the title professor is the highest academic rank at a university.
In the United States and Canada, the title of professor applies to most post-doctoral academics, so a larger percentage are thus designated. In these areas, professors are scholars with doctorate degrees or equivalent qualifications who teach in four-year colleges and universities. An emeritus professor is a title given to selected retired professors with whom the university wishes to continue to be associated due to their stature and ongoing research. Emeritus professors do not receive a salary, but they are given office or lab space, use of libraries, so on; the term professor is used in the titles assistant professor and associate professor, which are not considered professor-level positions in all European countries. In Australia, the title associate professor is used in place of the term reader as used in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries. Beyond holding the proper academic title, universities in many countries give notable artists and foreign dignitaries the title honorary professor if these persons do not have the academic qualifications necessary for professorship and they do not take up professorial duties.
However, such "professors" do not undertake academic work for the granting institution. In general, the title of professor is used for academic positions rather than for those holding it on honorary basis. Professors are qualified experts in their field who perform some or all the following tasks: Managing teaching and publications in their departments. Other roles of professorial tasks depend on the institution, its legacy, protocols and time. For example, professors at research-oriented universities in North America and at European universities, are promoted on the basis of research achievements and external grant-raising success. Many colleges and universities and other institutions of higher learning throughout the world follow a similar hierarchical ranking structure amongst scholars in academia. A professor earns a base salary and a range of benefits. In addition, a professor who undertakes additional roles in their institution earns additional income; some professors earn additional income by moonlighting in other jobs, such as consulting, publishing academic or popular press books, giving speeches, or coaching executives.
Some fields give professors more opportun
South Hadley, Massachusetts
South Hadley is a town in Hampshire County, United States. The population was 17,514 at the 2010 census, was estimated to be 17,791 in 2017, it is part of Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area. South Hadley is home to Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley High School, Pioneer Valley Performing Arts Charter Public School, the Berkshire Hills Music Academy. South Hadley was an uninhabited area of Hadley from 1659 until 1721 when the first English settlers arrived from Hadley. A separate town meeting was held in 1753, the town was split and incorporated in 1775; the town is the home of the nation's first successful navigable canal as well as the oldest continuing institution of higher education for women. The Civil War Monument in the center of the Commons was given to South Hadley by William H. Gaylord in the 1900s; the Gaylords donated the Gaylord Memorial Library, located near the center of town. South Hadley is located in the western part of Massachusetts in the Pioneer Valley, it is bordered on the north by Hadley and Amherst, on the east by Granby, on the south by Chicopee.
The Connecticut River defines the town's western border and separates it from the cities of Holyoke and Easthampton. South Hadley is 45 miles south of Brattleboro, Vermont, 87 miles west of Boston, 145 miles from New York City. Although no interstate highways cross South Hadley's borders, U. S. Route 202, Massachusetts Highways 33, 47, 116 provide primary routes of transportation. Interstate 91 can be accessed in Holyoke. Westover Metropolitan Airport is located in neighboring Chicopee and offers air services throughout the region. Bradley International Airport, serving the greater Hartford–Springfield area, is located 17 miles to the south; the closest Amtrak station is the Holyoke station. The Village Commons, a center for dining and leisure, is located at the juncture of Massachusetts Routes 116 and 47, in the area called South Hadley Center. Additional commercial centers are located on Massachusetts Routes 116 and 33, including South Hadley Falls, across the river from Holyoke. South Hadley is the home of Mount Holyoke College, the oldest continuously operating institution of higher education for women, founded in 1837.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 18.4 square miles, of which 17.7 square miles is land and 0.7 square miles is water. The mountain range called the Mount Holyoke Range passes through the north of the town and separates it from Hadley and Amherst. There are 12 reservoirs in the town fed by eight distinct streams and six natural ponds; the first confirmed evidence of a dinosaur to be found in North America was unearthed in South Hadley by Pliny Moody while plowing in 1802, 40 years before dinosaurs were identified as a fossil group. The sandstone slab bearing large, mysterious footprints was purchased by Elihu Dwight, who gave the prints the name of "Noah's Raven". Professor Edward Hitchcock obtained the slab, now on prominent display in the Beneski Museum of Natural History at Amherst College. Hitchcock believed the fossils were made by gigantic ancient birds, long before scientists accepted that modern birds and dinosaurs are related; as of the census of 2000, there were 17,196 people, 6,586 households, 4,208 families residing in the town.
