Increase Mather was a powerful Puritan clergyman in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and was president of Harvard College for twenty years. He was influential in the administration of the colony during a time that coincided with the notorious Salem witch trials. Mather was born in Dorchester, Massachusetts Bay Colony, on June 21, 1639 to the Rev. Richard Mather and Kathrine Holt Mather, following their participation in the Great Migration from England due to their nonconformity to the Church of England, he was the youngest of six brothers, the others being Samuel, Eleazar and Timothy. Samuel and Eleazar became ministers. In 1651 Mather was admitted to Harvard College, where he roomed with and studied under Robert Massey; when he graduated in 1656, aged 17, with a B. A. he began to train for the ministry, gave his first sermon on his 18th birthday. He left Massachusetts and went to Ireland, where he studied at Trinity College, Dublin for an M. A. During his time at Trinity College he was licensed as a Commonwealth Minister by Oliver Cromwell to the joint charge of St Tida's Church, St Swithan's Church.
He graduated in 1658, worked as a chaplain attached to a garrison in the Channel Islands from 1659 to 1661 with a short stint at a church in Gloucester in 1660. After Cromwell's death in 1658, Mather felt less secure in his post in the Channel Islands due to Charles II's return to the throne, he resigned the position in 1660 and sailed for Boston in 1661. Harvard awarded Mather the first honorary degree in the New World, becoming a Doctor of Sacred Theology, in 1692. In 1661, with the advent of the English Restoration and resurgence of Anglicanism, Increase returned to Massachusetts, where he married Maria Cotton, she was his step-sister by virtue of his father's marriage to Sarah Hankredge, widow of John Cotton and mother of Maria. She gave birth to Cotton Mather in 1663. In 1676, he published A Brief History of the War with the Indians in New-England, a contemporary account of King Philip's War, he was ordained as minister of the North Church, He held this post. In his Autobiography, Increase Mather writes that he was President of Harvard, from 1681 until 1701, but due to charter and organizational changes, his official title varied.
On June 11, 1685, he was made Acting President and on July 23, 1686, he was appointed Rector. On June 27, 1692, he became president. On September 5, 1692, while the Salem trials were still ongoing, Increase Mather was awarded a doctorate of divinity, the first doctorate issued at Harvard, the last for 79 years, he was present on campus or in the town during his term of Rector as he was out of the Colony for all but two years of his term in that office. Despite his absences he did make some changes: re-implementation of Greek and Hebrew instruction, replacement of classical Roman authors with Biblical and Christian authors in ethics classes, enactment of requirements that students attend classes live and eat on campus, that seniors not haze other students. While politics and Puritan religion were related during Increase's lifetime, his first direct involvement with politics occurred as a result of James II of England's manipulation of the New England governments. In 1686 James revoked the Charter of Massachusetts in the process of creating the Dominion of New England.
The Dominion was headed by Edmund Andros, who not only disliked puritanism and was haughty, but ruled as a near absolute dictator: Town meetings were outlawed, leaving the Dominion without consent of the governed, marriage was removed from the clergy, the Old South Church was temporarily appropriated for Anglican services. The 1687 Declaration of Indulgence, prohibiting discrimination against Catholics, saw staunch opposition from the Puritan establishment; when Mather roused opposition to revocation of the charter, he was nearly framed for treason. He traveled to London to petition the King. While engaged in petitioning he published pieces to build popular support for his positions, such as A Narrative of the Miseries of New-England, By Reason of an Arbitrary Government Erected there Under Sir Edmund Andros and A Brief Relation for the Confirmation of Charter Privileges, he attempted to obtain a royal charter for Harvard. Following the Glorious Revolution and subsequent overthrow of Andros, a new charter was granted to the colony.
