St. Louis County, Missouri
St. Louis County is a county located in the far eastern portion of Missouri. It is bounded by the Mississippi River, the Missouri River, the Meramec River, as of the 2015 Census Bureau population estimate, the population was 1,003,362, making it the most populous county in Missouri. St. Louis County borders, but does not include, the city of St. Louis and it is included in the St. Louis, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. During the 18th century, several settlements were established in the area that would become St. Louis County, the earliest of these, St. Louis, was begun by Pierre Laclede and Auguste Chouteau on February 14,1764. Founded in about 1767 was Carondelet, which was at the end of what is now St. Louis. Florissant, known as St. Ferdinand, was established in 1785 about twelve miles northwest of St. Louis on a tributary of the Missouri River. During the 1790s, very small settlements known as Creve Coeur and Point Labadie were built north, during this time, the first governing body of St. Louis County was established.
On October 1,1812, the District of St. Louis was renamed St. Louis County during a reorganization of the territorys status, after the transfer of Louisiana to the United States, the authority to grant incorporation to municipalities became territorial and, state power. The first to gain status in St. Louis County was St. Louis, which incorporated on November 9,1809 under the territorial legislature. Two towns grew substantially and incorporated as a result of the building of the Pacific Railroad in the 1850s, Pacific, known before the railroad line connection as Franklin, straddles St. Louis County and Franklin County, it incorporated as Pacific in 1859. Leffingwell organized the town as a suburb, and Kirkwood was granted incorporation by the state in 1865. Other areas of the county began to be settled during this period, among these were Chesterfield and Gumbo, both settled in the 1820s in west St. Louis County, and Gravois and Affton which were settled in south St. Louis County in the 1850s and 1860s.
Aside from the first St. Louis Public Schools that were established in the 1830s, Louis in the east, and to the north up to Clayton Road. Another antebellum school district was Rock Hill, which provided a school across from the Rock Hill Presbyterian Church until about 1870. The first school in Florissant opened in 1819 under the direction of the Religious of the Sacred Heart, the instructor, Rose Philippine Duchesne, was a French immigrant who has been described as one of the foremost educators in the state of Missouri. The earliest public school in Florissant was the St. Ferdinand School, which was authorized by the General Assembly in 1845 and operated until 1871, from 1813 to 1830, the county underwent several changes to its government. By an act of the legislature, the Court of Quarter Sessions was succeeded by a panel of three judges of common pleas in 1813. Two years later, this panel was succeeded by a newly created county court composed of justices of the peace from the county elected to three month terms
Elizabeth Ruth Betty Grable was an American actress, pin-up girl and singer. Her 42 movies during the 1930s and 1940s grossed more than $100 million, the U. S. Treasury Department in 1946 and 1947 listed her as the highest-salaried American woman, she earned more than $3 million during her career. Grable began her career in 1929 at age 12, after which she was fired from a contract when it was learned she signed up under false identification. She had contracts with RKO and Paramount Pictures during the 1930s, Grable came to prominence in the Broadway musical DuBarry Was a Lady, which brought her to the attention of 20th Century-Fox. She replaced Alice Faye in Down Argentine Way, her first major Hollywood film, Fox cast Grable in a succession of Technicolor musicals during the decade that were immensely popular, co-starring with such leading men as Victor Mature, Don Ameche, John Payne, and Tyrone Power. In 1943, she was the number-one box-office draw in the world and, in 1947, two of her biggest film successes were the musical Mother Wore Tights and the comedy How to Marry a Millionaire, one of her last films.
Grable retired from acting in 1955 after she withdrew from her Fox contract, although she continued to perform on the stage. Throughout her career, Grable was a sex symbol. Her bathing suit poster made her the number-one pin-up girl of World War II and it was included in the Life magazine project 100 Photographs that Changed the World. Hosiery specialists of the era often noted the ideal proportions of her legs as thigh, Grables legs were famously insured by her studio for $1 million as a publicity stunt. Elizabeth Ruth Grable was born on December 18,1916 in St. Louis and she was the youngest of three children born to Lillian Rose and John Charles Grable, a stockbroker. She had Dutch, English and Irish and ancestry, nicknamed Betty as a child, she was pressured by her mother—a stubborn and materialistic woman—to become a performer. She was entered in multiple beauty contests, many of which she won or for which she achieved considerable attention, despite her success, she suffered from a fear of crowds and sleepwalking.
