City of Caloundra
The City of Caloundra was a local government area about 90 kilometres north of Brisbane in the Sunshine Coast region of South East Queensland, Australia. The shire covered an area of 1,093.1 square kilometres, existed as a local government entity from 1912 until 2008, when it amalgamated with councils further north to form the Sunshine Coast Region. The City covered the urban localities of Caloundra and Kawana Waters and surrounding suburbs, the northern half of Bribie Island and the western hinterland towns of Landsborough and Witta. In 1868, the Queensland Government opened up large areas of land for settlement in the Caloundra area which became home to pioneers and timber cutters seeking red cedar wood; the area was incorporated as part of the Caboolture Division on 11 November 1879 under the Divisional Boards Act 1879. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, Caboolture Division became Shire of Caboolture on 31 March 1903. On 22 February 1912, part of the Shire of Caboolture was split away and was proclaimed as the Shire of Landsborough.
John Tytherleigh, a local businessman with stores in the area, was elected its first chairman and they set to work building the Landsborough Shire Council Chambers in Landsborough. It was reconstructed from local timbers under the guidance of architect Walter Voller in 1924, the building is today used as a museum housing artefacts including former Premier Frank Nicklin's personal collection; the first female councillor was Miriam Westaway who represented Division 5 from 29 April 1961 to 30 March 1973. She was one of the first teachers at Caloundra State School, she was active in community groups such as the RSL Women's Auxiliary and a founder of the Caloundra Branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association and the local branch of the Red Cross. On 19 December 1987, the Shire of Landsborough was granted city status, was renamed the City of Caloundra, reflecting the population boom in the coastal section of the City; the Council Chambers were relocated to Omrah Avenue and Jack Beausang, the long-serving Chairman of the Shire of Landsborough, was sworn in as its first mayor.
He retired undefeated on 17 March 1988, Don Aldous was elected to replace him. On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, the City of Caloundra merged with the Shire of Noosa and the Shire of Maroochy to form the Sunshine Coast Region. However, in 2014, Shire of Noosa was re-established as independent of the Sunshine Coast Region; the Shire was subdivided into ten numbered divisions, each of which returned one councillor, an elected mayor. The City of Caloundra included the following settlements: 1 - split with the Shire of Maroochy 1921–1924: John H. Tytherleigh 1924–1933: J. Grigor 1933–1949: H. M. Bray 1949–1955: A. Fleming 1955–1958: Duncan MacDonald 1958–1961: H. W. Anning 1961–1964: Duncan MacDonald 1964–1988: Jack Beausang 1988–1991: Don C. Aldous 1991–1994: Barry Gray 1994–2000: Des J. Dwyer 2000-2008: Don C. Aldous Caloundra Bus Station, Queensland Riis, Erica; the growth of Caloundra. Shire of Landsborough Historical Society Museum.
Wensley, Anne. An introduction to the history of Caloundra. Shire of Landsborough Historical Society Museum. ISBN 0-9596510-0-4. Official website at the Wayback Machine Media related to Shire of Landsborough at Wikimedia Commons
Sunshine Coast Region
The Sunshine Coast Region is a local government area located in the Sunshine Coast district of South East Queensland, Australia. It was created by the amalgamation in 2008 of the City of Caloundra and the Shires of Maroochy and Noosa, it contains 4,194 kilometres of roads, 211 kilometres of coastline and a population of 295,000 at the 2016 Census. The first budget of the new Council for the 2008–2009 financial year totals A$673 million including $498 million operating expenditure, $168 million capital expenditure and $25.2 million for repayment of loans. On 1 January 2014, the Shire of Noosa was re-established independent of the Sunshine Coast Regional council. Prior to 2008, the new Sunshine Coast Region was an entire area of three previous and distinct local government areas: the City of Caloundra. At the establishment of regional local government in Queensland on 11 November 1879 with the Divisional Boards Act 1879, most of the area was part of the Caboolture Division, while the northernmost part around Noosa was part of the Widgee Division centred on Gympie.