The 1692 charter was a major departure from its predecessor, granting sweeping home rule, establishing an elective legislature, enfranchising all freeholders, uniting the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Plymouth Colony. Following Andros' deposition and arrest, he had William Phips appointed as Royal Governor and they returned to Massachusetts, arriving on May 14, 1692. Following his return, the administration of Harvard grew insistent that he reside nearer to the institution. Not wanting to leave his Second Church, he did not do so, resigned the Presidency. In 1681, the same year he became president of Harvard, Increase Mather began work on a manuscript, to be a collection of "illustrious providences" and he solicited contributions from the other Puritan ministers; this work demonstrated a belated interest in witchcraft relative to the European continent, where witch trials had gone into a steep decline after reaching "peak intensity during the century 1570-1670" but this reflected a similar be
Thomas Danforth was a politician and landowner in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. A conservative Puritan, he served for many years as one of the colony's councilors and magistrates leading opposition to attempts by the English kings to assert control over the colony, he accumulated land in the central part of the colony that became a portion of Framingham, Massachusetts. His government roles included administration of territory in present-day Maine, purchased by the colony. Danforth was a magistrate and leading figure in the colony at the time of the Salem witch trials, but did not sit on the Court of Oyer and Terminer. Despite this, he is inaccurately depicted in Arthur Miller's play The Crucible and its movie adaptations as doing so, he is presented as a harsh and domineering governor conflated with William Stoughton, who does not appear in Miller's play. In reality, Danforth is recorded as being critical of the conduct of the trials, played a role in bringing them to an end. Thomas Danforth was born in Framlingham, Suffolk and baptized on November 20, 1623.
He was the eldest son of Elizabeth Symmes. Danforth immigrated with his father, brothers Samuel and Jonathan, sisters Anna and Lydia to New England in 1634 aboard the Griffin; the family, along with the 200 or so other passengers aboard, left England to escape persecution for their Puritan beliefs. William Laud had become archbishop of the Church of England in 1633 and begun a crackdown on Nonconformist religious practices that prompted a wave of migration to the New World. Soon after his arrival in the Massachusetts Bay Colony Nicholas Danforth acquired property in Cambridge, becoming one of the town's leading citizens and a member of the colony's general court, he died in 1638, leaving the care of his younger children to Thomas. In 1643 Danforth was admitted a freeman of the colony, which conferred on him the right to vote and to participate in the colony's political affairs, he was appointed Treasurer of Harvard College in its charter of 1650, served as a steward of the college from 1669 to 1682.
From 1659 he sat on the colony's council of assistants, was elected deputy governor in 1679. In 1665 Danforth was member of a commission that oversaw the extension of Massachusetts colonial authority over the territories of what is now southern Maine, which colonial surveyors had determined to fall within its borders. Danforth's politics and religion were conservative, with one historian describing him as "the Pym of Massachusetts politics". In 1661 the colony was rebuked by King Charles II for its mistreatment of Quakers; the king in his letter demanded that the colony allow Quakers and others freedom of religious expression. Danforth was one member of a committee, established to formulate a response; the document the committee drafted was a conservative declaration that the colonial government was sovereign except where its laws conflicted with English law. Two committee members, magistrate Simon Bradstreet and minister John Norton, were sent to England to argue the colony's case; when King Philip's War broke out in 1675, Danforth was involved in some of the events of the war.
Many colonists distrusted the Praying Indians, some of whom were attacked by mobs of English settlers seeking revenge for attacks on their communities. Danforth, along with Daniel Gookin and the Indian missionary Reverend John Eliot, was a vocal supporter of the Praying Indians, worked to prevent some of these excesses, at some personal risk. In one notable instance Danforth was aboard a small boat with other colonial officials in Boston Harbor en route to Long Island to inspect facilities for Praying Indians, relocated their "for their own safety" when a nearby ship intentionally rammed the smaller vessel. No one was injured in the incident, but all of the older officials were dunked in the cold waters of the harbor. In 1680 Danforth was chosen president in the District of Maine by the Massachusetts assembly; the colony had governed this territory, but its right to do so had been stripped by King Charles after protests by the heirs of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, who had long-standing claims to the area.
