Mary Brave Bird

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Mary Brave Bird
Mary Ellen Moore-Richard

(1954-09-26)September 26, 1954[1]
DiedFebruary 14, 2013(2013-02-14) (aged 58)
Other namesMary Crow Dog
Ohitika Win
Brave Woman
Mary Brave Woman Olguin
CitizenshipRosebud Sioux Tribe
OccupationAuthor and Activist
Known forLakota Woman
American Indian Movement
Spouse(s)Leonard Crow Dog (divorced)
Rudi Olguin (separated)
  • Robert He Crow
    Francisco "Rudy" Olguin
    Henry Crow Dog
    Leonard Crow Dog, Jr.
    Jennifer Crow Dog
    Summer Rose Olguin [2]

Mary Brave Bird, also known as Mary Brave Woman Olguin, Mary Crow Dog (September 26, 1954 – February 14, 2013[2]) was a Sicangu Lakota writer and activist who was a member of the American Indian Movement during the 1970s and participated in some of their most publicized events, including the Wounded Knee Incident when she was 18 years old.

Brave Bird lived with her youngest children on the Rosebud Indian Reservation, South Dakota, her 1990 memoir Lakota Woman won an American Book Award in 1991 and was adapted as a made-for-TV-movie in 1994.

Early life and education[edit]

Born Mary Ellen Moore-Richard in 1954 on the Rosebud Indian Reservation, South Dakota, she was a member of the Sicangu Oyate, also known as the Burnt Thighs Nation or Brulé Band of Lakota.[3] She was raised primarily by her grandparents while her mother studied in nursing school and was working.[4]

Brave Bird was influenced by several relatives who followed traditional practices, including her granduncle Dick Fool Bull, who introduced her to the Native American Church. During the 1960s, Brave Bird attended the St. Francis Indian School, in St. Francis, South Dakota, a Roman Catholic boarding school.[4]


In 1971 Brave Bird was inspired by a talk by Leonard Crow Dog and at age 18 joined the American Indian Movement (AIM),[4] she participated in such historical events as the 1972 Trail of Broken Treaties and subsequent occupation of the BIA headquarters in Washington, DC. She was also part of the 1973 Occupation of Wounded Knee.[4]

Marriage and family[edit]

Brave Bird married AIM spiritual leader Leonard Crow Dog; the couple later divorced.[when?][3] In 1991, she married Rudy Olguin, but he was killed in a car accident weeks later,[4][5] she had six children in total. She was a grandmother and remained active in the Native American Church.[6]

Writing career[edit]

Brave Bird was the author of two memoirs, Lakota Woman (1990) and Ohitika Woman (1993). Richard Erdoes, a long-time friend, helped edit the books. Lakota Woman was published under the name Mary Crow Dog and won the 1991 American Book Award, it describes her life until 1977.[4] Ohitika Woman continues her life story.

Her books describe the conditions of the Lakota Indian and her experience growing up on the Rosebud Indian Reservation in South Dakota, as well as conditions in the neighboring Pine Ridge Indian Reservation under the leadership of tribal chairman Richard Wilson, she also covers aspects of the role of the FBI, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs and the treatment of the Native Americans and their children in the mid-1900s. Her work focuses on themes of gender, identity, and race.[7]

Crow Dog and Brave Bird made cameo appearances in the 1991 Oliver Stone film The Doors.[6]


Brave Bird's memoir was adapted as the 1994 movie Lakota Woman: Siege at Wounded Knee, produced by TNT and Jane Fonda; the film starred Irene Bedard as Mary Brave Bird. The movie depicted the events that occurred during the 1973 uprising of the AIM (American Indian Movement) organization and their stand-off at Wounded Knee. Brave Bird has a cameo appearance in the film.[6]

Published works[edit]

  • Brave Bird, Mary, with Richard Erdoes. Ohitika Woman. New York: Grove Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8021-1436-9; LCCN 92--46169
  • Crow Dog, Mary, with Richard Erdoes. Lakota Woman. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1990. ISBN 978-0-8021-4542-0; ISBN 978-0-8021-9155-7 (ebook)


  1. ^ Date information sourced from Library of Congress Authorities data, via corresponding WorldCat Identities linked authority file (LAF).
  2. ^ a b "Mary Ellen Moore-Richard." Archived 2013-03-05 at the Wayback Machine KVSH 940 AM; retrieved March 15, 2015.
  3. ^ a b Lorentz, Melissa. "First Nations of Minnesota: Famous Lakota" Archived 2009-02-20 at the Wayback Machine, EMuseum @ Minnesota State University, Mankato. 2008, retrieved March 15, 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Bataille, Gretchen M. and Laurie Lisa. Native American Women: A Biographical Dictionary. Oxford: Taylor and Francis, 2001: 50-51.
  5. ^ leeanne. "Mary Brave Bird, Author of Lakota Woman, Walks On". Indian Country Today Media Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  6. ^ a b c Wise, Christopher, and R. Todd Wise. "Mary Brave Bird Speaks: A Brief Interview", The American Indian Quarterly 24.3 (2000): 482-493
  7. ^ Petrillo, Larissa. (1996). The life stories of a woman from Rosebud: Names and naming in 'Lakota Woman' and 'Ohitika Woman' (M.A. thesis) Wilfrid Laurier University.

Further reading[edit]

  • Bataille, Gretchen M; Lisa, Laurie (2005). Native American women : a biographical dictionary (Secondition ed.). New York: Taylor & Francis e-Library. pp. 65–66. ISBN 9781135955878.

External links[edit]