Richmond in the American Civil War
Richmond, served as the capital of the Confederate States of America for the whole of the American Civil War. It was a vital source of weapons and supplies for the war effort, the terminus of five railroads; the Union made many attempts to invade Richmond. In the Peninsula Campaign of 1862, General George McClellan moved up the James River to the suburbs of the city, but was beaten back by Robert E. Lee in the Seven Days Battles. In 1864-5, General U. S. Grant laid siege to nearby Petersburg, whose evacuation by Lee caused the government to flee the capital, which the retreating Confederates left in flames. In the 1860 United States Census, Richmond was the 25th largest urban area in the United States, with a population of 37,910; the city had been the capital of Virginia since 1780. The Confederate States of America was formed in early 1861 from the first states to secede from the Union. Montgomery, was selected as the Confederate capital. After the Confederate Army fired on Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, on April 12, 1861, beginning the Civil War, additional states seceded.
Virginia voted to secede from the Union on April 17, 1861, existed thereafter as an independent republic before joining the Confederacy on June 19, 1861. However, on May 8, 1861, in the Confederate Capital City of Montgomery, the decision was made to name the City of Richmond, Virginia as the new Capital of the Confederacy. Shortly thereafter, in recognition of Virginia's strategic importance, the Confederate capital was moved to Richmond; the Great Seal of the Confederate States of America, adopted April 30, 1863, features a depiction of George Washington based on the Virginia Washington Monument adjacent to the Confederate Capitol building. Richmond remained the capital of the Confederacy until April 2, 1865, at which point the government evacuated and was re-established, albeit in Danville, Virginia. Positioned on the Fall Line along the James River, the city had ready access to an ample supply of hydropower to run mills and factories; the Tredegar Iron Works, sprawling along the James River, supplied high-quality munitions to Confederacy during the war.
The company manufactured railroad steam locomotives in the same period. Tredegar is credited with the production of 10,000 artillery pieces during the war, about half of the South's total domestic production of artillery between the war years of 1861–1865; the foundry made the 723 tons of armor plating that covered the CSS Virginia, which fought the first battle between ironclad warships in March 1862. The Tredegar works were adjacent to the Richmond Arsenal, recommissioned in the lead-up to the war. On Brown's Island, the Confederate States Laboratory was established to consolidate explosives production to an isolated setting in the eventuality of an accidental explosion. Numerous smaller factories in Richmond produced tents, uniforms and leather goods and bayonets, other war material; as the war progressed, the city's warehouses became the supply and logistical center for much of the Confederate forces within the Eastern Theater. Richmond was a transportation hub, it was the terminus of five railroads: the Richmond and Potomac Railroad.
In addition, the James River and Kanawha Canal ran through it with access to the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean. At the fall of Richmond in April 1865, all but the Richmond and Danville Railroad and the canal had been cut off by Union forces. In the late spring of 1862, a large Federal army under Major General George B. McClellan landed on the Virginia Peninsula. McClellan, who had enjoyed early publicity from a series of successes in western Virginia, was assigned the task of seizing and occupying Richmond, his military maneuvers and the resulting battles and engagements became collectively known as the Peninsula Campaign, culminating in the Seven Days Battles. McClellan's starting base was the Union-held Fort Monroe at the eastern tip of the Peninsula. Efforts to take Richmond by the James River were blocked by Confederate defenses at the Battle of Drewry's Bluff on May 15, about eight miles downstream from Richmond; the Union Army advance was halted shortly outside of the city at the Battle of Seven Pines on May 31 and June 1, 1862.
Over a period of seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, Richmond's defensive line of batteries and fortifications set up under General Robert E. Lee, a daring ride around the Union Army by Confederate cavalry under General J. E. B. Stuart, an unexpected appearance of General Stonewall Jackson's famous "foot cavalry" combined to unnerve the ever-cautious McClellan, he initiated a Union retreat before Richmond; as other portions of the South were falling, the failure of the Peninsula Campaign to take Richmond led to three more years of warfare between the states. As a result of its proximity to the battlefields of the Eastern Theater and its high level of defense, the city processed many casualties of both sides: as home to numerous hospitals and various cemeteries. On March 13, 1863, the Confederate Laboratory on Brown's Island was rocked by an explosion that killed dozens of workers. On April 2, 1863, the city was beset by a large bread riot as housewives could no longer afford high food prices and broke into stores.
