Monochromatic painting has been an important component of avant-garde visual art throughout the 20th century and into the 21st century. Painters have created the exploration of one color, the examination of values changing across a surface, the expressivity of texture and nuance, expressing a wide variety of emotions and meanings in a wide variety of ways and means. From geometric precision to expressionism, the monochrome has proved to be a durable idiom in Contemporary art. Monochrome painting was initiated at the first Incoherent arts' exhibition in 1882 in Paris, with a black painting by poet Paul Bilhaud entitled "Combat de Nègres dans un tunnel". In the subsequent exhibitions of the Incoherent arts the writer Alphonse Allais proposed other monochrome paintings, such as "Première communion de jeunes filles chlorotiques par un temps de neige", or "Récolte de la tomate par des cardinaux apoplectiques au bord de la Mer Rouge". Allais published his Album primo-avrilesque in a monograph with seven monochrome artworks.
However, this kind of activity bears more similarity to 20th century Dada, or Neo-Dada, the works of the Fluxus group of the 1960s, than to 20th century monochrome painting since Malevich. Jean Metzinger, following the Succès de scandale created from the Cubist showing at the 1911 Salon des Indépendants, in an interview with Cyril Berger published in Paris-Journal 29 May 1911, stated: We cubists have only done our duty by creating a new rhythm for the benefit of humanity. Others will come after us. What will they find? That is the tremendous secret of the future. Who knows if someday, a great painter, looking with scorn on the brutal game of supposed colorists and taking the seven colors back to the primordial white unity that encompasses them all, will not exhibit white canvases, with nothing nothing on them. Metzinger's audacious prediction that artists would take abstraction to its logical conclusion by vacating representational subject matter and returning to what Metzinger calls the "primordial white unity", a "completely white canvas" would be realized two years later.
The writer of a satirical manifesto entitled Manifeste de l'école amorphiste, published in Les Hommes du Jour, may have had Metzinger's vision in mind when the author justified amorphism's blank canvases by claiming'light is enough for us'. With perspective, writes art historian Jeffery S. Weiss, "Vers Amorphisme may be gibberish, but it was enough of a foundational language to anticipate the extreme reductivist implications of non-objectivity". In a broad and general sense, one finds European roots of minimalism in the geometric abstractions of painters associated with the Bauhaus, in the works of Kazimir Malevich, Piet Mondrian and other artists associated with the De Stijl movement, the Russian Constructivist movement, in the work of the Romanian sculptor Constantin Brâncuși. Minimal art is inspired in part by the paintings of Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardt, Josef Albers, the works of artists as diverse as Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Giorgio Morandi, others. Minimalism was a reaction against the painterly subjectivity of Abstract Expressionism, dominant in the New York School during the 1940s and 1950s.
The wide range of possibilities of interpretation of monochrome paintings is arguably why the monochrome is so engaging to so many artists and writers. Although the monochrome has never become dominant and few artists have committed themselves to it, it has never gone away, it reappears as though a spectre haunting high modernism, or as a symbol of it, appearing during times of aesthetic and sociopolitical upheavals. Monochrome painting as it is understood today began in Moscow, with Suprematist Composition: White on White of 1918 by Suprematist artist Kazimir Malevich; this was a variation on or sequel to his 1915 work Black Square on a White Field, a important work in its own right to 20th century geometric abstraction. In 1921, Constructivist artist Alexander Rodchenko exhibited three paintings together, each a monochrome of one of the three primary colours, he intended this work to represent The Death of Painting. While Rodchenko intended his monochrome to be a dismantling of the typical assumptions of painting, Malevich saw his work as a concentration on them, a kind of meditation on art's essence.
These two approaches articulated early on in its history this kind of work's paradoxical dynamic: that one can read a monochrome either as a flat surface which represents nothing but itself, therefore representing an ending in the evolution of illusionism in painting. Additionally, many have pointed out that it may be difficult to deduce the artist's intentions from the painting itself, without referring to the artist's comment. Milton Resnick had a long career as an Abstract Expressionist painter. During the 1940s, he explored the then-current st
Quantum mechanics, including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles. Classical physics, the physics existing before quantum mechanics, describes nature at ordinary scale. Most theories in classical physics can be derived from quantum mechanics as an approximation valid at large scale. Quantum mechanics differs from classical physics in that energy, angular momentum and other quantities of a bound system are restricted to discrete values. Quantum mechanics arose from theories to explain observations which could not be reconciled with classical physics, such as Max Planck's solution in 1900 to the black-body radiation problem, from the correspondence between energy and frequency in Albert Einstein's 1905 paper which explained the photoelectric effect. Early quantum theory was profoundly re-conceived in the mid-1920s by Erwin Schrödinger, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and others; the modern theory is formulated in various specially developed mathematical formalisms.