A 12-year-old Grable and her mother traveled to Hollywood in 1929, shortly after the stock market crash. To get her daughter jobs, Lillian Grable lied about her daughters age, claiming she was 15 to movie producers, the same year, after assuming the stage name Betty Grable, she made her film debut in Happy Days. This eventually led to her having small roles in Lets Go Places, in 1930, at age 13, Grable began a partnership with producer Samuel Goldwyn, she thereby became one of the original Goldwyn Girls, along with Lucille Ball, Virginia Bruce, and Paulette Goddard. As a member of the group of attractive young starlets, Grable appeared in a series of small parts in movies. Although she received no credit for her performance, she led the films opening musical number
Cycling, called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, exercise or sport. Persons engaged in cycling are referred to as cyclists, bikers, or less commonly, apart from two-wheeled bicycles, cycling includes the riding of unicycles, quadracycles and similar human-powered vehicles. Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now approximately one billion worldwide. They are the means of transportation in many parts of the world. Cycling is widely regarded as an effective and efficient mode of transportation optimal for short to moderate distances. Cycling offers a reduced consumption of fuels, less air or noise pollution. These lead to financial cost to the user as well as to society at large. By fitting bicycle racks on the front of buses, transit agencies can significantly increase the areas they can serve, in many countries, the most commonly used vehicle for road transport is a utility bicycle. These have frames with relaxed geometry, protecting the rider from shocks of the road, utility bicycles tend to be equipped with accessories such as mudguards, pannier racks and lights, which extends their usefulness on a daily basis.
As the bicycle is so effective as a means of various companies have developed methods of carrying anything from the weekly shop to children on bicycles. Certain countries rely heavily on bicycles and their culture has developed around the bicycle as a form of transport. In Europe and the Netherlands have the most bicycles per capita, road bikes tend to have a more upright shape and a shorter wheelbase, which make the bike more mobile but harder to ride slowly. The design, coupled with low or dropped handlebars, requires the rider to bend forward more, making use of stronger muscles, the price of a new bicycle can range from US$50 to more than US$20,000, depending on quality and weight. However, UCI regulations stipulate a legal race bike cannot weigh less than 6.8 kg, being measured for a bike and taking it for a test ride are recommended before buying. The drivetrain components of the bike should be considered, a middle grade dérailleur is sufficient for a beginner, although many utility bikes are equipped with hub gears.
If the rider plans a significant amount of hillclimbing a triple-chainrings crankset gear system may be preferred, the relatively lighter and less expensive double chainring may be better. Much simpler fixed wheel bikes are available, many road bikes, along with mountain bikes, include clipless pedals to which special shoes attach, via a cleat, enabling the rider to pull on the pedals as well as push. For basic maintenance and repairs cyclists can carry a pump, a repair kit, a spare inner tube, and tire levers
The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes in 1895, the prizes in Chemistry, Peace and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 carat gold, between 1901 and 2016, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 579 times to 911 people and organisations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 23 organisations, the prize ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden. Each recipient, or laureate, receives a medal, a diploma. The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in the fields of literature, physics, chemistry and economics. The prize is not awarded posthumously, however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, though the average number of laureates per prize increased substantially during the 20th century, a prize may not be shared among more than three people.
Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden and he was a chemist and inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill and this invention was a precursor to many smokeless military explosives, especially the British smokeless powder cordite. As a consequence of his patent claims, Nobel was eventually involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite, Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous. In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, as it was Alfreds brother Ludvig who had died, the obituary was eight years premature. The article disconcerted Nobel and made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered and this inspired him to change his will. On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime. He composed the last over a year before he died, signing it at the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895, Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets,31 million SEK, to establish the five Nobel Prizes.