The Maroochy Division split away from Caboolture on 5 July 1890. All three divisions became Shires on 31 July 1903 under the Local Authorities Act 1902. In 1910, the Shire of Noosa split from Widgee, on 22 February 1912 the Shire of Landsborough split from Caboolture; the two new entities together with Maroochy were to remain stable for 100 years. On 19 December 1987, the Shire of Landsborough was granted City status, was renamed the City of Caloundra, reflecting the population boom in the coastal section of the City. In July 2007, the Local Government Reform Commission released its report and recommended that the three local governments amalgamate. While it noted all three were "functioning councils with moderate to strong financial performance", it argued that they covered a self-contained region in a geographic and economic sense and that the advantages of coordinated planning in a high-growth area and the avoidance of duplication of facilities were arguments in favour of amalgamation; the councils opposed the amalgamation, the Commission itself noted that the bulk of statewide individual submissions came from this region reflecting a "depth of feeling" regarding the issue.
On 15 March 2008, the City and two Shires formally ceased to exist, elections were held on the same day to elect twelve councillors and a mayor to the Regional Council. In the 2011 census, the Sunshine Coast Region had the 4th largest population of any local government area in Australia. In 2012, a proposal was made to de-amalgamate the Shire of Noosa from the Sunshine Coast Region. On 9 March 2013, Noosa residents voted to de-amalgamate Noosa from the Sunshine Coast Council. On 18 March 2013, the Sunshine Coast Regional Council decided its new planning scheme should not apply to those areas that were part of the former Noosa Shire; the Shire of Noosa Shire was re-established on 1 January 2014. The Region is divided into 10 divisions, each represented by one councillor, plus an elected mayor who represents the entire Region; the council is elected for a four-year term. The populations given relate to the component entities prior to 2008; the next census, due in 2016 and will not include the Shire of Noosa's census figures.
The Sunshine Coast economy is dominated by two sectors – Healthcare and Retail, which provide 30% of the regional employment. Other significant areas are Accommodation & Food Services, Construction and Professional Services. Efforts are being made to diversify the regional economy by the Sunshine Coast Regional Council. Local educational institutions and community groups have funded a number of initiatives to encourage entrepreneurial and innovative businesses to the area; the University of the Sunshine Coast's Innovation Centre acts as an incubator startup companies, as does the Spark Bureau. The University site at Sippy Downs is designated as a'Knowledge Hub' as part of the Queensland Government's South East Queensland Regional Infrastructure Plan and is master planned as Australia's first university town based on the UK models with the potential for over 6,000 workers in knowledge-based businesses. Sippy Downs was highlighted as an'Innovation Hotspot' in July 2010, by top European Business magazine CNBC Business, with the potential to be'Australia's no-worries-answer to Silicon Valley'.
The Sunshine Coast's major university is the University of the Sunshine Coast with its main campus at Sippy Downs. Central Queensland University has a campus in Noosa. TAFE Queensland services the Sunshine Coast and Wide Bay regions through TAFE East Coast, with three Sunshine Coast campuses at Mooloolaba, Maroochydore & Nambour as well as a Noosa campus; the Sunshine Coast has many varied denomination and public primary and secondary schools. The Lexis English group, providing English classes to international students, has a campus in Maroochydore, while Lexis TESOL Training Centres provides teacher training programs such as the Cambridge CELTA and TESOL; the Sunshine Coast Regional Council operates libraries at Beerwah, Caloundra, Coolum Beach, Maleny and Nambour. It operates a mobile library service visiting Beerburrum, Bli Bli, Caloundra West, Eudlo, Glass House Mountains, Little Mountain, Mooloolah Valley, Mount Coolum, Mountain Creek, Pacific Paradise, Parklands, Pelican W
Maleny is a town and a locality in the Sunshine Coast Region of the Australian state of Queensland. It is 90 kilometres north of Brisbane on the Blackall Range overlooking the Sunshine Coast hinterland. Nearby towns include Landsborough, Peachester and Hunchy. Nearby places of geographical significance include the Glass House Mountains and Baroon Pocket Dam. Maleny is situated 450 metres above sea level, among the characteristic rolling green hills of the Sunshine Coast hinterland. Prior to European settlement, the area was covered in thick sub-tropical rainforest with huge hardwood trees. Loggers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries opened up the area seeking valuable timber, prized locally and in Europe. Heavy logging led to the complete denuding of the rainforest clad hills in the district around Maleny. Only a few pockets of forest remain in steeper terrain and in one large remnant patch which now forms Mary Cairncross Reserve. Located on the humid eastern slopes of the Blackall Range, Maleny is one of the wettest towns in Queensland away from the north tropical coast.