Agents for Massachusetts purchased the territory from the Gorges heirs, Danforth was appointed to administer it. The territory had been devastated and many properties abandoned during King Philip's War, Danforth acted in effect as a Lord Proprietor, making land grants and reestablishing towns such as Falmouth and North Yarmouth. Danforth was rewarded by the colony with a grant of an island in Casco Bay for this work, which he oversaw until 1686. Throughout the 1670s the Massachusetts leadership steadfastly refused to make changes to its administration that were demanded by King Charles. At the instigation of agent Edward Randolph, Charles made specific demands concerning freedom of religion and adherence to colonial trade regulati
Cultural depictions of the Salem witch trials
Cultural depictions of the Salem witch trials abound in art and popular media in the United States, from the early 19th century to the present day. The literary and dramatic depictions are discussed in Marion Gibson's Witchcraft Myths in American Culture and see Bernard Rosenthal's Salem Story: Reading the Witch Trials of 1692 Rachel Dyer, by John Neal American poet John Greenleaf Whittier wrote many poems about the events, starting with "The Weird Gathering", "Calef in Boston", about the public debates between Robert Calef and Cotton Mather in the aftermath of the trials. Young Goodman Brown is a short story published in 1835 by Nathaniel Hawthorne The Salem Belle: A Tale of 1692, anonymous. Tappan & Dennett, Boston, 1842. See: copy at the Internet Archive Witching Times, by John William DeForest Lois the Witch, a novella by Elizabeth Gaskell, is based on the Salem witch hunts and depicts how jealousy and sexual desire can lead to hysteria, she was inspired by the story of Rebecca Nurse whose accusation and execution are described in Lectures on Witchcraft, by Charles W. Upham, the Unitarian minister in Salem in the 1830s.
Historical figure Cotton Mather makes an appearance in the story. Giles Corey of the Salem Farms, a play by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Salem: A Tale of the Seventeenth Century, a historical novel by D. R. Castleton See: copy at the Internet Archive "Giles Corey, Yeoman", a play by Mary E. Wilkins Freeman The Witch of Salem, or Credulity Run Mad', by John R. Musick. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1893. Historical fiction set during the witchcraft trials. Copy at the Internet Archive Ye lyttle Salem maide, a story of witchcraft, a novel by Pauline Bradford Mackie, Wolffe and Co. Boston, 1898. See: copy at the Internet Archive The Witch Hunter's Wards. 151, April 24, 1901. Dulcibel: A tale of old Salem by Henry Peterson, Philadelphia: John C. Winston, 1907. Historical fiction. Various stories by H. P. Lovecraft are set in the fictional town of Arkham, said to have been founded by refugees from the Salem trials. For example, in The Dreams in the Witch-House, the witch Keziah Mason is said to have fled Salem.
A Witch of Salem: Grand Opera in Two Acts, book by Nelle Richmond Eberhart, music by Charles Wakefield Cadman A Mirror for Witches by Newbery Medal-winning author Esther Forbes Road to Endor by Esther Hammand The Devil in Boston, translated by June Barrows Mussey from the original German "Wahn oder Der Teufel in Boston", a play by Lion Feuchtwanger, a German-Jewish writer in exile in the US. Main characters are Feuchtwanger's adaptation of Elizabeth Parris. Depicts the dynamics of the witch hunt and the interests of the Mathers. A fictional character represents; the Crucible, a play by Arthur Miller, uses the trial events to reflect on the actions of the House Committee on Unamerican Activities and Senator Joe McCarthy. Tituba of Salem Village, a children's book by Ann Petry; the Crucible, an opera by Robert Ward, based on the 1952 play by Arthur Miller. The Pariah by Graham Masterton takes place in Salem and attributes the trials to the presence of the Aztec demon Mictlantecuhtli. Witches' Children, a young adult novel by Patricia Clapp, told from the perspective of Mary Warren, one of the young accusers.
I, Tituba: Black Witch of Salem, translated from the original French Moi, sorcière noire de Salem, by Maryse Condé, Condé imagines Tituba's childhood and old age, endows her with a contemporary social consciousness, allows her to narrate the tale. ISBN 978-0-345-38420-1 A Break with Charity, a young adult novel by Ann Rinaldi, takes the Salem trials as its main setting; the Secret Circle Trilogy is a young adult book series by L. J. Smith, which takes place in New Salem; the series focuses on Cassie Blake, a 16-year-old girl, drawn to a group of high school teenagers who are witches and are hunted by witch hunters. Acceptable Risk, an adult medical thriller novel by Robin Cook, with a plot that attributes the afflictions in Salem to an unusual mold, rediscovered by present-day medical researchers. Beyond the Burning Time, a young adult novel by Kathryn Lasky, which depicts the trials through the eyes of a fictional young woman, Mary Chase. Gallows Hill by Lois Duncan is young-adult fiction in which main character Sarah, many others, turn out to be reincarnations of those accused and killed during the trials.
In the Doctor Who Past Doctor Adventures novel The Witch Hunters by Steve Lyons, the First Doctor, his granddaughter Susan Foreman and their companions Ian Chesterton and Barbara Wright visit Salem in the midst of the witch trials. Historical figures such as Reverend Samuel Parris, Rebecca Nurse, Abigail Williams, Ann Putnam, Jr. and John Proctor are major characters in the novel. Both the third and fourth books in the Harry Potter series make slight references to the Salem trials; the trials are further described in the Pottermore website. Dorcas Good, The Diary of a Salem Witch by Rose Earhart, is a fictional diary of remembrance by an adult character, based on her imprisonment as a child during the witchcraft trials
Andover is a town in Essex County, United States. It was settled in 1642 and incorporated in 1646; as of the 2010 census, the population was 33,201. It is part of the Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, Massachusetts-New Hampshire metropolitan statistical area. Part of the town comprises the census-designated place of Andover, it is twinned with its namesake: Andover, England. In 1642, the Massachusetts General Court set aside a portion of land in what is now Essex County for an inland plantation, including parts of what is now Andover, North Andover and South Lawrence. In order to encourage settlement, early colonists were offered three years' immunity from taxes and services; the first permanent settlement in the Andover area was established in 1642 by John Woodbridge and a group of settlers from Newbury and Ipswich. Shortly after they arrived, they purchased a piece of land from the local Pennacook tribal chief Cutshamache for "six pounds of currency and a coat" and on the condition that Roger, a local Pennacook man, would be allowed to plant his corn and take alewives from a local water source.
Roger's Brook, a small stream which cuts through the eastern part of town, is named in his honor. In May 1646 the settlement was named Andover; this name was chosen in honor of the town of Andover in England, near the original home of some of the first residents. The first recorded town meeting was held in 1656 in the home of settler John Osgood in what is now North Andover; the old burying ground in what is now North Andover marks the center of the early town. Contrary to popular belief, the towns split due to the location of the Old North Church located in what is now North Andover; the villagers from the southwestern part of the town were tired of walking all the way to the extreme north of what was Andover and decided to build their own South Church central to what is now Andover. Early on the general populace was concentrated together around the Old Center for protection from feared Indian attacks, but the Indians were peaceful until the outbreak of King Philip's War. King Philip Six Indian raids occurred with the last in 1698 led by Chief Escumbuit.
During the 1692 Salem witch trials, Andover resident Joseph Ballard asked for help for his wife from several girls in the neighboring Salem Village who were identifying witches there. After visiting Elizabeth Ballard, the girls claimed that several people in Andover had bewitched her: Ann Foster, her daughter Mary Lacey Sr. and her granddaughter Mary Lacey Jr. During the course of the legal proceedings, more than 40 Andover citizens women and their children, were formally accused of having made a covenant with the Devil. Three Andover residents, Martha Carrier, Mary Parker, Samuel Wardwell, were convicted and executed. Five others either pleaded guilty at arraignment or were convicted at trial: Ann Foster, Mary Lacey Sr. and Abigail Faulkner Sr. in 1692 and Wardwell's wife Sarah and Rev. Dane's granddaughter, Elizabeth Johnson Jr. in 1693. Those who were not executed were granted reprieves by Gov. William Phips, but the convictions remained on their records. In 1713, in response to petitions initiated in 1703 by Abigail Faulkner Sr. and Sarah Wardwell, Massachusetts Governor Joseph Dudley reversed the attainder on the names of those who were convicted in the episode.
By 1705, Andover's population had begun to move southward and the idea of a new meeting house in the south end of town was proposed. This was opposed by the people living near the original meeting house in the north, but the dispute was settled in 1709 when the Great and General Court divided Andover into two parishes and South. After the division of the two parishes, South Andover established the South Church and South Parish "Burying-Yard," as it was called, with early Andover settler Robert Russell the first to be interred at age 80 in December 1710, but despite this split, the town remained politically one unit. For many years Andover was geographically one of the largest towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In 1854, a measure was passed to divide the town into two separate political units according to the old parish boundaries; the name Andover was assumed by the West and South parishes, while the name North Andover was given to the North Parish. How those names were decided upon is still debated to this day, from the reasons being money being paid to one town to keep the name, to there being a controversy over a fire truck affecting the name change.