Because of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that it was approved by the Storting in Norway. The executors of Nobels will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobels fortune, Nobels instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organisations were designated or established and these were Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the prizes should be awarded, and, in 1900, in 1905, the personal union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved
John Claggett Danforth is a retired American politician who began his career in 1968 as the Attorney General of Missouri and served three terms as United States Senator from Missouri. In 2004 he served briefly as United States Ambassador to the United Nations, Danforth is an ordained Episcopal priest. Danforth was born in St. Louis, Missouri and he is the grandson of William H. Danforth, founder of Purina Mills. His father was the CEO of its successor, Ralston Purina, Danforths brother, Dr. William Henry Danforth, is former chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis. Danforth attended St. Louis Country Day School for high school, while in college Danforth joined Lambda Chi Alpha. He attended law and divinity schools at Yale University. Before Danforth entered Republican politics, Missouri was a reliably Democratic state with both its U. S, senators and Governors regularly being Democrats. Prior to Symington, Danforths seat in the Senate was held by Democratic Party heavyweights Thomas Hart Benton, Danforth was elected in 1968 at the age of 32 to be Missouri Attorney General.
On his staff of assistant attorneys general were Kit Bond, John Ashcroft, in 1972 Danforths colleague Bond was elected Missouri Governor at the age of 33, and Danforth was re-elected Attorney General. The two were viewed as young Republican wunderkinds in a traditionally Democratic state, in 1970 Danforth ran for the United States Senate for the first time, against Democratic incumbent Stuart Symington. Danforth was defeated in a close race, in 1976 Danforth ran to succeed Symington, who was retiring. Danforth ran in the Republican primary with little opposition, the Democrats had a three-way battle among Symingtons son James W. Symington, former Missouri Governor Warren Hearnes and rising political star Congressman Jerry Litton. Litton and his family were killed when the plane taking them to their victory party in Kansas City crashed on take off in Chillicothe. Hearnes, who had finished second in the primary far behind Litton, was appointed to challenge Danforth, Danforth easily won even though Jimmy Carter of Georgia won Missouri in the presidential election.
Danforth was narrowly re-elected in 1982 and his Democratic opponent was Harriett Woods, a relatively unknown state senator from the St. Louis suburb of University City, Missouri. She was active in womens organizations and collected union support and was a cousin of Democratic Senator Howard Metzenbaum of Ohio. Her speeches denounced Ronald Reagans policies so vigorously that she ran on the nickname, Give em Hell, Woods pro-choice stance was said to be the reason for her defeat. Woods and Danforth stayed on good terms following her defeat, in 1988 Danforth defeated Democrat Jay Nixon, 68%–32%
Green Bay Packers
The Green Bay Packers are a professional American football team based in Green Bay, Wisconsin. The Packers compete in the National Football League as a club of the leagues National Football Conference North division. They are the third-oldest franchise in the NFL, organized and it is the only non-profit, community-owned major league professional sports team based in the United States. Home games are played at Lambeau Field, the Packers are the last vestige of small town teams common in the NFL during the 1920s and 1930s. Founded in 1919 by Earl Curly Lambeau and George Whitney Calhoun, between 1919 and 1920, the Packers competed against other semi-pro clubs from around Wisconsin and the Midwest. They joined the American Professional Football Association, the forerunner of todays NFL, the Packers have won 13 league championships, the most in NFL history, with nine NFL titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowl victories. They won the first two Super Bowls in 1967 and 1968 and were the only NFL team to defeat the American Football League prior to the AFL–NFL merger.
The Vince Lombardi Trophy is named after the Packers head coach of the same name and their two further Super Bowl wins came in 1997 and 2011. The Packers are long-standing adversaries of the Chicago Bears, Minnesota Vikings, and Detroit Lions, the Bears–Packers rivalry is one of the oldest in NFL history, dating back to 1921. The Green Bay Packers were founded on August 11,1919 by former high-school football rivals Earl Curly Lambeau, Lambeau solicited funds for uniforms from his employer, the Indian Packing Company. He was given $500 for uniforms and equipment, on the condition that the team be named for its sponsor, the Green Bay Packers have played in their original city longer than any other team in the NFL. On August 27,1921, the Packers were granted a franchise in the new pro football league that had been formed the previous year. Financial troubles plagued the team and the franchise was forfeited within the year, before Lambeau found new financial backers and these backers, known as the Hungry Five, formed the Green Bay Football Corporation.
