Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County and part of the Boston metropolitan area. Situated directly north of Boston, across the Charles River, it was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are in Cambridge, as was Radcliffe College, a college for women until it merged with Harvard on October 1, 1999. According to the 2010 Census, the city's population was 105,162; as of July 2014, it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Worcester and Lowell. Cambridge was one of two seats of Middlesex County until the county government was abolished in Massachusetts in 1997. In December 1630, the site of what would become Cambridge was chosen because it was safely upriver from Boston Harbor, making it defensible from attacks by enemy ships. Thomas Dudley, his daughter Anne Bradstreet, her husband Simon were among the town's first settlers.
The first houses were built in the spring of 1631. The settlement was referred to as "the newe towne". Official Massachusetts records show the name rendered as Newe Towne by 1632, as Newtowne by 1638. Located at the first convenient Charles River crossing west of Boston, Newe Towne was one of a number of towns founded by the 700 original Puritan colonists of the Massachusetts Bay Colony under Governor John Winthrop, its first preacher was Thomas Hooker, who led many of its original inhabitants west in 1636 to found Hartford and the Connecticut Colony. The original village site is now within Harvard Square; the marketplace where farmers sold crops from surrounding towns at the edge of a salt marsh remains within a small park at the corner of John F. Kennedy and Winthrop Streets; the town comprised a much larger area than the present city, with various outlying parts becoming independent towns over the years: Cambridge Village in 1688, Cambridge Farms in 1712 or 1713, Little or South Cambridge and Menotomy or West Cambridge in 1807.
In the late 19th century, various schemes for annexing Cambridge to Boston were pursued and rejected. In 1636, the Newe College was founded by the colony to train ministers. According to Cotton Mather, Newe Towne was chosen for the site of the college by the Great and General Court for its proximity to the popular and respected Puritan preacher Thomas Shepard. In May 1638, The settlement's name was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England. Newtowne's ministers and Shepard, the college's first president, major benefactor, the first schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton were Cambridge alumni, as was the colony's governor John Winthrop. In 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university. In 1650, Governor Thomas Dudley signed the charter creating the corporation that still governs Harvard College. Cambridge grew as an agricultural village eight miles by road from Boston, the colony's capital.
By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with most of the town comprising farms and estates. Most inhabitants were descendants of the original Puritan colonists, but there was a small elite of Anglican "worthies" who were not involved in village life, made their livings from estates and trade, lived in mansions along "the Road to Watertown". Coming north from Virginia, George Washington took command of the volunteer American soldiers camped on Cambridge Common on July 3, 1775, now reckoned the birthplace of the U. S. Army. Most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution. On January 24, 1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, which enabled Washington to drive the British army out of Boston. Between 1790 and 1840, Cambridge grew with the construction of the West Boston Bridge in 1792 connecting Cambridge directly to Boston, so that it was no longer necessary to travel eight miles through the Boston Neck and Brookline to cross the Charles River.
A second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts. In the mid-19th century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution, it was home to some of the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires. The Fireside Poets—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes—were popular and influential in their day. Soon after, turnpikes were built: the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike, the Middlesex Turnpike, what are today's Cambridge and Harvard Streets connected various areas of Cambridge to the bridges. In addition, the town was connected to the Boston & Maine Railroad, leading to the development of Porter Square as well as the creation of neighboring Somerville from the rural parts of Charlestown. Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846 despite persistent tensions between East Cambridge and Old Cambridge stemming from differences in culture, sources of income, the national origins of the resident
Professor is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries. Professor derives from Latin as a "person who professes" being an expert in arts or sciences, a teacher of the highest rank. In most systems of academic ranks the word "Professor" only refers to the most senior academic position, sometimes informally known as "full professor". In some countries or institutions, the word professor is used in titles of lower ranks such as associate professor and assistant professor; this colloquial usage would be considered incorrect among most other academic communities. However, the unqualified title Professor designated with a capital letter refers to a full professor in English language usage. Professors conduct original research and teach undergraduate and postgraduate courses in their fields of expertise. In universities with graduate schools, professors may mentor and supervise graduate students conducting research for a thesis or dissertation.
In many universities,'full professors' take on senior managerial roles, leading departments, research teams and institutes, filling roles such as president, principal or vice-chancellor. The role of professor may be more public facing than that of more junior staff, professors are expected to be national or international leaders in their field of expertise; the term "professor" was first used in the late 14th century to mean "one who teaches a branch of knowledge". The word comes "...from Old French professeur and directly from Latin professor'person who professes to be an expert in some art or science. As a title, "prefixed to a name, it dates from 1706"; the "hort form prof is recorded from 1838". The term "professor" is used with a different meaning: "ne professing religion; this canting use of the word comes down from the Elizabethan period, but is obsolete in England." A professor is an accomplished and recognized academic. In most Commonwealth nations, as well as northern Europe, the title professor is the highest academic rank at a university.