The riot was organized by a huckster and the mother of a soldier. The militia was called out to end
The Bixby letter is a brief, consoling message sent by President Abraham Lincoln in November 1864 to Lydia Parker Bixby, a widow living in Boston, thought to have lost five sons in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Along with the Gettysburg Address and his second inaugural address, the letter has been praised as one of Lincoln's finest written works and is reproduced in memorials and print. Controversy surrounds the recipient, the fate of her sons, the authorship of the letter. Bixby's character has been questioned, at least two of her sons survived the war, the letter was written by Lincoln's assistant private secretary, John Hay. President Lincoln's letter of condolence was delivered to Lydia Bixby on November 25, 1864 and was printed in the Boston Evening Transcript and Boston Evening Traveller that afternoon; the following is the text of the letter as first published: Executive Mansion, Nov. 21, 1864. Dear Madam, I have been shown in the files of the War Department a statement of the Adjutant General of Massachusetts that you are the mother of five sons who have died gloriously on the field of battle.
I feel how weak and fruitless must be any words of mine which should attempt to beguile you from the grief of a loss so overwhelming. But I cannot refrain from tendering to you the consolation that may be found in the thanks of the Republic they died to save. I pray that our Heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement, leave you only the cherished memory of the loved and lost, the solemn pride that must be yours to have laid so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of Freedom. Yours sincerely and respectfully, A. Lincoln. Mrs. Bixby. Lydia Parker married shoemaker Cromwell Bixby on September 26, 1826, in Massachusetts; the couple had at least six sons and three daughters before Cromwell's death in 1854. Some time before the Civil War and her family settled in Boston. On September 24, 1864, Massachusetts Adjutant General William Schouler wrote to Massachusetts Governor John Albion Andrew about a discharge request sent to the governor by Otis Newhall, the father of five Union soldiers.
In the letter, Schouler recalled how, two years prior, they had helped a poor widow named Lydia Bixby to visit a son, a patient at an Army hospital. About ten days earlier, Bixby had come to Schouler's office claiming that five of her sons had died fighting for the Union. Governor Andrew forwarded Newhall's request to the U. S. War Department with a note requesting that the president honor Bixby with a letter. In response to a War Department request of October 1, Schouler sent a messenger to Bixby's home six days asking for the names and units of her sons, he sent a report to the War Department on October 12, delivered to President Lincoln by Secretary of War Edwin Stanton sometime after October 28. On November 21, both the Boston Evening Traveller and the Boston Evening Transcript published an appeal by Schouler for contributions to assist soldiers' families at Thanksgiving which mentioned a widow who had lost five sons in the war. Schouler had some of the donations given to Bixby and visited her home on Thanksgiving, November 24.
The letter from the President arrived at Schouler's office the next morning. At least two of Lydia Bixby's sons survived the war: Private Arthur Edward Bixby – Company C, 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery. Deserted from Ft. Richardson, Virginia on May 28, 1862. Trying to secure a discharge for him, his mother filed an affidavit on October 17, 1862 which claimed Edward had enlisted underage without her permission. Born July 13, 1843 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Returned to Boston after the war. Sergeant Charles N. Bixby – Company D, 20th Massachusetts Infantry. Killed in action near Fredericksburg. Born c.1841 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Corporal Henry Cromwell Bixby – 1st enlistment, Company G, 20th Massachusetts Infantry. 2nd enlistment, Company K, 32nd Massachusetts Infantry. Captured at Gettysburg and sent to Richmond, Virginia. Paroled on March 7, 1864 at City Point, Virginia. Born March 30, 1830 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Died November 8, 1871 in Milford, from tuberculosis he contracted while a soldier.
Private Oliver Cromwell Bixby, Jr. – Company E, 58th Massachusetts Infantry. Wounded at Spotsylvania on May 12, 1864. Killed in action near Petersburg, Virginia. Born February 1, 1828 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Private George Way Bixby – Company B, 56th Massachusetts Infantry. Enlisted under the name "George Way," to conceal his enlistment from his wife. Captured at Petersburg on July 30, 1864. First held prisoner at Richmond but transferred to Salisbury Prison in North Carolina, arriving there on October 9, 1864, his fate after that remains uncertain. Military records report conflicting accounts of him either dying at Salisbury or deserting to the Confederate Army. Born June 22, 1836 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Schouler's report to the War Department erroneously listed Edward as a member of the 22nd Massachusetts Infantry who had died of his wounds at Folly Island, South Carolina. Bixby may have been trying to conceal—possibly from embarrassment or hope of further financial aid—Edward's 1862 desertion.