After a near-miss in 1927, Lambeaus squad claimed the Packers first NFL title in 1929 with an undefeated 12–0–1 campaign, among the many impressive accomplishments of these years was the Packers streak of 29 consecutive home games without defeat, an NFL record which still stands. The arrival of end Don Hutson from Alabama in 1935 gave Lambeau, credited with inventing pass patterns, Hutson would lead the league in receptions eight seasons and spur the Packers to NFL championships in 1936,1939 and 1944. An iron man, Hutson played both ways, leading the league in interceptions as a safety in 1940, Hutson claimed 18 NFL records when he retired in 1945, many of which still stand. In 1951, his number 14 was the first to be retired by the Packers, after Hutsons retirement, Lambeau could not stop the Packers slide. He purchased a large lodge near Green Bay for team members, rockwood Lodge was the home of the 1946-1949 Packers, though the 1947 and 1948 seasons produced a record of 12-10-1, and 1949 was even worse at 3-9
St. Louis Lambert International Airport
St. Louis Lambert International Airport is an international airport serving Greater St. Louis, United States. It is about 14 miles northwest of downtown St. Louis in unincorporated St. Louis County between Berkeley and Bridgeton, commonly named Lambert Field, it is the largest and busiest airport in Missouri with 260 daily departures to about 70 domestic and international locations. In 2016,13.9 million passengers traveled through the airport, St. Louis Lambert International is classified as a medium-sized airport in terms of passengers, but is currently the busiest in this category. The airport serves as a hub for Air Choice One and Cape Air, focus city for Southwest Airlines and was a hub for Trans World Airlines. It is the airport serving the St. Louis area, with MidAmerica St. Louis Airport, located about 37 miles east. The two airports are connected by the rail mass transit Red Line of the St. Louis MetroLink. The airport grew from a balloon launching base, Kinloch Field, the Wright brothers and their Exhibition Team visited the field while touring with their aircraft.
During a visit to St. Louis, Theodore Roosevelt flew with pilot Arch Hoxsey on October 11,1910, Kinloch hosted the first experimental parachute jump. In June 1920, the Aero Club of St. Louis leased 170 acres of cornfield, the defunct Kinloch Racing Track, the field was officially dedicated as Lambert–St. In February 1925, Major Lambert bought the field and added hangars, that year, Lambert sold the airport to the City of St. Louis, making it the first municipally-owned airport in the United States. In the late 1920s, Lambert Field became the first airport with an air traffic control system—albeit one that communicated with pilots via waving flags, the first controller was Archie League. Robertson Airlines, Marquette Airlines and Eastern Air Lines provided passenger service to St. Louis, in 1925, the airport became home to Naval Air Station St. Louis, a Naval Air Reserve facility that became an active-duty installation during World War II. During the war, the became a manufacturing base for McDonnell Aircraft.
After the war, NAS St. Louis reverted to an installation, supporting carrier-based fighters. When it closed in 1958, most of its facilities were acquired by the Missouri Air National Guard, some other facilities were retained by non-flying activities of the Naval Reserve and Marine Corps Reserve, while the rest was redeveloped to expand commercial airline operations at the airport. To handle the passenger traffic, Minoru Yamasaki was commissioned to design a new terminal at Lambert. Commissioned in 1951 and completed in 1956, the three-domed design preceded terminals at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City, a fourth dome was added in 1965. The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows TWA with 44 weekday departures, American,24, Delta,16, Ozark,14, Eastern,13, Braniff and Central, the first jets were TWA 707s in July 1959
St. Louis is an independent city and major U. S. port in the state of Missouri, built along the western bank of the Mississippi River, on the border with Illinois. Prior to European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American Mississippian culture. The city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, in 1764, following Frances defeat in the Seven Years War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase, during the 19th century, St. Louis developed as a major port on the Mississippi River. In the 1870 Census, St. Louis was ranked as the 4th-largest city in the United States and it separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the Summer Olympics, the economy of metro St. Louis relies on service, trade, transportation of goods, and tourism.