Records show that on the morning of April 19, 1775 350 Andover men marched toward Lexington. Although they did not arrive in time for the battle that day, they did go on to participate in the battle of Bunker Hill two months and fought in subsequent skirmishes with the Redcoats during the war. Among the Andover men who were representatives to the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1779–1780 were Colonel Samuel Osgood, Zebadiah Abbot, John Farnum and Samuel Phillips Jr.. Phillips – who would go on to found Phillips Academy – was appointed by John Adams to help draft the Massachusetts state constitution. During the burning of Charlestown Andover townspeople hiked to the top of Holt Hill to witness it. Holt Hill is the highest point in Essex County at 420 ft and is part of the Charles W. Ward Reservation. In November 1798, David Brown led a group in Dedham, Massachusetts in setting up a liberty pole with the words, "No Stamp Act, No Sedition Act, No Alien Bills, No Land Tax, downfall to the Tyrants of Amer
William Stoughton (judge)
William Stoughton was a colonial magistrate and administrator in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. He was in charge of what have come to be known as the Salem Witch Trials, first as the Chief Justice of the Special Court of Oyer and Terminer in 1692, as the Chief Justice of the Superior Court of Judicature in 1693. In these trials he controversially accepted spectral evidence. Unlike some of the other magistrates, he never admitted to the possibility that his acceptance of such evidence was in error. After graduating from Harvard College in 1650, he continued religious studies in England, where he preached. Returning to Massachusetts in 1662, he chose to enter politics instead of the ministry. An adept politician, he served in every government through the period of turmoil in Massachusetts that encompassed the revocation of its first charter in 1684 and the introduction of its second charter in 1692, including the unpopular rule of Sir Edmund Andros in the late 1680s, he served as lieutenant governor of the province from 1692 until his death in 1701, acting as governor for about six years.
He was one of the province's major landowners, partnering with Joseph Dudley and other powerful figures in land purchases, it was for him that the town of Stoughton, Massachusetts was named. William Stoughton was born in 1631 to Elizabeth Knight Stoughton; the exact location of his birth is uncertain, because there is no known birth or baptismal record for him, the date when his parents migrated from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony is not known with precision. What is known is that by 1632 the Stoughtons were in the colony, where they were early settlers of Dorchester, Massachusetts. Stoughton graduated from Harvard College in 1650 with a degree in theology, he intended to become a Puritan minister and traveled to England, where he continued his studies in New College, Oxford. He graduated with an M. A. in theology in 1653. Stoughton was a pious preacher who believed in the "Lord's promise and expectations of great things." England was at the time under Puritan Commonwealth Rule, although 1653 was the year Oliver Cromwell dissolved Parliament, beginning The Protectorate.
Stoughton preached in Sussex, after Charles II was restored to the throne in 1660, Stoughton lost his position in the crackdown on religious dissenters that followed. With little prospect for another position in England, Stoughton returned to Massachusetts in 1662, he preached on several occasions at Dorchester and Cambridge, but refused offers of permanent ministerial posts. He instead became involved in politics and land development, he served on the colony's council of assistants every year from 1671 to 1686, represented the colony in the New England Confederation from 1673 to 1677 and 1680 to 1686. In the 1684 election, Joseph Dudley, labelled as an enemy of the colony for his moderate position on colonial charter issues, failed to win reelection to the council. Stoughton, reelected by a small majority and was a friend and business partner of Dudley, refused to serve in protest. In 1676 he was chosen, along with Peter Bulkley, to be an agent representing colonial interests in England, their instructions were narrowly tailored.