In one of them, a mathematical function, the wave function, provides information about the probability amplitude of position and other physical properties of a particle. Important applications of quantum theory include quantum chemistry, quantum optics, quantum computing, superconducting magnets, light-emitting diodes, the laser, the transistor and semiconductors such as the microprocessor and research imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging and electron microscopy. Explanations for many biological and physical phenomena are rooted in the nature of the chemical bond, most notably the macro-molecule DNA. Scientific inquiry into the wave nature of light began in the 17th and 18th centuries, when scientists such as Robert Hooke, Christiaan Huygens and Leonhard Euler proposed a wave theory of light based on experimental observations. In 1803, Thomas Young, an English polymath, performed the famous double-slit experiment that he described in a paper titled On the nature of light and colours.
This experiment played a major role in the general acceptance of the wave theory of light. In 1838, Michael Faraday discovered cathode rays; these studies were followed by the 1859 statement of the black-body radiation problem by Gustav Kirchhoff, the 1877 suggestion by Ludwig Boltzmann that the energy states of a physical system can be discrete, the 1900 quantum hypothesis of Max Planck. Planck's hypothesis that energy is radiated and absorbed in discrete "quanta" matched the observed patterns of black-body radiation. In 1896, Wilhelm Wien empirically determined a distribution law of black-body radiation, known as Wien's law in his honor. Ludwig Boltzmann independently arrived at this result by considerations of Maxwell's equations. However, it underestimated the radiance at low frequencies. Planck corrected this model using Boltzmann's statistical interpretation of thermodynamics and proposed what is now called Planck's law, which led to the development of quantum mechanics. Following Max Planck's solution in 1900 to the black-body radiation problem, Albert Einstein offered a quantum-based theory to explain the photoelectric effect.
Around 1900–1910, the atomic theory and the corpuscular theory of light first came to be accepted as scientific fact. Among the first to study quantum phenomena in nature were Arthur Compton, C. V. Raman, Pieter Zeeman, each of whom has a quantum effect named after him. Robert Andrews Millikan studied the photoelectric effect experimentally, Albert Einstein developed a theory for it. At the same time, Ernest Rutherford experimentally discovered the nuclear model of the atom, for which Niels Bohr developed his theory of the atomic structure, confirmed by the experiments of Henry Moseley. In 1913, Peter Debye extended Niels Bohr's theory of atomic structure, introducing elliptical orbits, a concept introduced by Arnold Sommerfeld; this phase is known as old quantum theory. According to Planck, each energy element is proportional to its frequency: E = h ν, where h is Planck's constant. Planck cautiously insisted that this was an aspect of the processes of absorption and emission of radiation and had nothing to do with the physical reality of the radiation itself.
In fact, he considered his quantum hypothesis a mathematical trick to get the right answer rather than a sizable discovery. However, in 1905 Albert Einstein interpreted Planck's quantum hypothesis realistically and used it to explain the photoelectric effect, in which shining light on certain materials can eject electrons from the material, he won the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for this work. Einstein further developed this idea to show that an electromagnetic wave such as light could be described as a particle, with a discrete quantum of energy, dependent on its frequency; the foundations of quantum mechanics were established during the first half of the 20th century by Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Louis de Broglie, Arthur Compton, Albert Einstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born, John von Neumann, Paul Dirac, Enrico Fermi, Wolfgang Pauli, Max von Laue, Freeman Dyson, David Hilbert, Wi
A Tesla coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit designed by inventor Nikola Tesla in 1891. It is used to produce low-current, high frequency alternating-current electricity. Tesla experimented with a number of different configurations consisting of two, or sometimes three, coupled resonant electric circuits. Tesla used these circuits to conduct innovative experiments in electrical lighting, phosphorescence, X-ray generation, high frequency alternating current phenomena and the transmission of electrical energy without wires. Tesla coil circuits were used commercially in sparkgap radio transmitters for wireless telegraphy until the 1920s, in medical equipment such as electrotherapy and violet ray devices. Today, their main usage is for entertainment and educational displays, although small coils are still used as leak detectors for high vacuum systems. A Tesla coil is a radio frequency oscillator that drives an air-core double-tuned resonant transformer to produce high voltages at low currents.