This city has become known for its growing medical, pharmaceutical. St. Louis has 2 professional sports teams, the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball, the city is commonly identified with the 630-foot tall Gateway Arch in Downtown St. Louis. The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture and their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 AD to 1500 AD. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the Mound City and these mounds were mostly demolished during the citys development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years later, La Salle claimed the region for France as part of La Louisiane. The earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia, migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River founded Ste.
In early 1764, after France lost the 7 Years War, Pierre Laclède, the early French families built the citys economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe, French colonists used African slaves as domestic servants and workers in the city. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces, mostly Native American allies, the founding of St. Louis began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River, before then, Laclede had been a very successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area
A priest or priestess, is a person authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They have the authority or power to administer religious rites, in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of and their office or position is the priesthood, a term which may apply to such persons collectively. The necessity to read sacred texts and keep temple or church records helped foster literacy in early societies. Priests exist in many religions today, such as all or some branches of Judaism, the question of which religions have a priest depends on how the titles of leaders are used or translated into English. In some cases, leaders are more like those that other believers will often turn to for advice on spiritual matters, for example, clergy in Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy are priests, but in Protestant Christianity they are typically minister and pastor. The terms priest and priestess are sufficiently generic that they may be used in a sense to describe the religious mediators of an unknown or otherwise unspecified religion.
In many religions, being a priest or priestess is a full-time position, many Christian priests and pastors choose or are mandated to dedicate themselves to their churches and receive their living directly from their churches. In other cases it is a part-time role, for example, in the early history of Iceland the chieftains were titled goði, a word meaning priest. In some religions, being a priest or priestess is by election or human choice. In Judaism the priesthood is inherited in familial lines, in a theocracy, a society is governed by its priesthood. The word priest, is derived from Greek, via Latin presbyter. Old High German has the disyllabic priester, apparently derived from Latin independently via Old French presbtre, the Latin presbyter ultimately represents Greek presbyteros, the regular Latin word for priest being sacerdos, corresponding to Greek hiereus. That English should have only the term priest to translate presbyter. The feminine English noun, was coined in the 17th century, in the 20th century, the word was used in controversies surrounding the ordination of women.
In the case of the ordination of women in the Anglican communion, it is common to speak of priests. In historical polytheism, a priest administers the sacrifice to a deity, in the Ancient Near East, the priesthood acted on behalf of the deities in managing their property. Priestesses in antiquity often performed sacred prostitution, and in Ancient Greece, some such as Pythia, priestess at Delphi. Sumerian and Akkadian Entu or EN were top-ranking priestesses who were distinguished with special ceremonial attire and they owned property, transacted business, and initiated the hieros gamos ceremony with priests and kings
McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturing corporation and defense contractor formed by the merger of McDonnell Aircraft and the Douglas Aircraft Company in 1967. Between and its own merger with Boeing in 1997, it produced a number of commercial and military aircraft such as the DC-10 airliner. The corporation was based at Lambert–St, the company was formed from the firms of James Smith McDonnell and Donald Wills Douglas in 1967. Both men were of Scottish ancestry, graduates of MIT and had worked for the aircraft manufacturer Glenn L. Martin Company, Douglas had been chief engineer at Martin before leaving to establish Davis-Douglas Company in early 1920 in Los Angeles. He bought out his backer and renamed the firm the Douglas Aircraft Company in 1921, McDonnell & Associates in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1926. His idea was to produce an aircraft for family use. The economic depression from 1929 ruined his ideas and the company collapsed and he worked at three companies with the final being Glenn Martin Company in 1933.
He left Martin in 1938 to try again with his own firm, McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, World War II was a major earner for Douglas. The company produced almost 30,000 aircraft from 1942 to 1945, both companies suffered at the end of hostilities, facing an end of government orders and a surplus of aircraft. After the war Douglas continued to new aircraft, including the DC-6 in 1946. The company moved into jet propulsion, producing its first for the military – the conventional F3D Skyknight in 1948, in 1955, Douglas introduced the first attack jet of the United States Navy with the A4D Skyhawk. Designed to operate from the decks of the World War II Essex class aircraft carriers, the Skyhawk was small, variants of it continued in use in the Navy for almost 50 years, finally serving in large numbers in a two-seat version as a jet trainer. Douglas made commercial jets, producing the DC-8 in 1958 to compete with the Boeing 707, the Korean War-era Banshee and the F-4 Phantom II produced during the Vietnam War helped push McDonnell into a major military fighter supply role.