The population density was 971.0 people per square mile. There were 6,784 housing units at an average density of 383.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.05% White, 1.20% African American, 0.12% Native American, 2.53% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.77% from other races, 1.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.36% of the population. There were 6,586 households out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.1% were non-families. Of all households 30.4% were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.93. In the town, the population was spread out with 19.6% under the age of 18, 14.9% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 72.1 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 65.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $46,678, the median income for a family was $58,693. Males had a median income of $42,256 versus $31,219 for females; the per capita income for the town was $22,732. About 4.1% of families and 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.8% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over. Although South Hadley's economy has changed in the last two centuries, reflecting the trends of the Commonwealth and country, today it still retains businesses in agriculture and manufacturing. With Mount Holyoke College being by far the largest employer in the area, a number of other contractors, service providers, businesses support the college. Additionally the area maintains a small agricultural sector with several farms, is home to several small machine shops and manufacturing firms, including a research and manufacturing facility of the E Ink Corporation. Mount Holyoke College, a member of the Five College Consortium, one of the Seven Sisters colleges, is located in South Hadley.
South Hadley High School is known for its hig
Mary Mason Lyon was an American pioneer in women's education. She established the Wheaton Female Seminary in Norton, Massachusetts, in 1834, she established Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in South Hadley, Massachusetts in 1837 and served as its first president for 12 years. Lyon's vision fused moral purpose, she valued socioeconomic diversity and endeavored to make the seminary affordable for students of modest means. The daughter of a farming family in Buckland, Lyon had a hardscrabble childhood, her father died when she was five, the entire family pitched in to help run the farm. Lyon was thirteen when her mother moved away, she attended various district schools intermittently and, in 1814, began teaching in them as well. Lyon's modest beginnings fostered her lifelong commitment to extending educational opportunities to girls from middling and poor backgrounds. Lyon was able to attend two secondary schools, Sanderson Academy in Ashfield and Byfield Seminary in eastern Massachusetts. At Byfield, she was befriended by the headmaster, Rev. Joseph Emerson, his assistant, Zilpah Polly Grant.
She soaked up Byfield's ethos of rigorous academic education infused with Christian commitment. Lyon taught at several academies, including Sanderson, a small school of her own in Buckland, Adams Female Academy, the Ipswich Female Seminary. Lyon's attendance at the novel, lectures in laboratory botany by Amos Eaton influenced her involvement in the female seminary movement. In 1834, Laban Wheaton and his daughter-in-law, Eliza Baylies Chapin Wheaton, called upon Mary Lyon for assistance in establishing the Wheaton Female Seminary in Norton, Massachusetts. Miss Lyon created the first curriculum with the goal that it be equal in quality to those of men's colleges, she provided the first principal, Eunice Caldwell. Wheaton Female Seminary opened on 22 April 1835, with three teachers. Mary Lyon and Eunice Caldwell left Wheaton, along with eight Wheaton students, to open Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. During these early years, Lyon developed her vision for Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, which would resemble Grant's schools in many respects but, Lyon hoped, draw its students from a wider socioeconomic range.
The college was unique in that it was founded by people of modest means and served their daughters, rather than the children of the rich. She was influenced by Reverend Joseph Emerson, whose Discourse on Female Education advocated that women should be trained to be teachers rather than "to please the other sex." Mount Holyoke opened in 1837: the seminary was ready for "the reception of scholars on November 8, 1837." Lyon strove to maintain high academic standards: she set rigorous entrance exams and admitted "young ladies of an adult age, mature character." In keeping with her social vision, she limited the tuition to $60/year, about one-third the tuition that Grant charged at Ipswich Female Seminary, central to her mission of "appeal to the intelligence of all classes."Lyon, an early believer in the importance of daily exercise for women, required her students to "walk one mile after breakfast. During New England's cold and snowy winters, she reduced the requirement to 45 minutes. Calisthenics—a form of exercise—was taught by teachers in unheated hallways until a storage area was cleared for a gymnasium.
In order to keep costs low, Lyon required students to perform domestic tasks—an early version of work/study. These tasks included washing floors and windows. Emily Dickinson, who attended the Seminary in 1847, was tasked with cleaning knives. Though Lyon's policies were sometimes controversial, the seminary attracted its target student body of 200. Lyon anticipated a change in the role of women and equipped her pupils with an education, comprehensive and innovative, with particular emphasis on the sciences, she required: seven courses in the sciences and mathematics for graduation, a requirement unheard of at other female seminaries. She introduced women to "a new and unusual way" to learn science—laboratory experiments which they performed themselves, she organized field trips on which students collected rocks and specimens for lab work, inspected geological formations and discovered dinosaur tracks. Conforti examines the central importance of religion to Lyon, she was raised a Baptist but converted to a Congregationalist under the influence of her teacher Reverend Joseph Emerson.