They were authorized to acquire land claims from the heirs of Sir Ferdinando Gorges and John Mason that conflicted with some Massachusetts land claims in present-day Maine. These they acquired for £1,200, incurring the anger of Charles II, who had intended to acquire those claims for the Duke of York, they were unsuccessful in maintaining broader claims made by Massachusetts against other territories of Maine and the Province of New Hampshire. Their limited authority upset the Lords of Trade, who sought to have the colonial laws modified to conform to their policies; the mission of Stoughton and Bulkley did little more than antagonize colonial officials in London because of their hardline stance. For many years Stoughton and Joseph Dudley were friends, as well as political and business partners; the two worked together politically, engaged in land development together. In the 1680s Stoughton acquired significant amounts of land from the Nipmuc tribe in what is now Worcester County in partnership with Dudley.
The partnership included a venture. Dudley and Stoughton used their political positions to ensure that the titles to lands they were interested in were judicially cleared, a practice that benefited their friends and other business partners. Concerning this practice, Crown agent Edward Randolph wrote that it was "impossible to bring titles of land to trial before them where his Majesties's rights are concerned, the Judges being parties." This was obvious when Stoughton and Dudley were part of a venture to acquire 1 million acres of land in the Merrimack River valley. Dudley's council, on which Stoughton and other investors sat, formally cleared that land's title in May 1686; when Dudley was commissioned in 1686 to temporarily head the Dominion of New England, Stoughton was appointed to his council, he was elected by the council as the deputy president. During the administration of Sir Edmund Andros he served on the council; as a magistrate he was harsh on the town leaders of Ipswich, who had organized tax protests against the dominion government, based on the claim that dominion rule without representation violated the Rights of Englishmen.
When Andros was arrested in April 1689 in a bloodless uprising inspired by the 1688 Glorious Revolut
Mercy Lewis was an accuser during the Salem Witch Trials. She was born in Maine. Mercy Lewis, formally known as Mercy Allen, was the child of Mary Lewis. Lewis was a refugee seeking out protection after an attack on her village, her family stayed in Casco Bay, an inlet of the Gulf of Maine, New England, United States, with other refugees. Rev. George Burroughs, a Puritan minister who served in Salem, Massachusetts from 1680–83, was among one of the surviving members of the attack brought on by the Native Americans. After settling in Salem, Mercy Lewis's uncle, Thomas Skilling, died from an injury brought on by the attack. In 1683, the Lewis family traveled back to the island in Casco Bay; the second attack of the Native Americans in 1689 resulted in the death of Mercy's parents and made her an orphan. On September 30, 1689, an attack by Native Americans killed her grandparents, aunts and most of her cousins; as a result, the 14-year-old Mercy was placed as a servant in the household of Rev. Burroughs.
By 1691, she had moved to Salem. Lewis played a crucial role during the Salem witch trials in 1692, when 20 people were executed for witchcraft, including her former master, George Burroughs. Like the accusation placed on Elizabeth Proctor on March 26, 1692, Mercy was accountable for hindering Mary Eastey's release from prosecution and eventual execution after all other charges against Eastey had been dropped. Accusations were made against Elizabeth Proctor that she tormented both Abigail Williams and Mercy Lewis in their homes, it is reported that Mercy Lewis was a victim of child abuse after statements were taken from witnesses such as Abigail Williams and Thomas Putnam. As a member of the Putnam household, Lewis became friends with Ann Putnam, Jr. and her cousin Mary Walcott. Putnam and Walcott's accusations would help launch the witch hysteria. In early April 1692, Lewis claimed that Satan had appeared to her, offering her "gold and many fine things" if she would write in his book. However, it was reported.