Tesla's original circuits as well as most modern coils use a simple spark gap to excite oscillations in the tuned transformer. More sophisticated designs use transistor or thyristor switches or vacuum tube electronic oscillators to drive the resonant transformer. Tesla coils can produce output voltages from 50 kilovolts to several million volts for large coils; the alternating current output is in the low radio frequency range between 50 kHz and 1 MHz. Although some oscillator-driven coils generate a continuous alternating current, most Tesla coils have a pulsed output; the common spark-excited Tesla coil circuit, shown below, consists of these components: A high voltage supply transformer, to step the AC mains voltage up to a high enough voltage to jump the spark gap. Typical voltages are between 30 kilovolts. A capacitor that forms a tuned circuit with the primary winding L1 of the Tesla transformer A spark gap that acts as a switch in the primary circuit The Tesla coil, an air-core double-tuned resonant transformer, which generates the high output voltage.
Optionally, a capacitive electrode in the form of a smooth metal sphere or torus attached to the secondary terminal of the coil. Its large surface area suppresses premature air breakdown and arc discharges, increasing the Q factor and output voltage; the specialized transformer used in the Tesla coil circuit, called a resonant transformer, oscillation transformer or radio-frequency transformer, functions differently from an ordinary transformer used in AC power circuits. While an ordinary transformer is designed to transfer energy efficiently from primary to secondary winding, the resonant transformer is designed to temporarily store electrical energy; each winding has a capacitance across it and functions as an LC circuit, storing oscillating electrical energy, analogously to a tuning fork. The primary coil consisting of a few turns of heavy copper wire or tubing, is connected to a capacitor through the spark gap; the secondary coil consists of many turns of fine wire on a hollow cylindrical form inside the primary.
The secondary is not connected to an actual capacitor, but it functions as an LC circuit, the inductance of resonates with stray capacitance, the sum of the stray parasitic capacitance between the windings of the coil, the capacitance of the toroidal metal electrode attached to the high voltage terminal. The primary and secondary circuits are tuned so they resonate at the same frequency, they have the same resonant frequency; this allows them to exchange energy, so the oscillating current alternates back and forth between the primary and secondary coils. The peculiar design of the coil is dictated by the need to achieve low resistive energy losses at high frequencies, which results in the largest secondary voltages: Ordinary power transformers have an iron core to increase the magnetic coupling between the coils; however at high frequencies an iron core causes energy losses due to eddy currents and hysteresis, so it is not used in the Tesla coil. Ordinary transformers are designed to be "tightly coupled".
Due to the iron core and close proximity of the windings, they have a high mutual inductance, the coupling coefficient is close to unity 0.95 - 1.0, which means all the magnetic field of the primary winding passes through the secondary. The Tesla transformer in contrast is "loosely coupled", the primary winding is larger in diameter and spaced apart from the secondary, so the mutual inductance is lower and the coupling coefficient is only 0.05 to 0.2. This means that only 5% to 20% of the magnetic field of the primary coil passes through the secondary when it is open circuited; the loose coupling slows the exchange of energy between the primary and secondary coils, which allows the oscillating energy to stay in the secondary circuit longer before it returns to the primary and begins dissipating in the spark. Each winding is limited to a single layer of wire, which reduces proximity effect losses; the primary carries high currents. Since high frequency current flows on the surface of conductors due to skin effect, it is made of copper tubing or strip with a large surface area to reduce resistance, its turns are spaced apart, which reduces proximity effect losses and arcing between turns.
The output circuit can have two forms: Unipolar - One end of the secondary winding is connected to a single high voltage terminal, the other end is grounded. This type is used in modern coils designed for entertainment; the primary winding is located near the bottom, low potential en
In fiction, a foil is a character who contrasts with another character the protagonist, to highlight particular qualities of the other character. In some cases, a subplot can be used as a foil to the main plot; this is true in the case of metafiction and the "story within a story" motif. The word foil comes from the old practice of backing gems with foil to make them shine more brightly. A foil either differs or is similar but with a key difference setting them apart; the concept of a foil is more applied to any comparison, made to contrast a difference between two things. Thomas F. Gieryn places these uses of literary foils into three categories, which Tamara A. P. Metze explains as: those that emphasize the heightened contrast, those that operate by exclusion, those that assign blame. In Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights, Edgar Linton is described as opposite to main character Heathcliff, in looks, money and morals, however similar in their love for Catherine. In Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley, the two main characters—Dr.