In the United States and Canada, the title of professor applies to most post-doctoral academics, so a larger percentage are thus designated. In these areas, professors are scholars with doctorate degrees or equivalent qualifications who teach in four-year colleges and universities. An emeritus professor is a title given to selected retired professors with whom the university wishes to continue to be associated due to their stature and ongoing research. Emeritus professors do not receive a salary, but they are given office or lab space, use of libraries, so on; the term professor is used in the titles assistant professor and associate professor, which are not considered professor-level positions in all European countries. In Australia, the title associate professor is used in place of the term reader as used in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries. Beyond holding the proper academic title, universities in many countries give notable artists and foreign dignitaries the title honorary professor if these persons do not have the academic qualifications necessary for professorship and they do not take up professorial duties.
However, such "professors" do not undertake academic work for the granting institution. In general, the title of professor is used for academic positions rather than for those holding it on honorary basis. Professors are qualified experts in their field who perform some or all the following tasks: Managing teaching and publications in their departments. Other roles of professorial tasks depend on the institution, its legacy, protocols and time. For example, professors at research-oriented universities in North America and at European universities, are promoted on the basis of research achievements and external grant-raising success. Many colleges and universities and other institutions of higher learning throughout the world follow a similar hierarchical ranking structure amongst scholars in academia. A professor earns a base salary and a range of benefits. In addition, a professor who undertakes additional roles in their institution earns additional income; some professors earn additional income by moonlighting in other jobs, such as consulting, publishing academic or popular press books, giving speeches, or coaching executives.
Some fields give professors more opportun
The Harvard Crimson
The Harvard Crimson, the daily student newspaper of Harvard University, was founded in 1873. It is the only daily newspaper in Cambridge, is run by Harvard College undergraduates; the newspaper is operated by a non-profit organisation. Any student who volunteers and completes a series of requirements known as the "comp" is elected an editor of the newspaper. Thus, all staff members of The Crimson—including writers, business staff and graphic designers—are technically "editors". Editorial and financial decisions rest in a board of executives, collectively called a "guard", who are chosen for one-year terms each November by the outgoing guard; this process is referred to as the "turkey shoot" or the "shoot". The unsigned opinions of "The Crimson Staff" are decided at tri-weekly meetings that are open to any Crimson editor; the Crimson is one of the only college newspapers in the U. S. that owns its own printing presses. At the beginning of 2004 The Crimson began publishing with a full-color front and back page, in conjunction with the launch of a major redesign.
The Crimson prints over fifteen other publications on its presses. The Crimson has a rivalry with the Harvard Lampoon, which it refers to in print as a "semi-secret Sorrento Square social organization that used to publish a so-called humor magazine". "Young Rich pens book deal", from The Crimson in 2006, is one example of this running joke: "Penning books in the humor category seems fitting because Rich, as the statement takes care to mention, is the president of the Harvard Lampoon, a semi-secret Sorrento Square social organization that used to publish a so-called humor magazine." The two organizations occupy buildings within less than one block of each other. Crimson alumni include Presidents John F. Kennedy of the Class of 1940 and Franklin D. Roosevelt, Class of 1904. Writer Cleveland Amory was president of The Crimson; the Crimson is a nonprofit organization, independent of the university. All decisions on the content and day-to-day operations of the newspaper are made by undergraduates.
The student leaders of the newspaper employ several non-student staff, many of whom have stayed on for many years and have come to be thought of as family members by the students who run the paper. The Crimson is composed of 10 boards: Arts, News, Editorial, Design, Fifteen Minutes and Technology; the Harvard Crimson was one of many college newspapers founded shortly after the Civil War and describes itself as "the nation's oldest continuously published daily college newspaper", although this description is contested by other college newspapers. The Yale Daily News, published daily since its 1878 founding except for breaks during World War I and II, calls itself the "Oldest College Daily"; the Columbia Daily Spectator, founded in 1877, claims to be the second-oldest college daily. The Brown Daily Herald, established in 1866 and daily since 1891, claims to be the second-oldest college newspaper and fifth-oldest college daily; the Cornell Daily Sun, launched in 1880, claims to be the "oldest independent college newspaper".