The average annual rainfall is about 2,000 mm. Temperatures are mild and get above 35 °C in summer or drop below 5 °C in winter; the name Maleny is derived from the parish name, which in turn is derived from the Scottish place name Malleny, a village in Midlothian, Scotland. The area around Maleny was populated by the Nalbo and the Dallambara—two aboriginal tribes of the Gubbi Gubbi language group; the area was known for its bunya feasts which happened every third year when the giant bunya tree was in fruit. The first European to document Maleny was the explorer Ludwig Leichhardt who describes the area in his travel diary in 1844; the first European settlement followed in the wake of the Gympie gold rush of 1867. A track linking Maleny to Landsborough was cut in 1880. An official proclamation of Maleny as a town occurred in 1891; the Maleny Butter Factory began operation in 1904. Maleny was a timber town until the early 1920s, was a centre of dairy production and fruit growing. Although a campaign to have a police station in the town was started in the 1920s, it wasn't until 1952 that permission to convert a house into the police station and residence was granted.
Maleny Post Office opened by February 1906. On 15 August 1995, the Queensland Governor Leneen Forde dedicated the Maleny War Memorial. Since just after the turn of the 20th century, the Maleny Community Centre has provided facilities to residents and visitors for a wide range of activities. Located in the middle of town, the original centre was established as the result of a gift by one of its residents; the Maleny Library was opened in 1998 with a major refurbishment in 2012. Maleny has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 15 Porter's Lane: Fairview 58 Maple Street Maleny Maleny has replaced its timber-cutting and dairying past with tourism with a large influx of people who wanted an alternative lifestyle; as well as being on the Hinterland tourist drive, Maleny attracts daytrippers from Brisbane and the Sunshine Coast who are attracted to the various stores, art galleries and specialty shops. Maleny Community Centre is a community-owned centre, completed Stage 1 of a three Stage redevelopment in 2010.
Stage 2 was completed in 2012 and included rebuilding the Maple Street frontage and renovating the building into two storeys featuring an Queensland-style verandah over the footpath, giving much needed shelter on the main street. The Third Stage comprises the building of a new cultural centre on the MCC's second building at No. 1 Bicentenary Lane. The Maleny Community Centre renovations were designed by Maleny based building designer, Norman Richards building design + interiors and built by Maleny based builder Ross Meneely. Maleny's population growth since 2000 has brought an increase in urban development. Many local residents have resisted some of the development, the most notable being the establishment of a Woolworths store in the town. In July 2005, a rally attracted about 300 protestors objecting to the store. Many locals were opposed to the idea. A number of motivations for the protest existed but of particular concern was that the supermarket was to be built over a significant platypus habitat and that local traders would be negatively affected as well as issues regarding local council members going against the original town planning agreement regarding all development in Maleny to be in fitting with "the village environ" that characterises much of the townships of the Blackall Range.
Badges and posters reading "I WON'T SHOP THERE" were seen in Maleny as part of the anti-Woolworths campaign, although the bumper stickers can now be seen in the Woolworths car park. The campaign against the supermarket achieved international coverage. Despite protests and an offer to purchase the site for A$2 million the supermarket opened on 3 April 2006. Although many residents refuse to shop in the supermarket, nonetheless Woolworths recorded it as one of its top 30 stores in 2008. In 2013 many residents protested the construction of a petrol station and convenience store at 19 & 21 Bunya St, Maleny by the IGA Supermarket. Protestors cited proximity to the primary school as the main issue with the development proposal; the proposal was abandoned by the owners of the IGA supermarket who
Wompoo fruit dove
The wompoo fruit dove known as wompoo pigeon, is one of the larger fruit doves native to New Guinea and eastern Australia. This dove measures up to 35 to 45 cm, but are far smaller in northern regions, it has purple plumage around its neck and upper belly. Its lower belly is yellow and it has green underparts; the sexes are similar and the juveniles have a duller and greener plumage compared to adults. Notwithstanding their bright plumage, they are hard to see amongst the forest canopy, thanks to their unobtrusive, quiet habits, their call sounds like wollack-wa-hoo and sounds human. The wompoo fruit dove; the birds feed off fruit-bearing trees in rainforests such as figs. They occasionally eat insects, they are able to acrobatically collect fruit of trees and vines. They do not like to travel long distances, preferring to stay in their local area and make use of whatever fruit are in season; the diet of this species was extensively studied in the Port Moresby area by Frith et al.. Despite their small size, they are able to swallow fruits of 5 cm3 volume, which would translate into a diameter of about 2 cm in spherical fruit.
Major food items included: figs Ficus macrophylla, including Ficus albipila, Ficus benjamina, Ficus drupacea, Ficus glaberrima, Ficus virens and Ficus wassa - preferentially in the late dry and wet season Fruit of cinnamon trees, Litsea and Cryptocarya - whenever available Arecaceae fruit, including Archontophoenix, Arenga and Caryota - mid-late dry season and January Annonaceae fruit, such as Ylang-ylang and Polyalthia - whenever availableFood items of minor importance were fruit of: Eugenia, Acmena - important in May Hypserpa - important in July/August Planchonella - important August - October Elaeocarpus - important in October Erythroxylon scarinatum - important in November/December Tinospora smilacina, Gomphandra australiana, Gomphandra montana, Cissus, Diospyros, Vitex cofassus and Psychotria - taken as available Breeding times will vary according to weather conditions. The nest is sturdily constructed from forked twigs not high from the ground. Both sexes help in the construction of the nest.
One white egg is laid and the parents share the incubation and care of the chick. In the event, that the chick dies, the doves will attempt to have a second offspring in the same season. Widespread and common throughout its large range, the wompoo fruit dove is evaluated as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. BirdLife species factsheet for Ptilinopus magnificus Wompoo pigeon photo gallery at VIREO Audio recordings of Wompoo fruit dove on Xeno-canto
Glass House Mountains
The Glass House Mountains are a group of thirteen hills that rise abruptly from the coastal plain on the Sunshine Coast, Australia. The highest hill is Mount Beerwah at 556 metres above sea level, but the most identifiable of all the hills is Mount Tibrogargan which from certain angles bears a resemblance to a face staring east towards the ocean; the Glass House Mountains are located near Steve Irwin Way. From Brisbane, the mountains can be reached by following the Bruce Highway north and taking the Glass House Mountains tourist drive turn-off onto Steve Irwin Way; the trip is about one hour from Brisbane. The Volcanic peaks of the Glass House Mountains rise from the surrounding Sunshine Coast landscape, they were formed by intrusive plugs, remnants of volcanic activity that occurred 26-27 million years ago. Molten rock filled small vents or intruded as bodies beneath the surface and solidified into land rocks. Millions of years of erosion have removed the surrounding exteriors of volcanic cores and softer sandstone rock.
Whilst the traditional names for the hills themselves are old, the term'Glasshouse Mountains' was given more by explorer Captain James Cook on 17 May 1770. The peaks reminded him of the glass furnaces in his home county of Yorkshire. Matthew Flinders explored the area and climbed Mount Beerburrum after sailing along Pumicestone Passage in 1799; the Glass House Mountains National Landscape was added to the Australian National Heritage List on 3 August 2006. In the land between the peaks and poultry farming, as well as commercial forestry and quarrying are the main land uses. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, the Glass House Mountains was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for its role as a "Natural attraction"; the range was formed as molten lava cooled to form hard rock in the cores of volcanoes 26-27 million years ago. The source of the lava was from the East Australia hotspot; the cores of the hills contain columns of comendite from lava which cools into a hard rock. The surrounding softer rocks have been eroded in the subsequent time, forming the spectacular volcanic plugs that remain today.