Frankenstein and his "creature"—are both together literary foils, functioning to compare one to the other. In Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, Mary's absorption in her studies places her as a foil to her sister Lydia Bennet's lively and distracted nature. In Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar, the character Brutus has foils in the two characters and Mark Antony. In the play Romeo and Juliet and Mercutio serve as character foils for one another, as well as Macbeth and Banquo in his play Macbeth. In William Shakespeare's tragedy Hamlet, a foil is created between Laertes and Prince Hamlet to elaborate the differences between the two men. In Act V Scene 2, Prince Hamlet tells Laertes that he will fence with him and states, "I'll be your foil, Laertes"; this word play reveals the foil between Hamlet and Laertes, developed throughout the play. In the Harry Potter series, Draco Malfoy can be seen as a foil to the Harry Potter character. George and Lennie are foils to each other in John Steinbeck's Of Men.
Lennie is huge and strong as a bull but is mentally slow, while on the other hand George is small and smart. Juxtaposition Sidekick
University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin is a public research university in Austin, Texas. It is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System; the University of Texas was inducted into the Association of American Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. The institution has the nation's eighth-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff. A Public Ivy, it is a major center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $615 million for the 2016–2017 school year; the university houses seven museums and seventeen libraries, including the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum and the Blanton Museum of Art, operates various auxiliary research facilities, such as the J. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory. Among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Primetime Emmy Award, the Turing Award, the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards.
As of October 2018, 11 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields medalist have been affiliated with the school as alumni, faculty members or researchers. Student athletes are members of the Big 12 Conference, its Longhorn Network is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The Longhorns have won four NCAA Division I National Football Championships, six NCAA Division I National Baseball Championships, thirteen NCAA Division I National Men's Swimming and Diving Championships, has claimed more titles in men's and women's sports than any other school in the Big 12 since the league was founded in 1996; the first mention of a public university in Texas can be traced to the 1827 constitution for the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. Although Title 6, Article 217 of the Constitution promised to establish public education in the arts and sciences, no action was taken by the Mexican government. After Texas obtained its independence from Mexico in 1836, the Texas Congress adopted the Constitution of the Republic, under Section 5 of its General Provisions, stated "It shall be the duty of Congress, as soon as circumstances will permit, to provide, by law, a general system of education."On April 18, 1838, "An Act to Establish the University of Texas" was referred to a special committee of the Texas Congress, but was not reported back for further action.
On January 26, 1839, the Texas Congress agreed to set aside fifty leagues of land—approximately 288,000 acres —towards the establishment of a publicly funded university. In addition, 40 acres in the new capital of Austin were reserved and designated "College Hill." In 1845, Texas was annexed into the United States. The state's Constitution of 1845 failed to mention higher education. On February 11, 1858, the Seventh Texas Legislature approved O. B. 102, an act to establish the University of Texas, which set aside $100,000 in United States bonds toward construction of the state's first publicly funded university. The legislature designated land reserved for the encouragement of railroad construction toward the university's endowment. On January 31, 1860, the state legislature, wanting to avoid raising taxes, passed an act authorizing the money set aside for the University of Texas to be used for frontier defense in west Texas to protect settlers from Indian attacks. Texas's secession from the Union and the American Civil War delayed repayment of the borrowed monies.
At the end of the Civil War in 1865, The University of Texas's endowment was just over $16,000 in warrants and nothing substantive had been done to organize the university's operations. This effort to establish a University was again mandated by Article 7, Section 10 of the Texas Constitution of 1876 which directed the legislature to "establish and provide for the maintenance and direction of a university of the first class, to be located by a vote of the people of this State, styled "The University of Texas."Additionally, Article 7, Section 11 of the 1876 Constitution established the Permanent University Fund, a sovereign wealth fund managed by the Board of Regents of the University of Texas and dedicated for the maintenance of the university. Because some state legislators perceived an extravagance in the construction of academic buildings of other universities, Article 7, Section 14 of the Constitution expressly prohibited the legislature from using the state's general revenue to fund construction of university buildings.
Funds for constructing university buildings had to come from the university's endowment or from private gifts to the university, but the university's operating expenses could come from the state's general revenues. The 1876 Constitution revoked the endowment of the railroad lands of the Act of 1858, but dedicated 1,000,000 acres of land, along with other property appropriated for the university, to the Permanent University Fund; this was to the detriment of the university as the lands the Constitution of 1876 granted the university represented less than 5% of the value of the lands granted to the university under the Act of 1858. The more valuable lands reverted to the fund to support general educat
Orange County Museum of Art
The Orange County Museum of Art is a contemporary art museum presently operating in a temporary space at South Coast Plaza Village in Santa Ana, California. The museum's collection comprises more than 3,500 objects, with a concentration on the art of California and the Pacific Rim from the early 20th century to present. Exhibits include traditional paintings and photography, as well as new media in the form of video and installation art; the museum was founded in 1962 as the Balboa Pavilion Gallery by 13 women who rented space in the Balboa Pavilion building in order to exhibit modern and contemporary art. By 1968 the institution became known as the Newport Harbor Art Museum, in 1972 moved to a nearby, larger location. In 1977 the museum opened its doors in Newport Beach on San Clemente Drive in Fashion Island. In 1997, the museum was renamed the Orange County Museum of Art. On May 31, 2018, Craig Wells, President of the Board of Trustees, Todd D. Smith, Director & CEO, of the Orange County Museum of Art, unveiled the design for the museum’s new building at Segerstrom Center for the Arts in Costa Mesa, CA, created by Morphosis, the global architecture and design firm led by Pritzker Prize-winner Thom Mayne.
Groundbreaking for the new building is scheduled to take place in 2019, with a projected opening in 2021. With nearly 25,000 square feet of exhibition galleries—approximately 50 percent more than in the current location—the new 52,000-square-foot museum will allow OCMA to organize major special exhibitions alongside spacious installations from its collection, it will feature an additional 10,000 square feet for education programs and public gatherings, will include administrative offices, a gift shop, a café. The sale of the Newport Beach site was announced on May 15, 2018. OCMA opened its temporary space at South Coast Village on October 3, 2018 which will serve as its interim home while it constructs its new building at Segerstrom Center. Known as OCMAEXPAND-SANTA ANA, the museum will feature five seasons of six months each in duration; these seasons will continue through March 2021. The Orange County Museum of Art has organized exhibitions of contemporary art, including the first surveys of Vija Celmins, Chris Burden, Tony Cragg, as well as major exhibitions of work by Lari Pittman, Gunther Forg, Charles Ray, Guillermo Kuitca, Bill Viola, Inigo Manglano-Ovalle, Catherine Opie, Mary Heilmann, Jack Goldstein.
Thematic exhibitions of contemporary art have ranged from Objectives: The New Sculpture which presented the work of Grenville Davey, Katharina Fritsch, Robert Gober, Jeff Koons, Annette Lemieus, Juan Munoz, Julian Opie, Haim Steinbach. The museum has organized and hosted exhibitions of modern art and design such as Edvard Munch: Expressionist Paintings, 1900-1940, The Interpretive Link: Abstract Surrealism into Abstract Expressionism: Works on Paper, 1938-1948, The Figurative Fifties: New York Figurative Expressionism, American Modern, 1925-1940: Design for a New Age, Picasso to Pollock: Modern Masterpieces from the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Villa America: American Moderns 1900-1950, Birth of the Cool: Art and Culture at Midcentury, Illumination: The Paintings of Georgia O’Keeffe, Agnes Pelton, Agnes Martin, Florence Miller Pierce. In 1984 the Museum launched the California Biennial. In 2013, that program evolved into the California-Pacific Triennial, the first on-going exhibition in the Western Hemisphere devoted to contemporary art from around the Pacific Rim.
The museum has co-organized exhibitions with the Renaissance Society, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, the Grey Art Gallery, its exhibitions have traveled to more than 30 museums throughout the United States and in Europe. These projects include Kutlug Ataman: Paradise; the museum’s major holdings are California-based, highlighting such movements as Early and Mid-Century Modernism, Bay Area Figuration, California Light and Space, Pop Art and Installation Art. Prominently featured are works by John Baldessari, Elmer Bischoff, Jessica Bronson, Chris Burden, Jija Celmins, Bruce Conner, Richard Diebenkorn, Robert Irwin, Helen Lundeberg, Stanton Macdonald-Wright, John McCracken, John McLaughlin, Catherine Opie, Alan Rath, Charles Ray, Edward Ruscha, Bill Viola; the Museum’s international holdings are a growing area of the collection, featuring work by Eija-Liisa Ahtila, Lee Bul, Katy Grannan, Joseph Grigely, Glenn Ligon, Christian Marclay, Inigo Manglano-Ovalle, Marjetica Potrc, David Reed, Daniela Rossell, Lorna Simpson.
Glass microspheres are microscopic spheres of glass manufactured for a wide variety of uses in research, consumer goods and various industries. Glass microspheres are between 1 and 1000 micrometers in diameter, although the sizes can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. Hollow glass microspheres, sometimes termed microballoons or glass bubbles, have diameters ranging from 10 to 300 micrometers. Hollow spheres are used as a lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. Microballoons give syntactic foam its light weight, low thermal conductivity, a resistance to compressive stress that far exceeds that of other foams; these properties are exploited in the hulls of submersibles and deep-sea oil drilling equipment, where other types of foam would implode. Hollow spheres of other materials create syntactic foams with different properties: ceramic balloons e.g. can make a light syntactic aluminium foam. Hollow spheres have uses ranging from storage and slow release of pharmaceuticals and radioactive tracers to research in controlled storage and release of hydrogen.
Microspheres are used in composites to fill polymer resins for specific characteristics such as weight and sealing surfaces. When making surfboards for example, shapers seal the EPS foam blanks with epoxy and microballoons to create an impermeable and sanded surface upon which fiberglass laminates are applied. Glass microspheres can be made by heating tiny droplets of dissolved water glass in a process known as ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, properties can be improved somewhat by using a chemical treatment to remove some of the sodium. Sodium depletion has allowed hollow glass microspheres to be used in chemically sensitive resin systems, such as long pot life epoxies or non-blown polyurethane composites Additional functionalities, such as silane coatings, are added to the surface of hollow glass microspheres to increase the matrix/microspheres interfacial strength. Microspheres made of high quality optical glass, can be produced for research on the field of optical resonators or cavities. Glass microspheres are produced as waste product in coal-fired power stations.
In this case the product would be termed "cenosphere" and carry an aluminosilicate chemistry. Small amounts of silica in the coal are melted and as they rise up the chimneystack and form small hollow spheres; these spheres are collected together with the ash, pumped in a water mixture to the resident ash dam. Some of the particles do not become hollow and sink in the ash dams, while the hollow ones float on the surface of the dams, they become a nuisance when they dry, as they become airborne and blow over into surrounding areas. Microspheres have been used to produce focal regions, known as photonic nanojets and whose sizes are below the micrometric scale. Previous research has demonstrated experimentally and with simulations the use of microspheres in order to increase the signal intensity obtained in different experiments. A confirmation of the photonic jet in the microwave scale, observing the backscattering enhancement that occurred when metallic particles were introduced in the focus area.
A measurable enhancement of the backscattered light in the visible range was obtained when a gold nanoparticle was placed inside the photonic nanojet region produced by a dielectric microsphere with a 4.4 μm diameter. A use of nanojets produced by transparent microspheres in order to excite optical active materials, under upconversion processes with different numbers of excitation photons, has been analyzed as well. Monodisperse glass microspheres have high sphericity and a tight particle size distribution with CV<10% and specification of >95% of particles in size range. Monodisperse glass particles are used as spacers in adhesives and coatings, such as bond line spacers in epoxies. Just a small amount of spacer grade monodisperse microspheres can create a controlled gap, as well as define and maintain specified bond line thickness. Spacer grade particles can be used as calibration standards and tracer particles for qualifying medical devices. High quality spherical glass microspheres are used in gas plasma displays, automotive mirrors, electronic displays, flip chip technology, filters and electronic equipment.
Other applications include syntactic foams and particulate composites and reflective paints. Dispensing of microspheres can be a difficult task; when utilizing microspheres as a filler for standard mixing and dispensing machines, a breakage rate of up to 80% can occur, depending upon factors such as pump choice, material viscosity, material agitation, temperature. Customized dispensers for microsphere-filled materials may reduce the microsphere breakage rate to a minimal amount. A progressive cavity pump is the pump of choice for dispensing materials with microspheres, which can reduce microsphere breakage as much as 80%. Hydrogen storage