One record stated that Lewis had a violent seizure on May 7, 1692, after experiencing torture and threats from Burroughs. This act was brought on by Lewis's refusal to printing her name in a book Reverend Burroughs owned in order to state her allegiance to him. Lewis accused Mary Esty, sister of Rebecca Nurse, who would be tried and hanged. Others accused by Lewis include Giles Corey, Bridget Bishop, Susannah Martin, John Willard, Sarah Wildes. Lewis was the subject of accusations. Ann Putnam Jr. claimed. After the trials, Mercy moved to Boston to live with her aunt. There she bore an illegitimate son. By 1701, she had married a Mr. Allen in Boston. Lewis is one of the featured characters in Arthur Miller's play, she is a character in the 2014 TV series Salem, portrayed by Elise Eberle. Porpentina Goldstein used Mercy Lewis’ name as an expression of surprise and shock in the movie Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them. Boyer, Paul. Salem possessed the social origins of witchcraft. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
ISBN 978-0674785267. Hale, John. A modest enquiry into the nature of witchcraft. Bedford, Mass.: Applewood Books. ISBN 978-1557091826. Karlsen, Carol F.. The devil in the shape of a woman: witchcraft in colonial New England. New York, NY: Norton. ISBN 978-0393317596. Norton, Mary Beth. In the devil's snare: the Salem witchcraft crisis of 1692. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0965460972. Rosenthal, Bernard. Salem story: reading the witch trials of 1692. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0521440615. Torrey, Clarence Almon. New England marriages prior to 1700. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0806311029. Upham, Charles W.. Salem Witchcraft at Project Gutenberg
John Hale (minister)
John Hale referred to as "Reverend Hale", was the Puritan pastor of Beverly, during the Salem witch trials in 1692. He was one of the most prominent and influential ministers associated with the witch trials, being noted as having supported the trials and changing his mind and publishing a critique of them. John Hale was born on June 1636, in Charlestown, Massachusetts; the oldest child of Robert Hale, a blacksmith, he was educated at Harvard College in Cambridge, graduating in 1657. He began preaching in Bass-river-side called Beverly, about 1664, was ordained as the first minister of the parish church there on September 20, 1667, when the congregation formally separated from Salem, he remained until his death in 1700, he married his first wife, Rebecca Byly, on December 15, 1664, she died April 13, 1683, at the age of forty-five. As a child, Hale had witnessed the execution of Margaret Jones, the first of 15 people to be executed for witchcraft in New England, between 1648–1663, he was present at the examinations and trials of various people who were accused of witchcraft in the Salem witch trials of 1692, supported the work of the court.
However, on November 14, 1692, 17-year-old Mary Herrick accused his second wife, Sarah Noyes Hale, the ghost of executed Mary Eastey of afflicting her, but his wife was never formally charged or arrested. A commentator on the trials, Charles Upham suggests that this accusation was one that helped turn public opinion to end the prosecutions, spurred Hale's willingness to reconsider his support of the trials. In Arthur Miller's 1953 play The Crucible, a fictional portrayal of Hale appears in Act I in a request from Samuel Parris that he examine his daughter, Betty Parris. Hale's quick visit to help with Betty causes him to become one of the main characters in the play. Hale is depicted as a young minister who has devoted most of his life to the study of witchcraft and other demonic arts in the hope of being able to destroy them in the name of God, he has found a'witch' in his home town of Beverly, where he preaches. Hale is the minister in charge of discovering who has marks of the Devil for the witch trials and is the advocate against them.
As a devout Christian, Hale sees it as his duty to seek out the witches, to'save their souls'. Hale, after seeing the horrors of the witch trials and watching the loss of both civil and human rights, has a conversion of heart and speaks out against them, telling Judge Danforth that they are morally wrong. Hale leaves the court when Mary Warren accuses John Proctor of witchcraft, famously declaring, "I denounce these proceedings. I quit this court!" to which Danforth replies, running after him, "Mr. Hale, Mr. Hale!"In the 1957 screen adaptation of Miller's piece, he was depicted by Yves Brainville. In the 1996 film version of the play, he was portrayed by Rob Campbell, as a much younger man than would have been accurate, as Hale was fifty-six at the time of the trials. For instance, Diane E Foulds affirm that Abigail Williams would have been closer to 12 than 17, that John Proctor would have been near 60, so this change in age for the film version is not out of line with the source material of the play.
In the movie, Hale's wife is accused by Abigail Williams once she begins to suspect him of doubting her claims. This is dismissed by Danforth, leading to Abigail escaping from the village, he later sadly witnessed the hanging of Rebecca Nurse, Martha Corey and John Proctor. John Hale is played by Xander Berkeley in the 2014 TV series Salem. Short biography of John Hale Salem Witch Museum Reverend John Hale: From Ardent Advocate To Dedicated Critic of the Salem Death In Salem, Diane E Foulds. Pub. by National Book Network, 2010. A Modest Enquiry into the Nature of Witchcraft, by Rev John Hale. 1702