At the time of her September meeting with Schouler, Bixby's son George had been a prisoner of war for just over a month, Henry was still hospitalized following his exchange. The War Department failed to use its own records to correct er
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Hampton Roads Conference
The Hampton Roads Conference was a peace conference held between the United States and the Confederate States on February 3, 1865, aboard the steamboat River Queen in Hampton Roads, Virginia, to discuss terms to end the American Civil War. President Abraham Lincoln and Secretary of State William H. Seward, representing the Union, met with three commissioners from the Confederacy: Vice President Alexander H. Stephens, Senator Robert M. T. Hunter, Assistant Secretary of War John A. Campbell; the representatives discussed a possible alliance against France, the possible terms of surrender, the question of whether slavery might persist after the war, the question of whether the South would be compensated for property lost through emancipation. Lincoln and Seward offered some possibilities for compromise on the issue of slavery; the only concrete agreement reached was over prisoner-of-war exchanges. The Confederate commissioners returned to Richmond at the conclusion of the conference. Confederate President Jefferson Davis announced.
Lincoln drafted an amnesty agreement based on terms discussed at the Conference, but met with opposition from his Cabinet. John Campbell continued to advocate for a peace agreement and met again with Lincoln after the fall of Richmond on April 2. In 1864, pressure mounted for both sides to seek a peace settlement to end the long and devastating Civil War. Several people had sought to broker a North–South peace treaty in 1864. Francis Preston Blair, a personal friend of both Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis, had unsuccessfully encouraged Lincoln to make a diplomatic visit to Richmond. Blair had advocated to Lincoln that the war could be brought to a close by having the two opposing sections of the nation stand down in their conflict, reunite on grounds of the Monroe Doctrine in attacking the French-installed Emperor Maximilian in Mexico. Lincoln asked Blair to wait. Davis was pressed for options as the Confederacy faced defeat. Peace movements in the South had been active since the beginning of the war, intensified in 1864.
Alexander H. Stephens, Vice President of the Confederate States, had by 1863 become an active advocate for ending the war. Stephens had begun negotiations with Lincoln in July 1863, but his efforts were thwarted after Confederate defeat in the Battle of Gettysburg. By 1864, Stephens was an outright dissident against the power of Davis's CSA government, was invited by General William T. Sherman to discuss independent peace negotiations between the State of Georgia and the federal Union. Stephens addressed the Confederate States Senate as its nominal presiding officer in Richmond on January 6, 1865, urging peace talks with the North; some Confederate legislators began to agitate for negotiations. John Campbell, another of the peace commissioners, had opposed secession. Campbell served earlier on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1853 to 1861, but began to consider resignation after Lincoln's first inaugural address in March 1861, he stayed on for the spring term of 1861 and supported the Corwin Amendment to protect slavery from federal intervention.
Hoping to prevent a war, Samuel Nelson enlisted Campbell to help broker negotiations over the status of Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor in South Carolina. On March 15, Campbell relayed to Martin Jenkins Crawford a supposed promise from Secretary of State Seward that the federal government would evacuate Fort Sumter within five days; as the Fort remained occupied on March 21, Confederate commissioners pushed Campbell to find out more. Lincoln had ordered the fort resupplied. By April 12th, diplomacy had evidently failed and the Bombardment of Fort Sumter began. Campbell went South. Fearing he would be persecuted as a Union sympathizer in his home state of Alabama, he moved instead to New Orleans. Campbell declined a number of positions in the CSA government, but accepted the post of Assistant Secretary of War in President Davis' cabinet in 1862. For the duration of the job, Campbell was criticized for trying to limit the scope of wartime conscription. By late 1864, he was pushing again for an end to the war.