The peaks' location relative to each other exhibits an alignment, believed to have occurred due to fracturing. Mt Ngungun consists of sub-volcanic rock known as a hypabyssal rock, an intrusive rock emplaced at medium-to-shallow depths within the crust and has intermediate grain size, porphyritic texture between that of volcanic and plutonic rocks; each of the peaks is protected within the Glass House Mountains National Park. Some of the peaks display vertical columns Mount Coonowrin, Mount Ngungun and Mount Beerwah at the Organ Pipes; these columns are the result of lava contraction. Scattered throughout the hills are shallow caves which have been formed by wind erosion on rocks that were softened by groundwater; the peaks are culturally significant to the Gubbi Gubbi people. Under a native title claim, access to the peaks could be restricted as they are considered spiritual places. To the south east of the Glass House Mountains township is an Aboriginal bora ring; the names of each mountain in the range are:.
The Glass House Mountains are located in the traditional lands of the Jinibara and Gubbi Gubbi people. The mountains are members of a family with the father being Mount Tibrogargan and the mother Mount Beerwah. All of the other mountains are sons and daughters with the eldest being Mount Coonowrin, the twins called Tunbubudla, Elimbah whose shoulders were bent because she carried many cares, Round because she was so small and fat and Wild Horse who always strayed away from the others to swim in the sea. Tibrogargan, the father, observes that the sea is rising and asks that Coonowrin, the eldest son to help their pregnant mother to safety. Terrified, Coonowrin instead flees. Infuriated by his son's cowardliness, Tibrogargan pursues him and strikes him with his nulla nulla so hard that he dislocates Coonowrin's neck. Once the danger passes Coonowrin feels tremendous guilt for his actions and asks his father and sisters for forgiveness but they all weep with shame; this is said to explain the many small streams.
Tibrogargan turns his back on Coonowrin and gazes out to sea refusing to look at his son Coonowrin who continues to hang his head in shame and weeps. The mountains are promoted as a tourist asset. Bushwalking and climbing has been undertaken for more than a century; however the two largest mountains have been closed by National Parks in recent years. Firstly, Coonowrin was closed in 1999 as a result of a geological report and the development of an adjacent rock quarry. Secondly, the walking track used to access Mt Beerwah was closed in 2009 as the result of a rock collapse from the caves area across the main tourist track and was reopened January 2016. Tibrogargan and Ngungun are open to the public for climbing. There are many different types of plants including trees, grass and the occasional shrub. Animals that live there include birds, frogs, rats and mammals; the Elf Skink, a small lizard populates the area. List of mountains in Australia Photos of Mount Beerwah, Glass House Mountains
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Caloundra is the southernmost town in the Sunshine Coast Region in South East Queensland, Australia. Caloundra is 90 kilometres north of the Brisbane central business district. Caloundra is accessible from Landsborough railway station, 21 km away, the Caloundra bus station. In 1875, Robert Bulcock, an English immigrant who founded a Brisbane newspaper and represented the Brisbane suburb of Enoggera in the Legislative Assembly of Queensland from 1885 until 1888, bought 277 acres of land in the region. A town was surveyed in the 1870s, land sales commenced in 1883. With its proximity to beaches, the area became popular with tourists and a number of hotels and guest houses were set up to accommodate them. In 1917, Bulcock's son, Robert Bulcock Jr, a councillor in the Shire of Landsborough, subdivided part of the land into 404 lots; this area became known as Bulcock Beach. By 1933, Caloundra had a population of 271; the Caloundra branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association was established in July 1937.
The first female councillor was who represented Division 5 from 29 April 1961 to 30 March 1973. She was one of the first teachers at Caloundra State School, she was active in community groups such as the RSL Women's Auxiliary and a founder of the Caloundra Branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association and the local branch of the Red Cross. During World War II, the area became key to Australian defence due to defensive positions along the beaches. Radar stations and machine gun pits were mounted, Australian and US armed forces came to the area. From the early 1950s onwards, Caloundra experienced a boom in development and population, by 1968, it had come to dominate the Shire of Landsborough so that the council chambers were relocated to Caloundra; the Caloundra Library opened in 1986 with a major refurbishment in 2017. Caloundra has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Bowman Road: Tripcony Hibiscus Caravan Park 6 Arthur Street and 3 Canberra Terrace, Kings Beach: Caloundra Lighthouses Ormonde Terrace, Kings Beach: Kings Beach Bathing Pavilion Caloundra is not defined, but the boundary used by the Australian Bureau of Statistics for census purposes and the urban zone defined by the Sunshine Coast Regional Council exactly coincide.
This region is bounded by Currimundi Creek, Rainforest Drive and the Mooloolah River to the north, Beerwah State Forest and Bruce Highway to the west, the Pumicestone Passage and the ocean to the east, Bells Creek to the south. The central business district for the area is located on Caloundra; the Caloundra urban centre consists of the following suburbs: The region of the Sunshine Coast, including Caloundra, is serviced by the Sunshine Coast Airport, located at Marcoola. A smaller regional airport is located at Caloundra. Caloundra's suburbs are served by Sunbus Sunshine Coast, who operate the Caloundra bus station in Cooma Terrace in the CBD. Bus routes 600, 602, 603, 605, 607, 609 connect Caloundra to Kawana Waters, Maroochydore and Landsborough. Landsborough railway station on the Sunshine Coast line has regular services to Roma Street railway station in Brisbane, operated by Queensland Rail. There are several bus companies providing coach services from Caloundra to Brisbane Airport. Census populations for the Caloundra urban centre have been recorded since 1933.
Since the 2001 census, it is divided between the Caloundra North and Caloundra South statistical local areas. The drop between 1981 and 1986 reflects an adjustment of the boundary with the Kawana Waters urban centre. Caloundra has a variety of beaches, providing amenity to the local tourists. Golden Beach is protected by Bribie Island to the east, is used for swimming, windsurfing and fishing. At low tide, Golden Beach and Bribie Island are close. Bulcock Beach, a still water beach, has board-walks and numerous restaurants, is situated opposite the northern end of Bribie Island; the Des Dywer walking track is an oceanway that starts at Bulcock beach and follows the coastline on cliffs and boardwalks. The walking track ends at Moffat Beach north-east of Bulcock, is about a one-hour walk. Bulcock Beach is patrolled by volunteer lifesavers from Ithaca–Caloundra City Life Saving Club. Kings Beach, named for Allan King who ran a guest house in the area in 1888, is the main beach of Caloundra. Kings is patrolled all year round by Metropolitan – Caloundra Surf Life Saving Club and has a picnic and children's play area.
Kings Beach has a swimming pool which, whilst built to be separate from the ocean, is fed directly from seawater. Shelly Beach is not a swimming beach, with the danger of rocks. However, the northern and southern ends are safer for more supervised swimmers. Locals find these places appropriate as, not only is it remote from the crowds of the adjacent King's beach, but local council laws allow dogs on the sand. On low tide and rock pools can be found along the beach. Shelly is surrounded by residential housing with a maximum of five storeys. Moffat Beach is not a patrolled beach, but Dicky Beach, located one kilometre north, has a surf lifesaving club and is patrolled year-round. Moffat Beach is surrounded by residential housing, cafes, a post office, a newsagent and apartments; the surf beaches are Kings Beach and Dicky Beach which commence at the eastern end of Bulcock Beach, namely Happy Valley – Officially Happy Valley is part of and shown on maps as Bulcock Beach. Kings Beach Shelly Beach Moffat Beach Dicky Beach On Caloundra's outskirts is Aussie World, located at the Glenview turnoff on th