Lyon preached revivals at Mount Holyoke, spoke elsewhere, though not a minister, was a member of the fellowship of New England's New Divinity clergy. She played a major role in the revival of the thought of Jonathan Edwards, whose works were read more then than in his day, she was attracted by his ideas of self-restraint, self-denial, disinterested benevolence. Lyon died of erysipelas on March 5, 1849. Lyon was buried on the Mount Holyoke College campus, in front of Porter Hall and behind the Amphitheatre, her burial site is marked with a granite marker surrounded by an iron fence. Many buildings have been named including Mary Lyon Hall at Mount Holyoke College. Built in 1897 on the site of the former Seminary Building, the hall houses college offices, a chapel; the main classroom building for Wheaton Female Seminary called New Seminary Hall, was renamed Mary Lyon Hall in 1910 and still feat
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Mount Holyoke College
Mount Holyoke College is a private women's liberal arts college in South Hadley, United States. It is the oldest institution within the Seven Sisters schools, an alliance of East Coast liberal arts colleges, founded to provide women with education equivalent to that provided for men in the men-only Ivy League. Mount Holyoke served as a model for other women's colleges and is part of the region's Five College Consortium, along with Amherst College, Smith College, Hampshire College, the University of Massachusetts Amherst; the school was founded in 1837 by Mary Lyon as Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. Mount Holyoke received its collegiate charter in 1888 as Mount Holyoke Seminary and College and became Mount Holyoke College in 1893. Mount Holyoke's buildings were designed between 1896 and 1960, it has a Donald Ross-designed 18-hole golf course, The Orchards, which hosted the U. S. Women's Open in 2004. U. S. News & World Report lists Mount Holyoke as the 30th-best liberal arts college in the United States in its 2019 rankings.
In 2011–2012, Mount Holyoke was one of the nation's top producers of Fulbright Scholars, ranking fourth among bachelor's institutions according to The Chronicle of Higher Education. Mount Holyoke's founder, Mary Lyon, is considered to have been an innovator in women's education. Mount Holyoke Female Seminary was one of several institutions of higher education for young women established during the first half of the 19th century. Lyon's contemporaries include Sarah Pierce. Prior to founding Mount Holyoke, Lyon contributed to the development of both Hartford Female Seminary and Ipswich Female Seminary, she was involved in the creation of Wheaton Female Seminary in 1834. Mount Holyoke Female Seminary was chartered as a teaching seminary in 1836 and opened its doors to students on 8 November 1837. Both Vassar College and Wellesley College were patterned after Mount Holyoke. From its founding, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary "had no religious affiliation". However, "students were required to attend church services, chapel talks, prayer meetings, Bible study groups.
Twice a day teachers and students spent time in private devotions. Every dorm room had two large lighted closets to give roommates privacy during their devotions". Mount Holyoke Female Seminary was the sister school to Andover Seminary; some Andover graduates looked to marry students from the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary before becoming missionaries because the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions required its missionaries to be married before starting their missions. By 1859 there were more than 60 missionary alumnae; the change in admission from Seminary to College included fundraising by the Trustees, an overhaul of the entrance requirements, course catalogue. Entrance exams were introduced at this time, scheduled in September at the college. In 1889, students traveling from the midwest could take these examinations in Freeport and within a few years, this was expanded to other cities. Many additions were made to the course catalog, starting in the 1889 academic year, students could choose to pursue degrees of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science.
Mount Holyoke Female Seminary received its collegiate charter in 1888, becoming Mount Holyoke Seminary and College. Within 4 years, the seminary enrollment dropped from 269 to 122 to 8. In 1893, the seminary course was discontinued, the new title Mount Holyoke College was authorized. A movement towards what was referred to as cottage-style living started in 1889 by the New York Association after the change to Mount Holyoke Seminary and College. $15,000 was raised, plans were put in place for Mary Brigham Cottage, with accommodations for the president and thirty students, with priority given to those in the collegiate course. At the time, two South Hadley families agreed to host boarders, some students were permitted to live at the hotel. President Elizabeth Mead deemed both of these options unsatisfactory, pushed the Trustees to build yet another cottage. Mrs. Mead was ready to relieve the students of a large share of the drudgery of domestic work that had made up a good portion of their studies since Mary Lyon's conception of the seminary.
From 1895 to 1996 the trustees allotted funds for the employment of four women to wash the dinner dishes that had constituted the task of eight or ten students. The Mount Holyoke chapter of Phi Beta Kappa was established in 1905, it has been a sister school to Women's Christian College in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India since 1920. In the early 1970s Mount Holyoke had a long debate under the presidency of David Truman over the issue of coeducation. On 6 November 1971 the board of trustees voted to remain a women's college. On February 28, 1987, the United States Postal Service's Great Americans series issued a postage stamp featuring Mary Lyon, in honor of Mount Holyoke's Sesquicentennial. At Convocation on September 2, 2014, President Lynn Pasquerella announced a new policy allowing the admission of transgender individuals to the college, as well as the admission of students whose gender identities are non-binary. Mount Holyoke offers 50 departmental and interdepartmental majors, including the option to design a special major.
The primary degree conferred is the Bachelor of Arts degree, for which students complete 128 semester credits (one standard cour