In an 1865 letter to Judge Benjamin R. Curtis, he described the disastrous state of the Confederacy and marveled: "You would suppose there could be no difficulty in convincing men under such circumstances that peace was required, but when I look back upon the events of the winter, I find that I was incessantly employed in making these facts known and to no result." Lincoln would insist on full sovereignty of the Union. Slavery posed a more difficult problem; the Republican platform in 1864 had explicitly endorsed abolition. Within this precarious political situation, in July 1864 Lincoln issued a statement via Horace Greeley: To Whom It May Concern? Any proposition which embraces the restoration of peace, the integrity of the whole Union, the abandonment of Slavery, which comes by and with authority that can control the armies now at war against the United States, will be received and considered by the Executive Government of the United States, will be met by liberal terms on other substantial and collateral points.
Lincoln confided to James W. Singleton. In Singleton's words: "that he never has and never will present any other ultimatum—that he is misunderstood on the subject of slavery—that it shall not sta
The Gettysburg Address is a speech that U. S. President Abraham Lincoln delivered during the American Civil War at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the Battle of Gettysburg, it is one of the best-known speeches in American history. Although not the day's primary speech, Lincoln's crafted address came to be seen as one of the greatest and most influential statements of American national purpose. In just 271 words, beginning with the now iconic phrase "Four score and seven years ago," referring to the signing of the Declaration of Independence eighty-seven years earlier, Lincoln described the USA as a nation "conceived in Liberty, dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal," and represented the Civil War as a test that would decide whether such a nation, the Union sundered by the secession crisis, could endure.
He extolled the sacrifices of those who died at Gettysburg in defense of those principles, exhorted his listeners to resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. Despite the speech's prominent place in the history and popular culture of the United States, its exact wording is disputed; the five known manuscripts of the Gettysburg Address in Lincoln's hand differ in a number of details, differ from contemporary newspaper reprints of the speech. Neither is it clear. Modern scholarship locates the speakers' platform 40 yards away from the traditional site in Soldiers' National Cemetery at the Soldiers' National Monument, which means that it stood within the private, adjacent Evergreen Cemetery. Following the Battle of Gettysburg on July 1–3, 1863, the removal of the fallen Union soldiers from the Gettysburg Battlefield graves and their reburial in graves at the National Cemetery at Gettysburg began on October 17.
In inviting President Lincoln to the ceremonies, David Wills, of the committee for the November 19 Consecration of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg, wrote, "It is the desire that, after the Oration, you, as Chief Executive of the nation, formally set apart these grounds to their sacred use by a few appropriate remarks."On the train trip from Washington, D. C. to Gettysburg on November 18, Lincoln was accompanied by three members of his Cabinet, William Seward, John Usher and Montgomery Blair, several foreign officials, his secretary John Nicolay, his assistant secretary, John Hay. During the trip Lincoln remarked to Hay. Hay noted that during the speech Lincoln's face had "a ghastly color" and that he was "sad, mournful haggard." After the speech, when Lincoln boarded the 6:30 pm train for Washington, D. C. he was weak, with a severe headache. A protracted illness followed, it thus seems likely that Lincoln was in the prodromal period of smallpox when he delivered the Gettysburg address. The program organized for that day by Wills and his committee included: Music, by Birgfeld's Band Prayer, by Reverend T. H. Stockton, D.
D. Music, by the Marine Band, directed by Francis Scala Oration, by Hon. Edward Everett Music, Hymn by B. B. French, Esq. music by Wilson G Horner, sung by Baltimore Glee Club Dedicatory Remarks, by the President of the United States Dirge, sung by Choir selected for the occasion Benediction, by Reverend H. L. Baugher, D. D. While it is Lincoln's short speech that has gone down in history as one of the finest examples of English public oratory, it was Everett's two-hour oration, slated to be the "Gettysburg address" that day, his now seldom-read 13,607-word oration began: Standing beneath this serene sky, overlooking these broad fields now reposing from the labors of the waning year, the mighty Alleghenies dimly towering before us, the graves of our brethren beneath our feet, it is with hesitation that I raise my poor voice to break the eloquent silence of God and Nature. But the duty to which you have called me must be performed, and ended two hours with: But they, I am sure, will join us in saying, as we bid farewell to the dust of these martyr-heroes, that wheresoever throughout the civilized world the accounts of this great warfare are read, down to the latest period of recorded time, in the glorious annals of our common country, there will be no brighter page than that which relates the Battles of Gettysburg.
Lengthy dedication addresses like Everett's were common at cemeteries in this era. The tradition began in 1831 when Justice Joseph Story delivered the dedication address at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts; those addresses linked cemeteries to the mission of Union. Lincoln's address followed the oration by Edward Everett, who subsequently included a copy of the Gettysburg Address in his 1864 book about the event (Address of the Hon. Edward Everett At the Consecration of the National Cemetery At Gettysburg, 19th November 1863, with the Dedicatory Speech of President Lincoln, the Other Exercises of the Occasion.
Habeas Corpus Suspension Act (1863)
The Habeas Corpus Suspension, 12 Stat. 755, entitled An Act relating to Habeas Corpus, regulating Judicial Proceedings in Certain Cases, was an Act of Congress that authorized the president of the United States to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus in response to the American Civil War and provided for the release of political prisoners. It began in the House of Representatives as an indemnity bill, introduced on December 5, 1862, releasing the president and his subordinates from any liability for having suspended habeas corpus without congressional approval; the Senate amended the House's bill, the compromise reported out of the conference committee altered it to qualify the indemnity and to suspend habeas corpus on Congress's own authority. Abraham Lincoln signed the bill into law on March 3, 1863, suspended habeas corpus under the authority it granted him six months later; the suspension was lifted with the issuance of Proclamation 148 by Andrew Johnson, the Act became inoperative with the end of the Civil War.
The exceptions to his Proclamation 148 were the States of Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, the District of Columbia, the Territories of New Mexico and Arizona. At the outbreak of the American Civil War in April 1861, Washington, D. C. was undefended, rioters in Baltimore, Maryland threatened to disrupt the reinforcement of the capital by rail, Congress was not in session. The military situation made it dangerous to call Congress into session. Abraham Lincoln, the president of the United States, therefore authorized his military commanders to suspend the writ of habeas corpus between Washington, D. C. and Philadelphia. Numerous individuals were arrested, including John Merryman and a number of Baltimore police commissioners; when Judge William Fell Giles of the United States District Court for the District of Maryland issued a writ of habeas corpus, the commander of Fort McHenry, Major W. W. Morris, wrote in reply, "At the date of issuing your writ, for two weeks previous, the city in which you live, where your court has been held, was under the control of revolutionary authorities."Merryman's lawyers appealed, in early June 1861, U.
S. Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger Taney, writing as the United States Circuit Court for Maryland, ruled in ex parte Merryman that Article I, section 9 of the United States Constitution reserves to Congress the power to suspend habeas corpus and thus that the president's suspension was invalid; the rest of the Supreme Court had nothing to do with Merryman, the other two Justices from the South, John Catron and James Moore Wayne acted as Unionists. The President's advisers said it was ignored; when Congress was called into special session, July 4, 1861, President Lincoln issued a message to both houses defending his various actions, including the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, arguing that it was both necessary and constitutional for him to have suspended it without Congress. Early in the session, Senator Henry Wilson introduced a joint resolution "to approve and confirm certain acts of the President of the United States, for suppressing insurrection and rebellion", including the suspension of habeas corpus.
Senator Lyman Trumbull, the Republican chairman of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, had reservations about its imprecise wording, so the resolution opposed by anti-war Democrats, was never brought to a vote. On July 17, 1861, Trumbull introduced a bill to suppress insurrection and sedition which included a suspension of the writ of habeas corpus upon Congress's authority; that bill was not brought to a vote before Congress ended its first session on August 6, 1861 due to obstruction by Democrats, on July 11, 1862, the Senate Committee on the Judiciary recommended that it not be passed during the second session, but its proposed habeas corpus suspension section formed the basis of the Habeas Corpus Suspension Act. In September 1861 the arrests continued, including a sitting member of Congress from Maryland, Henry May, along with one third of the Maryland General Assembly, Lincoln expanded the zone within which the writ was suspended; when Lincoln's dismissal of Justice Taney's ruling was criticized in an editorial that month by a prominent Baltimore newspaper editor Frank Key Howard, Francis Scott Key's grandson and Justice Taney's grand-nephew by marriage, he was himself arrested by federal troops without trial.