Douglas created a series of experimental high-speed jet aircraft in the Skyrocket family, Douglas gained contracts from NASA, notably for part of the enormous Saturn V rocket. The two companies were now major employers, but both were having problems, Douglas was strained by the cost of the DC-8 and DC-9, while McDonnell suffered lean times during any downturns in military procurement. The two companies began to sound each other out about a merger, inquiries began in 1963, Douglas offered bid invitations from December 1966 and accepted that of McDonnell. The two firms were merged on 28 April 1967 as the McDonnell Douglas Corporation. The two companies were a fit for each other
United States Secretary of War
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. A similar position, called either Secretary at War or Secretary of War, had appointed to serve the Congress of the Confederation under the Articles of Confederation between 1781 and 1789. Benjamin Lincoln and Henry Knox held the position, when Washington was inaugurated as the first president under the Constitution, he appointed Knox to continue serving. The Secretary of War was the head of the War Department, at first, he was responsible for all military affairs, including naval affairs. In 1798, the Secretary of the Navy was created by statute, from 1886 onward, the Secretary of War was third in the line of succession to the presidency, after the Vice President of the United States and the Secretary of State. The office of Secretary at War was modelled upon Great Britains Secretary at War, the office of Secretary at War was meant replaced both the Commander-in-Chief and the Board of War, and like the President of the Board, the Secretary wore no special insignia.
The Inspector General, Quartermaster General, Commissary General, and Adjutant General served on the Secretarys staff, the Army itself under Secretary Henry Knox only consisted of 700 men. Parties No party Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Confederate States Secretary of War Bell, commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff 1775-2005, Portraits and Biographical Sketches. United States Army Center of Military History, encyclopedia of the United States Cabinet 1789-2010. Charlottesville, The Judge Advocate Generals School, U. S. Army
Governor of California
The position was created in 1849, the year before California became a state. The current governor is Jerry Brown, a Democrat who was inaugurated January 3,2011, in October 2013, Jerry Brown surpassed Earl Warren for the longest cumulative period of time served as governor. Governors are elected by ballot and serve terms of four years. Governors take office on the first Monday after January 1 after their election, there are two methods available to remove a governor before the expiration of the gubernatorial term of office. Impeachment and removal by the legislature The governor can be impeached for misconduct in office by the State Assembly, recall by the voters Petitions signed by California state voters equal in number to 12% of the last vote for the office of governor can launch a gubernatorial recall election. The voters can vote on whether or not to recall the incumbent governor. If a majority of the voters in the vote to recall the governor. The 2003 California recall began with a drive that successfully forced sitting Democratic Governor Gray Davis into a special recall election.
It marked the first time in the history of California that a governor faced a recall election and he was subsequently voted out of office, becoming the second governor in the history of the United States to be recalled after Lynn Frazier of North Dakota in 1921. He was replaced by Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger, the Lieutenant Governor of California is separately elected during the same election, not jointly as the running mate of the gubernatorial candidate. California has had a governor and a lieutenant governor of different parties 26 of the past 31 years, the lieutenant governor is the President of the California State Senate. In practice, there is an agreement for the Lieutenant Governor not to perform more than perfunctory duties while the Governor is away from the state. This agreement was violated when Mike Curb was in office, as he signed several executive orders at odds with the Brown administration when Brown was out of the state. Court rulings have upheld the lieutenant governors right to perform the duties, peter Burnett had the longest post-governorship,44 years.
He left office in 1851 and died in 1895, excluding governors who died in office, Robert Waterman had the shortest post-governorship. He died on April 12,1891, a three months and four days after the expiration of his term. Sworn in at the age of 30, J. Neely Johnson was the youngest governor from 1856 to 1858, sworn in at the age of 72, Jerry Brown became the oldest governor in 2011. Earl Warren was the governor to serve more than two consecutive terms in office