The Dartmouth of Dartmouth College, which opened in 1843 as a monthly, calls itself the oldest college newspaper, though not the oldest daily, makes a claim to institutional continuity with a local eighteenth-century paper called the Dartmouth Gazette. The Crimson traces its origin to the first issue of The Magenta, published January 24, 1873, despite strong discouragement from the Dean; the faculty of the College had suspended the existence of several previous student newspapers, including the Collegian, whose motto Dulce et Periculum represented the precarious place of the student press at Harvard University in the late nineteenth century. The Magenta's editors declined Dean Burney's advice and moved forward with a biweekly paper, "a thin layer of editorial content surrounded by an thinner wrapper of advertising"; the paper changed its name to The Crimson in 1875 when Harvard changed its official color by a vote of the student body—the announcement came with a full-page editorial announcing "magenta is not now, and... never has been, the right color of Harvard."
This particular issue, May 21, 1875 included several reports on athletic events, a concert review, a call for local shopkeepers to stock the exact shade of crimson ribbon, to avoid "startling variations in the colors worn by Harvard men at the races". The Crimson included more substance in the 1880s, as the paper's editors were more eager to engage in a quality of journalism like that of muckraking big-city newspapers. In 1885, The Crimson switched from a fortnightly publication to a daily newspaper; the paper flourished at t
Paul Drew Clement is an American lawyer. He is a former United States Solicitor General and current partner at the law firm of Kirkland & Ellis after its acquisition of his previous firm Bancroft PLLC, he is a Distinguished Lecturer in Law at Georgetown University and an adjunct professor at New York University School of Law. He was nominated by President George W. Bush on March 14, 2005, for the post of Solicitor General, confirmed by the United States Senate on June 8, 2005, took the oath of office on June 13. Clement replaced Theodore Olson. Clement resigned on May 14, 2008, effective June 2, 2008, joined the Georgetown University Law Center as a visiting professor and senior fellow at the Supreme Court Institute. Clement was born to Jean and Jerry Clement, he had two brothers and a sister. Clement is a native of Wisconsin. In 1984, he graduated from Cedarburg High School, he received his bachelor's degree summa cum laude from the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, a master's degree in economics from Darwin College, University of Cambridge.
While at Georgetown, Clement competed in the American Parliamentary Debate Association. He received his J. D. degree magna cum laude from Harvard Law School where he was the Supreme Court editor of the Harvard Law Review. He was one of eight editors of the Harvard Law Review's annual lampoon who oversaw publication of a satirical piece mocking an article by Mary Joe Frug on the one-year anniversary of her murder. Clement—and the other seven editors—apologized for the parody after backlash from students and faculty. Following graduation, Clement clerked for Judge Laurence Silberman of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit and for Associate Justice Antonin Scalia of the Supreme Court of the United States. After his clerkships, he worked as an associate in the Washington, D. C. office of Kirkland & Ellis. Clement went on to serve as Chief Counsel of Subcommittee on the Constitution and Property Rights of the U. S. Senate Judiciary Committee. Afterwards, he was a partner in the Washington, D.
C. office of King & Spalding, where he headed the firm's appellate practice. He served from 1998 to 2004 as an Adjunct Professor at the Georgetown University Law Center, where he taught a seminar on the separation of powers. Clement joined the United States Department of Justice in February 2001. Before his confirmation as Solicitor General, he served as Principal Deputy Solicitor General, he became the acting Solicitor General on July 11, 2004, when Theodore Olson resigned, he has argued over 53 cases before the United States Supreme Court, including McConnell v. FEC, Tennessee v. Lane, Rumsfeld v. Padilla, United States v. Booker, Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, Rumsfeld v. FAIR, Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, Gonzales v. Raich, Gonzales v. Oregon, Gonzales v. Carhart, Hein v. Freedom From Religion Foundation, Sekhar v. United States, he argued many of the key cases in the lower courts involving challenges to the Bush administration's conduct of the war on terrorism. As of November 2011 he had argued more cases before the Supreme Court since 2000 than any other lawyer.
On August 27, 2007, President Bush named Clement as the future acting Attorney General of the United States, to take office upon the resignation of Alberto Gonzales, effective September 17, 2007. According to administration officials, Clement took that office at 12:01 AM September 17, 2007, left office 24 hours later. On September 17, President Bush announced that Assistant Attorney General for the Civil Division, Peter Keisler would become acting Attorney General, pending a permanent appointment of a presidential nominee. Clement gave notice of his resignation on May 14, 2008, effective June 2, 2008, returned to Georgetown University Law Center as a senior fellow, he had been mentioned as a possible Supreme Court candidate in a John McCain presidency, was a coveted potential hire among D. C. legal firms, who vied to build a firm around his expertise in appellate matters. Evan Tager of Mayer Brown said: "Paul Clement is the Holy Grail of law firm recruiting... The buzz in the legal world about Clement is like the buzz in basketball when LeBron James was coming out of high school and turning pro.