He was imprisoned in Fort McHenry, which, as he noted, was the same fort where the Star Spangled Banner had been waving "o'er the land of the free" in his grandfather's song. In early 1862 Lincoln took a step back from the suspension of habeas corpus controversy. On February 14, he ordered all political prisoners released, with some exceptions and offered them amnesty for past treason or disloyalty, so long as they did not aid the Confederacy. In March 1862 Congressman Henry May, released in December 1861, introduced a bill requiring the federal government to either indict by grand jury or release all other "political prisoners" still held without habeas corpus. May's bill passed the House in summer 1862, it would be included in the Habeas Corpus Suspension Act, which would require actual indictments for suspected traitors. Seven months faced with opposition to his calling up of th
Rockingham County, Virginia
Rockingham County is a county located in the U. S. state of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 76,314, its county seat is the independent city of Harrisonburg. Along with Harrisonburg, Rockingham County forms the Harrisonburg, VA, Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is home of the Rockingham County Baseball League. Settlement of the county began in 1727, when Adam Miller staked out a claim on the south fork of the Shenandoah River, near the line that now divides Rockingham County from Page County. On a trip through eastern Virginia, the German-born Miller had heard reports about a lush valley to the west, discovered by Governor Alexander Spotswood's legendary Knights of the Golden Horseshoe Expedition, moved his family down from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. In 1741, Miller purchased 820 acres, including a large lithia spring, near Elkton and lived on this property for the remainder of his life. Much-increased settlement of this portion of the Colony of Virginia by Europeans began in the 1740s and 1750s.
Standing between the Tidewater and Piedmont regions to the east in Virginia and the Shenandoah Valley and the area beyond were the Blue Ridge Mountains. Rather than cross such a formidable physical barrier, most early settlers came southerly up the valley across the Potomac River from Maryland and Pennsylvania. Many followed the Great Wagon Trail known as the Valley Pike. Rockingham County was established in 1778 from Augusta County. Harrisonburg was named as the county seat and incorporated as a town in 1780. Harrisonburg was incorporated as a city in 1916 and separated from Rockingham County, but it remains the county seat; the county is named for 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, a British statesman. He was Prime Minister of Great Britain twice, a keen supporter of constitutional rights for the colonists. During his first term, he brought about the repeal of the Stamp Act of 1765, reducing the tax burden on the colonies. Appointed again in 1782, upon taking office, he backed the claim for the independence of the Thirteen Colonies, initiating an end to British involvement in the American Revolutionary War.
However, he died after only 14 weeks in office. By 1778, it was unusual to honor British officials in Virginia; the same year to the north of Rockingham County, Dunmore County, named for Virginia's last Royal Governor, John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, an unpopular figure, was renamed. The new name, Shenandoah County, used a Native American name. However, long their political supporter in the British Parliament, the Marquess of Rockingham was a popular figure with the citizens of the new United States. Named in his honor were Rockingham County, New Hampshire, Rockingham County, North Carolina, the City of Rockingham in Richmond County, North Carolina. Rockingham County is the birthplace of Abraham Lincoln's father. In 1979 when the Adolf Coors Brewing Company came to Rockingham County it caused an uproar. In 2018, a series of strikes and protests were held in Dayton's Cargill plant. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 853 square miles, of which 849 square miles is land and 4.3 square miles is water.
It is the third-largest county in Virginia by land area. Large portions of the county fall within the Shenandoah National Park to the east and George Washington National Forest to the west, therefore are subject to development restrictions; the county stretches west to east from the peaks of eastern-most Alleghany mountains to the peaks of the Blue Ridge mountains, encompassing the entire width of the Shenandoah Valley. Rockingham is bisected by another geographic formation, Massanutten Mountain stretching from just east of Harrisonburg, VA to a few miles southwest of Front Royal, VA in Warren County, VA. Massanutten Mountain splits the central Shenandoah Valley as the German River and the North Fork Shenandoah River flow on its western side and the South Fork flows on the eastern. George Washington National Forest Shenandoah National Park As of the census of 2000, 67,725 people, 25,355 households, 18,889 families resided in the county; the population density was 80 people per square mile. There were 27,328 housing units at an average density of 32 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 96.58% White, 1.36% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.90% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races. About 3.28 % of the population were Latino of any race. Of 25,355 households, 32.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.40% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.50% were not families. About 21.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was distributed as 24.60% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,748, for a family was $46,262.
Males had a median income of $30,618 versus $21,896 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,795. About