It will be interesting to see where the market will go."As of November 20, 2008, Clement re-joined King & Spalding as a partner in its expanding appellate litigation practice. As part of King & Spalding, he argued on behalf of the NRA in the Supreme Court case McDonald v. Chicago on March 2, 2010. Clement was part of the legal team that represented NBA players in labor negotiations during the 2011 lockout. Clement advised 10 NFL players in the spring of 2011 when the NFL was facing a potential lock-out; as a partner at King & Spalding, Clement was hired in April 2011 by the Republican majority in the U. S. House of Representatives to defend the Defense of Marriage Act, a law that defined marriage as between one man and one woman, after the U. S. Department of Justice chose to stop defending it. King & Spalding withdrew from the case on April 25, 2011, Clement resigned from the firm to continue his representation, arguing that "representation should not be abandoned because the client's legal position is unpopular in certain quarters."Clement joined Bancroft PLLC, a boutique law firm led by former Assistant Attorney General Viet D. Dinh.
Clement led the challenge on behalf of 26 states to overturn the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in the Supreme Court on March 26–28, 2012. The Court upheld the "individual mandate" as a tax, but found the States could not be compelled to follow the portion of the law relating to Medicaid expansion. On March 27, 2013, Clement served for the respondent Bipar
Harvard Law Review
The Harvard Law Review is a law review published by an independent student group at Harvard Law School. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the Harvard Law Review's 2015 impact factor of 4.979 placed the journal first out of 143 journals in the category "Law".<re>"Journals Ranked by Impact: Law". 2011 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science. Thomson Reuters. 2012.</ref> It is published monthly from November through June, with the November issue dedicated to covering the previous year's term of the Supreme Court of the United States. The journal publishes the online-only Harvard Law Review Forum, a rolling journal of scholarly responses to the main journal's content; the Harvard Law Review Association, in conjunction with the Columbia Law Review, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, the Yale Law Journal, publishes the Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, a followed authority for legal citation formats in the United States. The Harvard Law Review published its first issue on April 15, 1887, making it one of the oldest operating student-edited law reviews in the United States.
The establishment of the journal was due to the support of Louis Brandeis a recent Harvard Law School alumnus and Boston attorney who would go on to become a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. From the 1880s to the 1970s, editors were selected on the basis of their grades; the first female editor of the journal was Priscilla Holmes. The first female African-American president, ImeIme Umana, was elected in 2017. Gannett House, a white building constructed in the Greek Revival style, popular in New England during the mid-to-late 19th century, has been home to the Harvard Law Review since the 1920s. Before moving into Gannett House, the journal resided in the Law School's Austin Hall. Since the change of criteria in the 1970s, grades are no longer the primary basis of selection for editors. Membership in the Harvard Law Review is offered to select Harvard law students based on first-year grades and performance in a writing competition held at the end of the first year except for twelve slots that are offered on a discretionary basis.
The writing competition includes two components: an edit of an unpublished article and an analysis of a recent United States Supreme Court or Court of Appeals case. The writing competition submissions are graded blindly to assure anonymity. Fourteen editors are selected based on a combination of their first-year grades and their competition scores. Twenty editors are selected based on their competition scores; the remaining twelve editors are selected on a discretionary basis. According to the law review's webpage, "Some of these discretionary slots may be used to implement the Review's affirmative action policy." The president of the Harvard Law Review is elected by the other editors. It has been a long tradition since the first issue, that the works of students published in the Harvard Law Review are called "notes," and they are unsigned as part of a policy reflecting "the fact that many members of the Review besides the author make a contribution to each published piece." Prominent alumni of the Harvard Law Review include: Barack Obama, served as president of volume 104 Stephen Breyer, served as articles editor of volume 77 Felix Frankfurter Ruth Bader Ginsburg, served as editor for one year before transferring to Columbia Law School Elena Kagan, served as supervising editor of volume 99 John G. Roberts, Jr. served as managing editor for volume 92 Antonin Scalia, served as notes editor for volume 73 Edward Sanford David J. Barron, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, served as articles editor Michael Boudin, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, served as president of volume 77 Henry Friendly, late judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, served as president Merrick Garland, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, served as articles editor Harris Hartz, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, served as case and developments editor Ketanji Brown Jackson, judge of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, supervising editor of volume 109.
Gregory G. Katsas, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, executive editor of volume 102. William Kayatta, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit Pierre Leval, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, served as notes editor Debra Ann Livingston, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit James Kenneth Logan, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit Kevin C. Newsom, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, articles editor of volume 110. Nina Pillard, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit James L. Oakes, late judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit Learned Hand, late judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, served as an editor but res
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys